Planting and caring for a perennial garden delphinium

Delphinium is an herbaceous plant of the buttercup family. It has over 400 species, among which there are annual and perennial. The second are more powerful root structure, endurance, unpretentiousness. The plant is also known under other names: larkspur, spur, coconut, hare ears.

Features of growing perennial delphinium

The delphinium is a perennial native to Transcaucasia and Asia Minor. Depending on the species, it grows in height from 40 cm to 2 m. In the garden areas it is a decoration of the landscape, some varieties are grown in order to obtain medicinal products. The plant is characterized by a variety of types of flowers, from simple to double. The color palette is also wide.

Plots protected from the wind are favorable for growing. In all species of this plant, the weakest point is the lower part of the stem at the root. From strong gusts of wind, the flowers may break.

Delphinium is widely used in landscape design

Delphinium grows well on any soil, but prefers breathable. If the site is clayey soil, it will have to be loosened regularly. The plant does not tolerate excess moisture, so it is watered regularly, but in moderation. During the period of setting buds, the amount of water is slightly increased. At the same time, potash or phosphorus fertilizers are added.

There is one peculiarity in the cultivation of delphinium: if it has been in the same place for more than 4 years, the risk of plant damage by various diseases increases. For this reason, they recommend replanting flowers every 4–5 years. But many gardeners ignore these tips and successfully grow them in one place for decades.

What climate is this plant suitable for?

Perennial delphinium is characterized by good winter hardiness, able to tolerate frosts down to -40 ° C. Recommended for cultivation in the southern and northern regions. For all varieties, repeated flowering is possible. To do this, cut the flower stalks after completing the first. In central Russia, the first flowering period runs from mid-June to early August, and the second is possible in autumn.

When grown in regions with harsh climates, one needs to fear most not frost and soil freezing, but thaws. The fact is that the root system of this plant is located close to the surface of the earth. In the period of the appearance of puddles and thawed patches can vypretit. For this reason, in the Far Eastern and northern regions, the delphinium is best planted on higher ground.

Delphiniums feel good in different regions of the country

Despite the fact that the Ural region is considered a zone of risky farming, delphiniums grow well here and bloom twice a year. But best of all they feel in the south. Under these conditions, it is most important to choose a place for planting the plant. From the scorching rays of the sun, it can wither away, so you need a site that is in the shade on the hottest part of the day.

Popular varieties with photos

In Russia, hybrids based on Delphinium elatum and Delphinium grandiflorum are mainly grown. All of them are unpretentious and well propagated by seeds. The trading network presents numerous varieties of delphiniums of various colors. The most beautiful plants with large double flowers.

Varieties are distributed according to the height of the peduncles, their color, shape and size of flowers. In this regard, distinguish:

  • high hybrids - 170–250 cm (more than 200 varieties);
  • medium - 130–170 cm;
  • dwarf - up to 130 cm.

The most beautiful Pacific hybrids, including several dozen varieties. These plants are distinguished by high (from 180 cm) growth, chic pyramidal inflorescences, large flowers. In this group of plants, several are named after the knights of Camelot.

Another large group is Mafa hybrids. They were bred by a breeder living in the Moscow region village of Mafino. Popular varieties of delphinium with photos during flowering:

  • Black Knight (Black Knight). A plant with large double and semi-double flowers of a saturated purple color. It blooms for a long time and is plentiful, prefers places well-lit by the sun and fertile soils.

Long and plentifully blooms Black Knight variety

  • Double Innocence (New Zealand Delphinium). A spectacular, beautiful flower with an erect stem reaching a height of 130 cm. During flowering, it is densely covered with white double flowers with a diameter of up to 4 cm. It is winter-hardy enough: it can tolerate frosts down to -35 ° C.

New Zealand delphinium flower has 21 petals

  • Atlantis (Atlantis). One of the most reliable and unpretentious varieties. Impressive with its large bright blue flowers. Srednerosly, up to 1 m high, inflorescences are long, pyramidal. Leaves are bright juicy green.

The unpretentious Atlantis delphinium with blue inflorescence is one of the reliable varieties

  • King Arthur Medium-sized plant, reaching a height of 150 cm. The flowers are blue with a white middle. Winter-hardy, unpretentious, prefers well-drained, loose soil.

King Arthur medium-sized delphinium is unpretentious and easily tolerates frosts

  • Belladonna (Delphinium belladonna). The only variety whose flowers hang from a peduncle. As unpretentious and spectacular as all other species of this plant.

Variety Belladonna stands out among the rest hanging flowers

Planting and propagation methods

There are three ways to plant a perennial delphinium for seedlings:

  • by seeds;
  • cuttings;
  • dividing the bush.

All of them are quite productive and have long been used in horticultural practice.

Growing perennial delphinium from seeds

The most troublesome of the three breeding methods is seed. In order to obtain delphinium seedlings by the beginning of the warm season, seed cultivation is carried out from late February to early March. The method is good in that it can be used to grow any kind of delphinium whose seeds are commercially available or from breeders.

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Planting seeds for delphinium seedlings is carried out in late February - early March

There are two possible landing methods:

  • seedlings at home;
  • in open ground.

The soil should be light, slightly acidic, loose. It must be disinfected. There are two ways to do this:

  1. Anneal for several minutes in the microwave at maximum power;
  2. Pour a solution of fungicide or potassium permanganate.
  3. Before planting, seeds are stored in a cool place. The soil is laid using wet toothpicks at a distance of 15–20 mm from each other.
  4. Sprinkle lightly with soil and spray with water from a garden sprayer. Shoots appear 10-12 days after planting.
  5. When the sprouts reach a height of 3-4 cm, dive. Similarly, if seeds are planted in open ground.

Attention! There is a peculiarity in seed propagation: if they are sown in open ground before winter, hybrids may not repeat the signs of mother plants. This is due to the fact that the alternation of freezing and thawing periods provokes changes in the cells of an artificially derived plant.

Propagation by cuttings

Delphinium cuttings are obtained in the following way:

  1. at the beginning of the growing season, when the shoots of the plant grow by 10-12 cm, expose part of the root;
  2. cut off the shoot with a sharp knife so as to capture the root system.
  3. The resulting stalk is planted in a shaded place to a depth of 2-3 cm, watered and covered with a film. After 15-20 days, the flower will root. Then it can be planted at a constant place of growth.

Before planting in a permanent place, the delphinium stalk must be rooted

Bush division

The simplest and most effective way to reproduce the perennial delphinium is to divide the bush. The process consists of several stages:

  1. dig a plant;
  2. gently clean the roots of the earth;
  3. cut with a sharp knife into parts, in each of which an shoot or kidney should be present;
  4. planted in the ground.

Garden care

Caring for a dolphinium for many years is simple and consists in performing several actions.

  • The soil at the roots is periodically loosened.
  • In autumn, after flowering and drying of the leaves are completed, the stalk is cut off with a secateurs so that a “stump” 20-30 cm high remains above the soil surface. After that it is sprinkled with earth on all sides and spud.

If there is a lot of snow in the region, the cavity of the stem is covered with clay. This prevents the penetration of moisture to the root and its further decay.

Tall varieties need a garter. For this purpose, paper tapes are used, since fishing line or twine can cut into the thin stems of the plant and injure them. To give greater stability, two garters are made: the first at a height of 40–50 cm, the second at a height of 100–120 cm.

In spring, thinning emerges shoots. Thus provide the plant with room for growth. If the variety is large-flowered, at least three shoots are left, for small-flowered plants, leave 7-10.

Delphiniums respond well to top dressing. It is carried out 3 times per season:

  1. in the middle of spring they bring organic matter;
  2. after 30–40 days - mineral fertilizers (Kemira Universal);
  3. during the formation of the buds, they are sprayed with a solution of superphosphate at the rate of 50 g per 1 liter.

Advice! In order to stimulate more magnificent flowering, several times water the plants with a solution of boric acid.

For the prevention of diseases during budding, spraying is carried out with any available fungicide.

Possible growing problems

Perennial delphinium does not require much attention. When the above rules of care are followed, the plant develops well and blooms.

Dolphinium cultivation does not burden

But there is still one problem in growing this plant. It consists in insufficiently good germination of seeds, which most gardeners complain about. In addition, conflicting information is often given in the instructions of the seed producers.

If there is no skill in growing delphinium, you can rely on the advice of experienced gardeners.

  1. The land for seed germination is taken by a skinny, ordinary garden. Mix it in equal parts with clean sand. It is important that there is no peat in the soil, which will provoke the development of mold.
  2. After the seeds are laid out on the ground, sprinkle them with a thin layer of sand. Do not bury in the soil.
  3. They prepare snow in the refrigerator and sprinkle a container with seeds in them. When melting, moisture carries the seeds to the right depth. They cover the container with a plastic film and keep it in such conditions for 2-3 days.
  4. Before emergence, place the container on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. With the advent of sprouts, they are transferred to a warm, well-lit place.

Delphinium can be grown without any hassle in any climatic zone of Russia. Subject to the rules of care for these plants, they will delight with their flowering twice a year.


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