Planting grapes in autumn as an alternative to spring: what are the benefits?
Many beginner winegrowers prefer spring planting, as it guarantees the survival of the seedling and eliminates its freezing in winter. However, experienced gardeners are advised to plant grapes in the fall. The problem of freezing is easily solved by the organization of shelters, therefore it is not a significant obstacle to the autumn procedure. Subject to the recommendations on the timing and planting technology, the plant successfully roots and early in the spring begins to grow.
Planting grapes in autumn: advantages and disadvantages
Proper planting of grapes will provide the gardener with a rich harvest
You can plant grapes in the open ground at any warm time of the year. Most gardeners prefer to do this in the spring, so that during the growing season the seedlings have time to take root and prepare for wintering.
However, autumn planting has several significant advantages:
- Fruiting buds at this time of year fall into a state of rest, so the seedlings direct all energy to the formation of the root system. Subsequently, this positively affects the yield of the vine.
- After getting out of hibernation, the plants planted in the fall receive a lot of nutrients and moisture, so they begin to grow actively.
- The market has a wide selection of planting stock at prices much lower than in spring.
- Subject to planting technology and careful sheltering, seedlings winter safely, developing strong immunity. Plants hardened by frost become resistant to diseases characteristic of the culture.
There is only one drawback for autumn planting - the risk of a sudden onset of frost, contrary to weather forecasts.
Autumn planting dates
When choosing a grape planting date, it is important to consider the climate of the region
When choosing the timing of grape planting, it is necessary to take into account the climatic features of the region. Time is calculated in such a way that before the onset of the first frosts 1–1.5 months remain: this will be enough to adapt the seedling in the soil. The optimum air temperature is + 15 ... 16 ° C during the day, + 5 ... 6 ° C at night.
Dates of work by region: table
|South: Crimea, Kuban||From mid-October to early November|
|Moscow Region, Midland||From early to mid-October|
|Leningrad region||The end of August and the first decade of September|
|Siberia and the Urals||First half of September|
Grapes not only give a lot of harvest, but also decorates the garden and orchard
One of the important advantages of planting in the fall is the ability to deliberately select a site and prepare it for the procedure.
Site selection and soil preparation
To grow good grapes, it is important to place it correctly on the site
The correct arrangement of grapes on the site is one of the main conditions for obtaining high yields. The best choice is the south side of the house, fence or outbuildings . With this arrangement, the vine will be lit all day, and it will not be damaged by cold winds. You can not plant a thermophilic culture in lowlands or ravines, because there the temperature at night falls below all.
Soil grapes need loose and nutritious . Black earth and loam are ideal. You can not plant the vine in a dense, clay soil. Particularly dangerous is the location on a plot of groundwater above 1.5 m from the roots.
Even high-quality, loose soil must be improved by adding organic matter and mineral fertilizers. If the soil is acidic, add lime or dolomite flour. River sand is added to peat soils - 2 buckets per square meter.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Vegetative propagation of grapes accelerates the process of obtaining a new vine compared to planting seeds
You can get a new plant instance from an acquired or independently grown seedling. High-quality planting material has the following features:
- The seedling is 1 year old: older specimens tolerate the transplant very painfully.
- Escape from 20 cm long and 5 mm thick green on a cut. No damage or signs of illness.
- Well-developed, flexible, white at the cut roots in the amount of at least 3 pieces.
- Developed kidneys in an amount of 4 pieces.
- Green leaves with no signs of wilting, twisting and damage to wilting leaves.
Important! You can buy a seedling no earlier than 2-3 days before planting. A long stay of the roots in the air leads to overdrying and negatively affects the subsequent development.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Before planting, the crown is cut off from the seedling and dried or damaged roots are removed. Then grasp the roots directly under the growth point and remove all parts sticking out from under the palm of the bottom. The length of the roots after trimming should be no more than 15 cm.
This technique promotes branching of the roots and prevents their creases when planting. After pruning, the seedling is soaked for 24 hours in clean water, then in a solution of the root stimulant (Zircon, Kornevin, Heteroauxin).
It is important to plant grapes deep enough to protect it from frost
You can get a new copy of the vine by planting a seedling, rooting a cuttings or a chubuk.
This method of landing requires the preparation of the pit in advance
The first stage of planting grapes in autumn with seedlings is the preparation of a pit with a diameter and depth of 80 cm:
- First, a fertile layer 40 cm high is removed, then the lower one. The soil is laid out in different directions.
- Drainage is laid at the bottom of the pit: broken brick, expanded clay.
- A nutrient mixture is prepared from the soil of the upper layer by mixing the following components into it:
- 3 buckets of humus or compost;
- 150 g of potassium salt;
- 250 g of superphosphate;
- 2 kg of wood ash.
- A third of the pit is filled with a mixture and a bucket of water is poured so that the soil settles.
Immediately start landing in 2-3 weeks:
- In the center of the pit, a stake is set for a future escape garter. A slide of nutrient mixture is poured next to it.
- A prepared seedling is placed on a hill of soil. The roots are placed at the edges at an angle of 45 degrees: this position will prevent them from bending up.
- The pit is gradually filled with soil, compacting each layer. The root neck of the seedling should be flush with the surface.
- After planting, the plant is abundantly watered, the surface is mulched with peat, humus or simply dry soil.
Cuttings need to be prepared during the summer pruning of grapes
A stalk is a part of a vine that is cut into a different number of buds. Such planting material remains in abundance after summer pruning. As a rule, the most developed shoot is selected and the upper part with 3-4 developed buds is cut off from it. Drop off sequence:
- They dig a trench 25-30 cm high.
- A layer of humus is poured at the bottom, on top is a little nutrient soil.
- Cuttings are located at a distance of 15–20 cm from each other with an inclination to the south. 2 kidneys are buried in the soil, the rest are left above the surface.
- Watered with a trench with warm water.
- Cuttings are covered with plastic bottles or film on pre-installed arcs. Such insulation will help maintain optimal humidity and temperature for quick rooting of workpieces.
More tricks and secrets for working with cuttings from experienced growers in the article: //diz-cafe.com/sad-ogorod/vyirashhivanie-vinograda-iz-cherenkov.html
It is better to choose smooth chubuki so that they do not take up much space
Chubuki are small stretches of vine with several developed buds. Before planting in open ground, they are first germinated in a room or a greenhouse at a temperature of + 24 ... 26oC:
- Cut Chubuki for 3-4 hours placed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Then washed and dried.
- Trim the upper and lower parts by 1–2 cm and place the chubuki in a solution of the root stimulant (Kornevin, Zircon) for 2-3 days.
- The last stage of germination is installation in clean water.
- Chubuki planted in open ground after growing roots on them 5-7 cm long. The technology is similar to planting cuttings.
Care for planted grapes before winter
It is important to take care of the planted grapes before the onset of winter and insulate it to protect it from frost
Care of seedlings and cuttings consists of watering and loosening the soil. Fertilizing young plants are not needed.
With the onset of persistent cooling, the surface under the plants is mulched with dry grass, hay, sawdust, humus. The height of the layer is 10-15 cm.
In anticipation of frost, the vineyard is covered with agrofibre, placing it on established frames. One of the options for shelters is the installation of a roofing material by the house. This type of insulation will reliably protect the grapes from the cold and prevent breakage of the shoots.
Subject to planting technology and proper shelter, young plants successfully winter and begin active vegetation in spring. One-year-old seedlings will give the first crop in 2 years.