Perennial onions in the garden: vitamins and beauty
In the onion family, which includes several hundred varieties, there are many perennial onions. They are very diverse: some are grown only on herbs, while others are consumed as bulbs. It is easier to care for perennial onions, if only because they are planted once every several years, and harvesting, as a rule, is carried out constantly throughout the garden season.
Distinctive features of perennial onions, features, advantages and disadvantages
The variety of perennial onions is striking: if shallots look like turnip onions, then batuns are grown only for the sake of vitamin greens. Chives are often considered only decorative, although they have delicious leaves. Multi-tiered onions form airy bulbs. Slime onions taste a bit like garlic. But for all its diversity, species of perennial onions have much in common. He, as a rule, not only supplies vitamin products throughout the season, but also decorates the site. And to plant it often is not necessary.
It is a feature of perennial onions to live long in one garden bed and often give crops and made it very popular among gardeners. Of course, you can get marketable crops only with proper planting and systematic elementary care, but busy summer residents receive the necessary amount of vitamin leaves, even forgetting that they need to be watered, fertilized, etc.
Perennial onions are very frost-resistant and almost never freeze in winter. Many species withstand frosts down to -40 ° C, growing in spring, as if nothing had happened. This onion is easy to propagate: some species are seeded, others are bulbs, and others are dividing the bush. Onions are rich in vitamins and other healthy substances: microelements and amino acids, contain phytoncides that kill pathogens.
Harvest of green onions appears one of the first in the garden. The pen can be cut off gradually, or it can be, for commercial purposes, in several stages per season. They plant such onions at home, including for winter crops. There are almost no drawbacks to perennial onions. Well, unless the fact that most species do not have the usual turnip, and they are used only on greens. In addition, without systematic weeding, perennial onions manage to grow weeds heavily over the years of their life. In general, the popularity of perennial onions among gardeners is difficult to overestimate.
Video: Perennial Variety
Types and varieties of perennial onions
Known species of perennial onions differ significantly from each other, many of them are very easy to distinguish from others.
Batun is probably the most common in our country. In an adult onion, the leaves are large, dark green, very similar to the leaves of the usual onions. Bulbs are absent, the feather bulb giving feathers is not used for food. Feathers begin to grow soon after the snow melts. Propagate the seed with seeds and dividing the bush. To get the crop very early, the bed is sometimes covered with a film. It grows on a single bed for at least 5-6 years, then it begins to deliver too many worries, and it is transplanted. In the northern regions it is also planted in greenhouses, in cities - on balconies.
The batun has powerful stems, and in several years he grows a large bush.
Of the existing subspecies (Russian winter, Japanese, etc.), the most cold-resistant is Russian. Without any shelter, it can withstand frosts to -30 ° C, and the feather in spring - a temperature drop of -8 ° C. The roots spread deep and far, so it can do without watering for a long time.
Batun is widely used in medicine, including Chinese.
There are many varieties of batun, but the differences between them are not significant. All of them are suitable for any climate. Most popular:
- Long Tokyo;
- Greasy leaf.
Slug has fragile flat leaves resembling garlic leaves, but more fleshy and juicy. The taste is more tender than the taste of other bows, it is not sharp. Greens can be collected right up to the beginning of flowering, and if you break out the arrows on time, then to severe frosts. It can grow both in the sun and in the shade, but more than a batun needs watering: it does not have such long roots. It easily captures the entire area provided, practically does not need reproduction: it is only important to limit its ability to conquer new territories. The first crop in the middle lane can be obtained at the end of April.
Slug has flat leaves and amazing vitality.
There are significantly fewer varieties in the slizun; one of the most famous is Green, which gives very large leaves with a garlic odor. For one cut from 1 m2, you can get up to 6 kg of feather. Resistant to the vagaries of the weather. In addition to it, the Leader variety has long been known, several more varieties have been recently bred.
A very interesting plant: unlike most types of perennial onions, both leaves and bulbs are suitable for food, although they are very small. So, basal bulbs can be carefully separated from the bush, and airy are formed as the feather grows where the inflorescences should be. Their size is usually no more than 2 cm. If you do not pluck the air bulbs, they also develop leaves that give a new tier, and so on, up to 4 tiers. True, the use of bulbs for food is not of a mass nature due to their small size, but it is precisely with onion bulbs that the onion multiplies, including on its own.
Not everyone loves a multi-tiered bow: it does not always look aesthetically pleasing on a bed
The first leaves of many-tier onions grow even earlier than the leaves of a batun. Often this onion is planted on balconies. Only three varieties are recorded in the State Register of the Russian Federation: Likova (1987) and relatively new Pamyat and Chelyabinsk. The taste of the leaves is semi-acute in the variety Likova, and acute in others.
Schnitt bow (aka speed, chisel, sibulet)
Leaves of chives begin to grow already under the snow. They are very narrow, located so densely that even when cutting, the beam does not tend to disintegrate. Harvest tolerates transportation well. The onion must be harvested almost completely from this onion, since it blooms very early, and when flowering, it is a pity to touch this beauty.
Chives are very decorative
Chives are often grown as a decorative, getting a carpet of pink and purple stains.
In general, the leaves are cut three times during the season, but the most desirable are the first, May. Translated from German shnitt - cut. Unfortunately, growing this onion in one place for more than three years is impractical: long, up to half a meter, roots grow in turf, consume all nutrients, yield decreases. The alpine variety of onions is less hardy, the Siberian never freezes. The smallest onions are edible, but only a feather containing many trace elements is used for food. Among the varieties of chives, the most famous are:
- Honey plant;
Shallot is considered a variety of onions, its small onions ripen a couple of weeks earlier than the earliest varieties of turnip onions and are not so sharp in taste. However, compared with onions, shallots give much more greenery, for which it is mainly grown. Bulbs, like garlic, consist of small cloves, so the shallots are also called the shrew. Most often, they propagate it with teeth. Shallot is a conditionally perennial onion: it can grow without a transplant for several years, but usually it is grown in the form of a two-year crop.
Shallot bulbs are well defined, although small
More than thirty varieties of shallots are known, for example:
- Vitamin basket;
Slightly less popular are such types of perennial onions, as oblique and fragrant. Oblique onions (accelerator, mountain garlic) are rarely planted in the garden; it is found in the wild and resembles garlic or slime onions. It is a good seasoning for various dishes, but its foliage very quickly becomes stiff. Two varieties are registered in the State Register: Giant and Novichok; for both, only one leaf cut is recommended, at the end of spring.
Oblique onion resembles garlic
Fragrant onions come from China. Its leaves remain tender for a long time, they also have the aroma of garlic and are not sharp. Until shooting, which happens in August, the leaves of fragrant onions are cut in small portions. About a dozen varieties are known (Sorcerer, Fragrant, Piquant, etc.), all of them bloom very beautifully, which is also used for design purposes.
Allspice onion (jusai) is added to the pies as a filling
Altai, blushing and Aflatun bows are even less common.
Altai onion is listed in the Red Book of Russia
Features of growing perennial onions
A feature of agricultural technology of perennial onions is that it should be planted rarely, and care for it is minimal. But without care, the yield of all types of onions is sharply reduced, even in optimal climatic conditions.
Landing and transplanting
Some varieties of onions are sown with seeds, others are planted with onions, but the approach to preparing the site is the same in all cases. The garden bed is prepared in the same way as for a regular onion, but taking into account the fact that the planting is performed for several years. Onions can be grown after almost any crop. Most types of onions love to grow in the sun, but in those regions where the sun burns mercilessly, it is better to find a place where they will be in the shade during the hottest time of planting.
It is very good if carrots are planted next to the onion: these vegetables save each other from pests (carrot and onion flies).
The bed is prepared in advance, carefully destroying all weeds, especially perennial ones. Clay soils must be corrected with sand, sour lime. As fertilizers per 1 m2 of beds, they take a bucket of compost or humus and a good handful of wood ash. Mineral fertilizers (superphosphate and potassium sulfate) are less desirable. Shortly before sowing, walking along the bed with a rake, add about 15 g of urea or ammonium nitrate.
The seeds of all perennial onions are quite small, in appearance - the same "chernushka" as that of onions. Their germination capacity is quickly lost, therefore, one- or two-year-old seeds are sown. Most varieties and species are sown in late autumn or early spring. Sowing is also possible at the end of July, but it is better not to touch the feathers growing by autumn. Seeds are prepared for sowing in the usual way: it is advisable to disinfect them in potassium permanganate and soak them before sowing, although dry seeds can also be sown. Soaking for a day, especially with the use of bubbling, significantly facilitates germination.
In all onions, the seeds are similar to each other and are formed from the same type of inflorescences.
Seeds are sown in furrows shed with water to a depth of 2.5 cm, after which the bed is necessarily mulched. If there are a lot of seeds, they are sown densely, and then the emerged seedlings are thinned out. Between the furrows is about 30 cm. Although, if you plan to keep the onions in one place for only 2-3 years, you can use a more frequent landing. The same applies to thinning: between plants leave from 5 to 10 cm, and then, depending on the expected growing period, the distance can be increased.
Multilayer onions and shallots are planted with onions (shallots - as a whole onion, and individual cloves). Their planting is no different from the planting of the set of onions familiar to us. Usually they are planted in late summer or early September, before the winter the bulbs have time to take root. Planting depth - 3-4 cm, the distance between the bulbs from 10 to 15 cm, depending on the variety and purpose.
Almost all types of perennial onions can be propagated by dividing the bush, and this procedure most likely fits the term "transplant". When the onion is overgrown with weeds and depletes the soil, the yield is significantly reduced, the most healthy bushes are carefully dug up and divided into parts manually or with a sharp clean knife. It is better to do this in spring or autumn. For most species, an adult bush can be divided into 8-10 parts. The roots are slightly trimmed, shortened and the leaves, leaving 6-10 cm.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
When the bushes grow and begin to interfere with themselves, they are transplanted
The resulting fragments are immediately transplanted to a new fertilized bed exactly at the same depth as they grew before, observing optimal distances. You cannot fill the growth point with soil! They well water the soil, and if winter is ahead, then they are mulched with humus or peat.
Video: transplanting onion-batun
The main operations in the cultivation of perennial onions are watering, top dressing, weeding, loosening the soil. Despite the variety of species, there are uniform requirements for care, which are true in the vast majority of cases.
The soil under the onion should be kept slightly moist. Long-term onions can withstand short swamping (there is no need to protect it from prolonged rains), but it is not necessary to specially fill the garden bed. Onions tolerate prolonged drought normally, but the quality of the feather deteriorates sharply: it coarsens, becomes unsuitable for food. In normal weather conditions, onions are watered about 1 time per week with a bucket of water per 1 m2, or cold water.
If the crop is not constantly harvested, but in several stages during the summer, try to water the garden well 2–3 weeks before the feather is cut.
After watering, they try to loosen the ground, but after some time the bushes close, it becomes difficult to do this, and they try to maintain soil moisture with the help of mulch. Weeds are constantly being destroyed. Fertilizing is rarely carried out, but they are especially needed after mass harvesting. In the first year after planting, mullein infusion (1:10) and ash are used. Subsequently, the mullein is diluted more strongly, and the ash is given in unlimited quantities. Mineral fertilizers are used little, but if the onion ceases to grow intensively, they feed it with urea (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
Fertilizer solutions are usually applied from a watering can.
In conditions of normal care, perennial bows rarely get sick, but sometimes they are attacked by pests. Of the diseases, peronosporosis and rust are most common. The use of chemicals on perennials is undesirable, because the pen is used constantly. But in the case of the development of diseases, you have to cut and destroy the leaves, and treat the plants with at least Bordeaux liquid.
Among the pests, onion flies, tobacco thrips, and onion crypto-healers are dangerous. You can be saved from them by folk remedies. Sprinkling the mustard with mustard powder repels pests, and tobacco decoction also works. In general, proper agricultural technology and the absence of weeds are the main conditions for the absence of pests in the beds.
Harvesting and storage
Most types of perennial onions are grown because of vitamin greens. It can be cut both gradually a little and several times during the summer almost completely. A full cut is most often possible once a month. To prolong fruiting, it is necessary to break out the flower arrows as they arise. If you need a few feathers, they just rip off. When mass cutting is used with scissors, they cut the leaves near the soil itself. The last cut is carried out a month before the onset of severe colds.
The leaves of perennial onions are stored in a refrigerator in a loose plastic bag. The feather is stored for a little over a week, but for longer use, the leaves can be frozen. Thawed onions are suitable for salads and for preparing various dishes.
I have been growing perennial longbow. Very convenient, in the spring is always fresh greens. Propagated by seeds and division of the bush. Arrows with seeds do not break off, but leave on the seeds.
I also have chives. But we do not eat it, we decided that it is decorative, it really blooms beautifully and for a long time. After flowering, I completely prune the bush, and it has time to grow and bloom a second time over the summer.
I also "from time immemorial" grow a batun, slime, chives (two species) and fragrant (which is jusai). They don’t cause much trouble, well, except that a batun in the “bad summer” can catch peronosporosis, she didn’t notice this for the rest. At the first sign, I cut the greens, do not process anything. New, as a rule, grows clean. In principle, perennial bows are of interest to me at the beginning and at the end of the season, when there are no other bows (greens mean). In summer, the schnitt grows, manages to bloom and bears the function of an ornamental plant, and it grows in the flower garden. Other onions also bloom, but sit under an apple tree, therefore they are not particularly visible. In the middle of summer, I cut off all the onions so that the new greens that we consume in salads have time to grow. I tried to plant multi-tiered onions, he was the very first to give greens in the spring, but he also managed to catch peronosporosis the first and ... award them onion. Goodbye to this comrade.
Years ... I don’t remember how many years ago I planted the seeds of a long-term onion, sweet-scented, slimy, and from the earliest spring - we have been chewing this greenfinch. My husband is a huge lover of such a potion. These bows are blooming. At a batun it is necessary to pick off flowers, to prevent its depletion. I leave one flower for seeds. In the spring I sow in bald spots (it is possible in a nursery for growing). Finely chop the excess onion, and into the freezer for the winter. Also, by the way, I act with another greenfinch.
I grow several types of onions, on a green feather and for sale a bacon-onion helps me out, only it occupies a small area and not for large-scale sales. But effective.
Sow the chives. All summer you will be with a delicate thin feather. And it blooms very beautifully. I have not heard about perennial garlic on a feather, but my slime onion is growing - it has a garlic flavor. In addition, this is the very first spring onion.
There are a lot of perennial onions, the most famous and fruitful is the batun, only you need to choose a variety, multi-tiered, fragrant onions are very unusual and interesting. But perhaps the most suitable with delicate greens is shallot, which is now widely used in Europe.
Perennial onions are grown mainly for greens, sometimes they are decorated with flower beds. Caring for such an onion is simple, and despite the variety of species and varieties, the basic approaches are the same.