Pests on a garlic bed: know the enemy by sight! Photos and methods of struggle

Growing good garlic is easy. But in violation of the rules of agricultural technology, it is often attacked by a variety of pests. Despite the fact that their number is large, it is possible to fight them, but it is necessary to notice and identify in time who exactly needs to be destroyed.

Garlic Pests

Garlic pests are not only dangerous in themselves. In addition to damaging and destroying leaves and heads, many insects are carriers of disease. A fight against diseases is somewhat more difficult than with pests, so you can not allow their spread on the garlic beds.

Tobacco thrips

Thrips is a very small light yellow or brown insect, reaching a length of only 1 mm. After the females lay their eggs in the soft tissues of plants (usually leaves, and not only garlic), literally a few days later, gluttonous larvae appear from them. They feed on the juices of various plants, sucking them both from leaves and from inflorescences. At the same time, garlic weakens, stops growing, and with a strong spread of the pest, it can die. Detecting a pest is easy.

Thrips harm many vegetables and flowering plants, garlic is no exception

Trips is almost guaranteed not to appear if the correct crop rotation is observed, the beds are cleared of weeds and plant debris on time. He is afraid of the smell of carrots, which should be planted next to garlic. In addition to these simple measures, the spread of the pest is prevented by the treatment of planting material with hot water (the teeth are kept for 8–10 minutes in water with a temperature of about 45 ° C, after which they are dipped in cold water).

If thrips appears, it can be destroyed by the infusion of celandine. To do this, fill the bucket with grass, fill it with hot water and stand for 2 days, then filter and spray the plants with this infusion. Numerous chemicals, such as Vermitek, Aktellik, Karate, etc., act more quickly. They should be used according to the instructions, but since it usually takes a lot of time to harvest garlic, you should not be very afraid of the effects of “chemistry” on the crop, but you must be careful when spraying very careful.

So, for example, the drug Vermitek, which is based on the substance abamectin, causes paralysis in the pest, and begins to act the very next day. 2-3 treatments are required with an interval of 5-7 days; for the preparation of a solution, 5 ml of the drug is diluted in 10 l of water. However, the drug is harmful not only for thrips and other insects: for humans it belongs to the 2nd hazard class, therefore, precautions when working with it imply the mandatory use of a respirator and such clothes that will be immediately washed. At the same time, according to the instructions for the drug, 3-4 days after its use, you can harvest. Similar information applies to other noted drugs, although the active substances in their composition are different. Thus, the composition of the Karate preparation contains less dangerous for humans (3rd hazard class) lambda-cygalothrin, and Actellika - pyrimiphos methyl (2nd class), however, their effect on pests and the timing of exit for manual work is almost the same .

Onion fly

The onion fly is rather large, about 1 cm, has a gray color, its larvae are white. Appears in late spring, lays eggs at the base of garlic and onion plants: at the base of leaves or directly into the ground. The larvae hatched after a week do not harm the leaves: they quickly make their way inside young teeth and gnaw them. As a result, the heads of garlic soften and rot.

Onion fly resembles the usual annoying fly

The appearance of a fly is prevented by the same techniques as in the case of thrips. A good deterrent effect is given by folk methods. For example, dusting plants with a dry mixture of tobacco dust, wood ash and ground pepper. At the very beginning of summer, it is useful to pour garlic with salt water (a glass of table salt in a bucket of water). If you repeat the procedure after another 2-3 weeks, the fly is unlikely to appear. In case of detection of larvae, it is better to immediately use insecticides, for example, such as Spark, Inta-Vir or Aktara.

For example, the active substance of the Inta-Vir preparation is cypermethrin, which refers to insecticides - pyrethroids. For plants, it does not pose a danger, but it damages insects both undesirable and beneficial, so it should be used with caution. In relation to humans, it refers to substances of the 3rd hazard class. To prepare the solution, the tablet is dissolved in a bucket of water, spend 2-3 sprayings with an interval of 2 weeks. Harvest can be harvested 2 weeks after processing.

Other given drugs act similarly. For example, the composition of the insecticide Spark Double effect, in addition to cypermethrin, includes permethrin, which enhances the effect of the first pyrethroid. But in other preparations of the Iskra line, the composition may be different: for example, the Golden Spark “works” due to imidacloprid, as a result of which its spectrum of action is somewhat wider, and the Spark M is a drug based on karbofos. Actara containing thiamethoxam insecticide is also moderately dangerous to humans. In most cases, spraying it with a solution is carried out once or twice (with a weekly interval), the composition of the working solutions and the methods for their preparation are described in detail on the packaging.

Onion moth

This is a small gray-brown night butterfly with a wingspan of up to 14 mm. Lays in early summer between the leaves of garlic and onion yellowish eggs no larger than 0.4 mm in size, from which yellow-green caterpillars soon emerge. Longitudinal light streaks or spots of irregular shape on the leaves are the result of the activity of the caterpillars. As a result, the leaves wither and die, the whole plant weakens. They are especially active in dry weather. Measures to control moths are about the same as onion flies. Among the most active drugs, in addition to Spark or Actara, Fastak can be noted. It is based on the substance alpha-cypermethrin (2nd hazard class for humans), two sprayings are required with an interval of 10 days.

Therefore, if the matter has not gone too far, it is better to use the less dangerous familiar Spark, dissolving the tablet in a bucket of water. True, now many insecticides with similar names are sold (Spark-bio, Spark Double effect, Gold spark, etc.), but their effect is similar, you just need to carefully read on the package how to prepare the solution correctly, and also after how many days to repeat the treatment.

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Garlic nematode

Nematode is a very small thin white worm that feeds on garlic juice. There are many nematodes, and only on garlic there are three species: stem, gall and root. The latter lives in the soil, gnaws young plant heads, it is difficult to detect it in time. As a result, the scales loosen, and the head rots. The gall nematode forms small swelling on the roots, therefore, also does not manifest itself immediately. The stem is found by brownish spots on the leaves, as a result of which the feather is deformed.

The nematode who settled in the garden is able to leave the gardener without a crop

When nematodes appear, they must be combated immediately, and garlic should not be planted in this place for 4–5 years. After harvesting, the soil is watered with a formalin solution (1:25), spending half a bucket per 1 m2 and taking all precautions. Landings themselves can be saved only with a small number of pests. From folk methods, tobacco broth is used (0.5 g of tobacco dust per bucket of water, boiled for 2 hours, diluted by half after cooling) or a decoction of calendula roots (0.5 kg per bucket of water, boiled for 15 minutes, cooled). These infusions are sprayed with plants and soil.

Unfortunately, with the mass appearance of the pest, it is almost impossible to save the crop, and strong chemicals will not help. Therefore, it will be necessary to handle the garden well in the fall, and planting material in the spring must be sanitized. Even soaking the teeth in water during the day can reduce the risk of infection. But their processing is more reliable in a solution of potassium permanganate (a day in a pink solution). There are recommendations about the treatment of teeth with formalin, but caution is needed in preparing the solution. It is available in the form of a 40% solution, and it needs to be diluted very strongly: the maximum concentration for disinfection of planting material is 0.5%, that is, it should be diluted 80-100 times. In industrial vegetable growing, this procedure is widely used, but in private households it is better to limit oneself to potassium permanganate.

Garlic tick

A tick is one of the most frequent guests on garlic, but it can manifest itself not only in the garden, but also later, when storing products. This is a very small creature, about 0.2 mm, four-legged, whitish in color. It is very difficult to detect it, but the results of its activity are known: these are depressed yellowish spots found on adult heads under dry scales. Females lay very small eggs in the summer on the leaves of garlic, and in a few days the malicious activity of a new generation is already beginning.

With an increase, the tick resembles probably a jellyfish

Since the tick lives not only in the ground, but also in adult heads, inspection of the teeth before planting and their thorough disinfection are mandatory. Success in controlling it during the growing season of a plant is very doubtful, although the presence of a pest is not difficult to determine: if it was present in the teeth, then the leaves can initially grow curved. Most common insecticides do not act on ticks; they are killed by acaricides designed to combat ticks. So, Actofit or Actoverm drugs are effective, but it should be borne in mind that, despite the fact that they belong to biological products, for humans they have a 3rd class of toxicity (moderately dangerous).

The action of these drugs is based on blocking the nervous system of pests, their complete death occurs after 2 days. To prepare a working solution, 4 ml of Actofit is dissolved in 1 liter of water, a maximum of two treatments per season are carried out. In principle, the active substance in both of these preparations is aversectin C - the same compound as in Fitoverm. Therefore, before buying drugs in the store, you should carefully read the instructions and compare prices.

Aphid

Aphids are well known to gardeners, as this is one of the most widespread enemies of most cultures. Despite the fact that there are many species of aphids, they look almost the same; similar measures to combat them. Aphids always settle on the youngest leaves, but then move to others, forming entire colonies. During the season, many generations change, and each feeds on plant juices. The leaves of young garlic, damaged by aphids, bend, and often become sick, since aphids can tolerate pathogens of various diseases.

Like other vegetable plants, aphids on garlic form whole colonies

It is surprising at the same time that adult garlic itself is a good remedy for aphids on other plants.

Fortunately, getting rid of aphids on young garlic is easy. There are many folk remedies (mustard powder, soda, tobacco dust, wood ash, etc.), but if you are late and such remedies do not help, you can use chemical insecticides (for example, Inta-Vir or Fufanon) for young plantings forget about this pest. Fufanon, which contains the organophosphorus substance malathion, is no less effective than Inta-Vir, and it affects humans to about the same extent, so you should not use it without unnecessary need. If the aphid has overcome, 10 ml of the emulsion is dissolved in a bucket of water and the plants are sprayed. In total, no more than 2 treatments are carried out per season, the last 3 weeks before harvest.

Video: The main pests of garlic

Pest Prevention

Garlic pests that are more or less common in practice are listed above. It’s not easy to fight everyone, so it’s important to try not to let them appear. As already noted, the most important preventive measure is the careful selection and pre-planting preparation of teeth for planting. The proper storage of the crop is also important, while even the pests settled in the heads do not spoil the garlic so quickly.

In addition, preventive measures against pests are as follows.

  1. Correct crop rotation: the garlic bed is returned to its original place only after 4–5 years, and at least 2 times during this time it is worth sowing carrots at this place.
  2. Thorough cleaning of plant residues after harvesting with digging of the garden. Soil disinfection with copper sulfate or potassium permanganate (0.1–0.2% solutions) is highly desirable, and in case of infection of the site with formalin (0.5–1% solution).
  3. Timely release of beds from weeds: many pests initially settle on young juicy grasses.
  4. Timely feeding of garlic: strong plants better resist the action of pests.
  5. Removing excess shoots of garlic out of the garden, which appeared due to the random distribution of seeds: in places in the garden it is useful to keep several garlic plants, but uncontrolled shoots can become foci of diseases and pests.

Video: prevention of diseases and pests of garlic

Not all garlic pests are easy to control, so preventing their occurrence is very important. These are simple measures aimed at maintaining cleanliness on the site and in the storage, as well as disinfecting planting material. But if pests are found in the garden, they should immediately begin the fight.

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