Planting and growing Nika pears
Nick Pear is one of the attractive varieties for gardeners. The characteristics of the variety make it possible to grow it not only in the middle lane, but also in the northern regions of Russia. The process of planting and care does not differ in any difficulties and is quite affordable even for beginners.
Description and characteristics of the variety
The Nika pear variety is a winter hybrid that was bred at the Institute of Michurin as a result of crossing two varieties - Talgar Beauty and Daughter of Dawn. An adult tree has an average height of 3-4 m, a sparse and spherical crown. Nick got the greatest distribution in the Central Black Earth region. The fruits have an oval shape, weight 120-200 g, smooth skin with a wax coating that protects from drying during storage. The color of the fruits when removed from the tree is yellow-green with red spots. During storage, the color changes and becomes light yellow with a brown-red blush covering most of the fruit.
Cream pear pulp, fine-grained consistency, dessert flavor, sweet and sour, without astringency. The variety accumulates up to 10.2% of sugars in fruits, which is a rather high indicator for this culture. Fruits can be used both for the preparation of canned food, and for fresh consumption. Harvest time is in September. As for other winter pear varieties, consumer ripeness occurs in November. After lying down a bit, the fruits acquire a muscat aroma characteristic of this variety and a rich taste. Nick's pear is stored for 3-4 months. The best time for consumption is considered to be from November to January.
The fruits of Nick's pear are yellow-green with red spots, and when stored become light yellow with a brownish-red blush
Advantages and disadvantages
To find out if this variety is suitable for planting and growing on your garden site, you need to take into account its pros and cons. Nick Pear has the following advantages:
- high and stable fruiting;
- high resistance to frost;
- with minor frost damage to the branches, it is quickly restored;
- good transportability;
- resistance to diseases typical for a given fruit crop;
- beautiful and delicious fruits.
But there are varieties and disadvantages:
- planting pollinators is necessary for good fruiting;
- the first crop can be obtained for 5-6 years after planting;
- the need to often form a crown.
Although Nick's pear is self-fertile, but in order to obtain high yields, pollinators must grow nearby. As such, there are pears that bloom at the same time: Duchess, Svetlyanka, Rogneda.
In order for Nick's pear to produce a high crop, pollinators must be planted nearby
Planting Nika Pear
In order for the pear to take root well after planting, it is important to choose the right planting material and prepare the site for growing the crop.
Quite often, gardeners are faced with the purchase of planting material in the markets and less often in stores. The best option would be to purchase a seedling in a nursery, but not everyone has this opportunity. To make the right choice of a plant, first of all, attention should be paid to its appearance: there should be no signs of drying out or wilting.
Each seedling should have a tag with information on the manufacturer, variety with a description of its characteristics. If the planting material is not marked in this way, then it is better to make a purchase in another place, since the quality of such a seedling will be doubtful.
A good rooting system should have a developed root system: at least 5 main and 3 additional roots with a length of 30 cm. In addition, the roots should be clean and bright without any damage and signs of decay. For planting, it is better to purchase two-year-old seedlings, which can be judged by the unformed crown.
For planting pears, it is better to purchase two-year-old seedlings, as they are best taken root
Site selection and preparation
First you need to consider that pear requires a well-lit area. Otherwise, there is a likelihood of reducing the sugar content of the fruit and lower yields. Despite the average size of the Nika pear, planting among other trees should be avoided. You need to decide on a place for planting in advance, so that later you do not have to transplant the plant, especially since the pear does not like this.
The pear does not tolerate stagnation of water, so it is not planted in the lowlands. Groundwater should occur at least 2–2.5 m.
For the crop in question, sandy, gray forest, loamy or chernozem soils are considered most suitable. Preparing the landing pit is better to do since the fall (October-November). During the winter, the land will settle and be fertilized.
It’s better to start preparing the landing pit for pear planting since the fall
A pit is dug with a diameter of 60–80 cm and a depth of about 1 m. During the process of digging, the upper layer of the earth is thrown to the side - it will be needed when planting a seedling, and soil will not be needed from the depths. The following components are poured into the bottom of the pit:
- 3 buckets of humus;
- 2 buckets of coarse sand;
- 1 tbsp. superphosphate;
- 3 tbsp. l potassium sulfate.
To provide seedlings with nutrients for the first time, necessary fertilizers are added to the planting pit
All components are thoroughly mixed with the addition of the upper layer of earth. Then the pit is filled with water, for which 2 tbsp. Are dissolved in one bucket. dolomite flour and poured into a pit, after which another 2 buckets of pure water are poured. A layer of fertile soil is poured on top and a hole is left in this state until spring. If such a procedure was not carried out in advance, it must be performed at least 1-3 weeks before landing.
Planting a seedling
The pear is planted in late September-early November or late April-early May until buds open. The process consists of the following steps:
- Part of the earth is removed from the landing pit and a wooden peg is driven in, which will serve as a support for the young seedling.
- The soil is poured into the pit so that a small hill is formed.
- The seedling is planted carefully, spreading the roots.
A peg is inserted into the planting hole, and the roots of the seedling are carefully straightened
- The root system is filled up so that the root neck is 4-6 cm above the ground, after which the soil is slightly tamped.
The root system is filled up to such a level that the root neck is 4-6 cm above the ground
- An embankment is made from the ground along the edge of the planting pit so that when watering the water does not go sideways.
- 2-3 buckets of water are poured under the seedling.
After planting a pear seedling, pour 2-3 buckets of water
- When water is absorbed, the soil is mulched with sawdust or peat in a layer of 5-10 cm.
After absorbing moisture, the planted seedling is mulched with sawdust or peat
- The seedling is tied to a peg with a rope. So that it does not grow into a tree, the bark is wrapped with rubber.
Pear seedlings are attached to the peg with a rope or elastic
The root neck is the place where the trunk transitions to the root system of the seedling.
The root neck on the seedling is the place where the trunk transitions to the root system
Video: how to plant a pear
If, after planting, the weather is hot and dry, watering should be done every 10 days.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Proper care of Nick's pear involves a number of agricultural activities, such as watering, top dressing, pruning.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Particular attention is paid to watering the first time after planting a seedling, so that the root system normally takes root. Subsequent irrigation should be infrequent, about once a month. However, it is worth considering climatic conditions: if there is hot and dry weather, watering should be more frequent. The procedure, despite the apparent simplicity, should be carried out correctly. The tree should not be watered with cold water and directly under the root. Otherwise, the roots are washed out and the plant is likely to die. Water consumption should be 2-3 bucket per 1 m² of trunk circle.
Pear should be poured with warm water into a trench prepared in advance
For irrigation use warm water, which is heated throughout the day in barrels or buckets. In addition, around the tree you need to dig a shallow trench and gradually feed water into it. Upon completion of the procedure and the absorption of water, the earth around the tree is loosened, which eliminates the formation of soil crust. This technique improves air exchange, thereby improving the flow of oxygen to the root system.
To ensure moisture retention in the soil, it is recommended to mulch the surface of the trunk grooves after loosening.
Video: how to water a pear properly
Since the root system of a pear lies deep, fertilizers are applied superficially in most cases. For the first time, nutrients are introduced into the landing pit. Then Nick is fertilized in the fall, for which they use organic or mineral components. It should be noted that in the autumn, nitrogen is not needed for the tree, since it contributes to the growth of the vegetative mass. Based on this, fresh organic matter should be excluded. In this case, they use mineral fertilizers (phosphorus and potash), but on humus-poor soils, organic substances cannot be dispensed with. Therefore, after making the minerals, the soil is mulched with peat and humus in equal proportions, sprinkling the near-trunk circle with a layer of 15–20 cm.
Peat and humus in equal proportions are used as organic fertilizers on poor soils.
In autumn, fertilizers can be made under digging or in the form of a nutrient solution. Top dressing in liquid form is introduced into the soil through furrows with a depth of 20-30 cm (the depth depends on the age of the tree). Under digging make:
- 30 g of granular superphosphate;
- 15 g of potassium chloride;
- 150 ml of wood ash.
The figures are based on 1 m². The same components are used to prepare the nutrient solution, with the exception of ash. Mineral fertilizers are diluted in 10 liters of water and introduced into shallow furrows in the near-stem circle with preliminary watering (2 buckets per 1 m²). In spring, pear needs nitrogen to build a lush crown. In this case, top dressing can be carried out with one of the following compositions:
- 200 g of urea per 10 liters of water per 2 adult pears;
- 30 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 l of water - 2 pears;
- 500 g of bird droppings per 10 liters of water - insist a day and water 5 liters per 1 tree.
In spring, the pear needs nitrogen, for which you can use urea
In the summer period, for the formation of fruits, the culture needs more potassium and phosphorus, as well as trace elements. When feeding, you can adhere to the following norm:
- phosphorus-containing substances - up to 300 g per bucket of water;
- potassium salt - up to 100 g per bucket of water;
- boron compounds - up to 20 g per bucket of water;
- copper-containing preparations - up to 5 g per 10 l of water;
- means with magnesium - no more than 200 g per 10 liters of water;
- zinc sulfate - up to 10 g per bucket of water.
Pruning and care
To adjust the yield, size of the fruit, as well as to prevent the development of diseases, the pear must be cut. The first time this procedure is performed during planting: the seedling branches are shortened by 1/3 of the length. This will contribute to faster laying of the crown. Nick pear is recommended to be cut annually in early spring before the buds begin to bloom. If the shoot is completely removed, hemp need not be left. Those branches, which with fruits descend to the ground and lie on it, are also subject to removal. In addition, the tree needs thinning every year - do not allow the thickening of the crown. Leave only strong and erect shoots, and remove weak and curved ones. Trim should be no more than 1/4 of the total mass of the branches.
During pruning, the branches are cut so that no stumps remain
If Nick's pear is not cut, then the crown is quickly exposed, and the fruits become small.
In the first year after planting a seedling of the considered variety, it is recommended to pick most of the flowers. This technique improves the survival rate of the tree. In subsequent years, it is necessary to remove half of only the established fruits, which reach a diameter of only a few centimeters. The pursued goal of such a procedure is crop rationing. As a result, the fruits that remain on the tree will have more weight, and the tree itself will better prepare for the cold.
Nika pear needs annual pruning, which allows you to adjust the yield, fruit size, prevents the development of diseases
Despite the fact that the Nika variety is quite frost-resistant, it is recommended to mulch the trunk circle with horse humus to protect young plantings from low-snow winters and high frosts. In addition, the shtamb should be wrapped with non-woven material, for example, Agroteks. In this way, in the future it is possible to protect trees by replacing whitewash.
Video: how to trim a pear
Diseases and Pests
According to the state register, Nika pear is resistant to scab and septoria. Despite the high immunity, it is recommended to take preventive measures that completely prevent the appearance of any problems. These actions include:
- timely top-dressing of the tree, which allows it to easily cope with possible diseases;
- compliance with irrigation norms, since moist soil is a favorable environment for the development of fungal microorganisms;
- timely pruning of branches, cleaning of foliage and fallen fruit, as well as digging the trunk circle helps to destroy most pests wintering in leaves, soil and on damaged branches;
- whitewashing of the trunk and skeletal branches with lime mortar in order to protect against pests and rodents;
- regular inspection of the tree for pests and diseases, and in case of their detection, the use of appropriate drugs.
Nick planted a two-year-old seedling. In the first winter, the tree froze a little, and the next spring did not bloom. But a year later, it fully recovered, the pear blossomed and even gave a small crop. That is, she began to bear fruit already in the fourth year of life. The fruits are sung by the end of September, rarely crumble. Pears are delicious, with juicy fine-grained pulp and a touch of nutmeg. It turns out to store them only 1.5–2 months, since I do not have a special storage. Although resistance to scab is declared in the description of the variety, in the last year Nika noticed small spots on some fruits. Apparently, resistance to this disease by the variety is gradually being lost, so prevention should be carried out.
We have a Nick pear growing in a summer cottage. She began to bear fruit already in the fourth year. Every autumn we cut thin branches and the pear grows in breadth by spring, and in autumn it gives more yield. Fertilize with a mixture that includes: ash, chernozem, goat, horse and cow manure. The culture is unpretentious, but loves the sunny side. We live in the Krasnodar Territory, so the pear tolerates short-term frosts well. The sixth year is growing.
Nika Pear is an excellent cultivar for cultivation both on private garden plots and on farms. Since the tree is characterized by its small size, it is convenient to work with it both during harvesting and care. Despite several advantages of Nicky, gardeners primarily appreciate her for the unpretentiousness and excellent quality of fruits with long-term storage.