Pears for Belarus: how to choose the most successful variety
Pear, as a fruit crop, has been known for a long time. Its popularity is slightly less than that of the apple tree, but many believe that without this culture there is no full-fledged garden. What is so good pear? The composition of the fruits has a large number of vitamins, trace elements and organic acids. At the same time, low sugar content and low calorie content allows its use in dietary nutrition. Pear is good both in fresh and in processed form. This is one of the few fruits that goes well with meat. Wood also has remarkable properties, it is solid and durable, with almost no knots. It is widely used for the manufacture of musical instruments, furniture, various inlays, trimmings of expensive cars, etc.
Pear Orchards of Belarus
Although the climate of Belarus is far from ideal for a heat-loving pear, but it has been grown here for a long time. Mention of it is found in written sources of the X – XII centuries, while the punishment was provided for cutting a fruit plant. Around the world, several thousand varieties are known. They differ from each other in a number of ways: ripening time, taste and keeping quality of the fruit, winter hardiness, resistance to diseases, self-fertility, etc. The Belarusian Research Institute for Fruit Growing also works on obtaining new plants, where a number of remarkable varieties have been developed that are successfully grown not only in local gardens, but also in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic countries, and many others. etc. At the same time, the work of Russian breeders is in demand and is very fruitful in the republic.
Since 1929, the Soviet Union began to select the most promising varieties of fruit and agricultural crops and determine the territories most suitable for them by soil composition and climatic conditions. Is zoning. To do this, plant new plants, grow them for several years and compare them with local varieties. In the case when the performance is good for new species, it is included in the Register, where areas in which the variety can be grown are noted. It is much easier for gardeners to choose the recommended species, rather than wasting time and energy on those for which the region’s climate is not suitable. In Belarus, not only plants obtained by the Republican Research Institute for Fruit Growing are registered in the State Register, but also by breeders from other countries: Belorusskaya Late, Dukhmyany, Sweet from Mogilev, Yasachka, Veles, Just Maria, Chizhovskaya, Zabava, Kudesnitsa, Yurate and many others. etc. This does not mean at all that other species will not grow here. You will be able to get good harvests of some exotic variety if you provide him with the most favorable conditions. All plants considered in the article have been grown for more than one year on the territory of the Republic. They have received recognition and high marks from specialists and ordinary amateur gardeners.
Early summer varieties
Pears ripening in late July or early August fall into this category. They are not stored for a long time, for a maximum of one to two weeks, after which their taste decreases sharply. The transportability of such fruits is low, so they can not be transported far. Remaining on the branches, the pears quickly ripen. But for them there is no need for long-term storage, because pears are used in the middle of summer fresh and for drying, obtaining juices, preserves and compotes.
- August dew. The plant was obtained by Russian breeders. The tree does not exceed 3 meters in height. It grows fast, but needs a pollinator. It withstands frosts down to minus 36 degrees, is resistant to diseases. It has good early maturity, already 3-4 years after planting, fruits appear. On average, their weight is 130 grams, but with very abundant harvests, pears can be different in size. The skin color is yellowish-green with a lot of greenish dots and a blush. The fruits taste good, very juicy, with delicate pulp. Do not crumble when ripe, but can lie no more than two weeks.
August dew - a wonderful early variety
- Lada. Russian grade. The tree is medium-sized. Winter hardiness and productivity are high. Resistant to scab. The first pears appear in 3-4 years. They are light yellow with a slight blush. The fruits are completely non-transportable, although their quality is very good. In the refrigerator (at 0 ° C) can be stored up to two months. They have a pleasant sweet and sour taste and a delicate aroma. Partial autonomy, the plant needs a pollinator.
Lada fruits can be stored for up to two months
- Hurry up from Michurinsk. Russian grade. It is a tall-growing tree, in which winter hardiness and disease resistance are moderate. Fruits weighing about 70 grams, ovoid. The skin color is yellow-green, there is a slight blush. They have a pleasant taste and characteristic aroma. Juicy flesh is slightly loose, creamy. They are stored for no more than a week, but can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 14 days. Begins to bear fruit at the age of 5–6 years, reaching maximum yield by 12–15 years.
Always high yield at Skorospelki from Michurinsk
Late summer varieties
Late summer varieties of pears ripen from the 2nd – 3rd decades of August. In almost all plants of this category, winter hardiness has good indicators from medium to higher. Fruits plucked slightly unripe will lie in suitable conditions for two to three months. On a tree, they mature quickly and are unsuitable for long-term storage. Transportation is better tolerated than early summer varieties.
- Chizhovskaya. This is a variety of Russian selection. The tree is not high, up to 2.5–3 meters. He has good winter hardiness. Little affected by disease. The plant is self-fertile, but if there is a pollinator nearby, then the yield noticeably increases. The first pears appear on seedlings aged 3-4 years. The pulp is semi-oily, dense, juicy, very good taste. Fruits are yellowish-green, with small subcutaneous dots, sometimes covered with a faint reddish blush. The mass is 100–120 g., But their fading was noted to increase the age of the tree.
With age, the fruits may become smaller on Chizhovskaya
- Rogneda. A hybrid obtained by crossing Ussuri and common pears. It is resistant to disease and has high frost resistance. It grows well in Siberia. The first ovary appears in 3-4 years. A medium-sized compact tree does not require much space in the garden, and self-fertility makes it possible to do without additional pollination. The flowers withstand spring back cooling. Pears are light yellow, about 130 gr., Semi-oily, balanced taste, juicy, with a light muscat aroma. On the side best sunlit, there is a reddish blush. About 90 days are stored in the refrigerator, while at room temperature this period is limited to 10-14 days.
Rogneda variety has high frost resistance
- Spiritual. Belorussian variety. This medium-sized tree (up to 5 m) has an average winter hardiness. It can sometimes be affected by fungal infections. The peel of the fruit is greenish, often with a slight blush weighing 140 g. Dessert flavor, juicy with a slight aroma. Unripe pears have a noticeable astringency that disappears when they reach full ripeness. At 4–5 years, the tree begins to bear fruit. Harvest is transportable. They lie in the refrigerator for up to three months. Without a pollinator, Dukhmyany will not give an ovary, as it is self-infertile.
Variety Dukhmyany requires a pollinator
- Lagodnaya. Another Belarusian variety. The tree is tall. Average winter hardiness. It can be affected by diseases to a moderate degree. At 4 years, the first fruits appear. Pears are light green with noticeable specks, juicy, pleasant taste and aroma. It lies in the refrigerator for up to 60 days, and in the room for about two weeks. The variety is self-fertile. As a pollinator Dukhmyany approaches him.
Variety Lagodnaya zoned in Belarus
In September (from the second half) and October comes the turn of autumn pear varieties. The fruits torn from branches have a noticeable astringency and hardness. They need to lie down for two to three weeks, only then the taste is fully revealed and an amazing aroma appears. They have a good presentation, they tolerate transportation well and lie in the refrigerator 90-100 days.
- Dressed Efimova. Domestic grade. Known since 1936. The plant quickly gained popularity and received a gold medal at the International Exhibition in Erfurt (Germany) in 1989 for taste and excellent qualities. The tree is tall, rarely affected by scab. Winter hardiness is good. Fruits appear late, at 7–8 year. Elongated pears (120 gr), yellow-green. A beautiful elegant blush covers almost the entire surface of the fruit. The pulp is juicy with a pleasant aroma and dessert flavor. The variety is self-fertile. Pears quickly ripen, so they are torn off when the skin near the petiole begins to turn yellow. After a few days, they are ready for use. Unfortunately, their shelf life is short even in the refrigerator (no more than a month).
The fruits of the Naryadnaya Efimova variety are very beautiful and tasty.
- Memory of Zhegalov. The variety of Soviet (then still) selection was bred by the scientist-breeder S. Chizhov in the 80s of the XX century. The plant is medium-sized. After planting, the first fruits appear in 3-4 years. High winter hardiness allows you to successfully grow it in the Ural region. There is practically no fruit crumbling, isolated cases have been noted. To obtain a crop, the plant needs a pollinator, since the variety is self-sterile. The weight of the pear, on average, is 120-130 gr., But this is not the limit, under favorable conditions, this figure can be up to 200 grams and above. With age, a slight fading of the fruits was noted. Pears are greenish-yellow, in areas most illuminated by the sun, a slight blush appears. Juicy, semi-oily flesh and delicate sweet and sour taste with barely noticeable astringency make it a desired treat. They lie in the refrigerator, at 0 ° C, three to four months.
Pears of the Memory Zhegalov variety are stored for up to three months
- Simply Maria. Belorussian variety, known since 1996. The tree is stunted (up to 3 m). Begins to bear fruit for 3-4 years. It has a high yield. Frost and disease resistance is good. Self-fertile. Pears are large (180-200 gr), greenish-yellow with a slight blush and with noticeable specks. The pulp is tender, oily. Sweet pears with pleasant acidity. May lie until January (in the refrigerator).
Just Maria - a self-made variety
- Yasachka (Yasochka). Belorussian variety. The plant is undersized, does not exceed three meters. After planting, the fruits appear in the fifth year. Average frost resistance. May be affected by disease. A pollinator is needed. Pears are widely rounded (120–140 gr), golden yellow with a slight blush. The pulp is semi-oily, juicy. The light smell and sweet taste with a pleasant acidity make the fruits a welcome dessert. They can lie up to three months in the refrigerator.
The quality of Yasochka fruits is very high
These are the latest species to be stored in the fall. It is impossible to eat a torn pear right away. She is very hard, tasteless and completely non-aromatic. Fruits need a ripening period. Only after a while, they become juicy and tasty. They are used fresh all winter. Storage periods for different varieties differ. Early winter can lie until January - February, mid-winter - until the end of March, and late winter can be enjoyed even in May.
- Belarussian late. The tree is medium-sized and early-growing. Starting from 4–5 years, pears appear and their number increases with each season. Partial self-fertility requires additional pollination. Winter hardiness of the plant is good, but it is affected by scab. Frozen fruits were noted during the years of abundant harvests and, with a lack of heat in the summer, their taste deteriorates. Pears have a wide round shape with a rough surface and a mass of, on average, about 110-120 gr. At the time of collection, the skin of the fruit is green, but then it turns orange-yellow with a slight blush. The pulp is juicy and tender. The taste is sweet with a pleasant acidity and a calm aroma. Depending on the weather, the crop is harvested in late September or early October. Well lie up to six months. In January - February, they fully reveal their qualities, but can remain as tasty even in March - April.
Fruits of the Belarusian winter with rough skin
- November. Russian variety obtained by Far Eastern breeders back in 1950. The tree is tall, resistant to disease. Winter hardiness is high. Fruits in 3-4 years, and after 2-3 seasons shows a good yield. Requires a pollinator. Pears have a mass of 80–90 grams, but in the south they can reach a weight of more than 200 grams. The skin is green, after a month it becomes yellowish-green with a slight blush. The pulp is semi-oily, juicy, very aromatic, dessert. The fruits do not crumble even in strong winds; in September they are laid for storage. After a month, the pears are already edible and lie well until early January. Still tasty are these pears in stewed fruit, jam and like dried fruits. They can be frozen, then the shelf life is extended until spring, and the thawed fruits remain delicious for a few more days.
Fruits of the variety Noyabrskaya can be frozen
- Bere Kievskaya. Ukrainian grade. A vigorous tree sets the first fruits for 4–5 years. Resistance to diseases is good. Winter hardiness is high. Needs cross-pollination. Fruits can reach 300 gr., At the time of consumer ripeness light yellow with a bright noticeable blush. The pulp is creamy, juicy. Sweet, with a pleasant light acidity taste. 4-5 months are stored.
The Kiev Coast has large fruits
- Kyrgyz winter. Medium-sized trees with high winter hardiness. Resistant to most diseases. The variety is self-fertile, but the presence of a nearby pollinator greatly increases the yield of the plant. The first pears appear at 6-7 years. During the harvest period (October-early November) they are green, and at the time of full maturity (December) they turn yellow with a bright blush that covers most of the pear. Its mass is about 250 gr. Creamy pulp, juicy. Good taste with pleasant astringency. Stored until April without loss of commercial quality.
Kyrgyz winter - a variety with high winter hardiness
- Yurate. Lithuanian variety that has established itself well in Belarus. The medium-sized tree has an average winter hardiness and resistance to diseases. Begins to bear fruit at 4–5 years. Self-fertile. Pears weighing 140-160 grams of green, in the stage of consumer ripeness, the skin becomes yellowish, with a slight blush. The pulp is juicy. The taste is pleasant dessert with an average aroma. Plucked fruits in a month can be eaten, and under good conditions retain taste and aroma until the end of winter.
Wonderful Lithuanian Jurate
The ability of a plant to form an ovary without the aid of insects and wind is called self-fertility. Pollination takes place even in an unopened bud, which allows you to get a crop even in adverse weather conditions, when it is cold for bees or rain rains pollen. This quality of plants is very attractive for gardeners, since there is no need to plant several trees and occupy large areas on the site. But it has long been noted that if there is another related species nearby and the self-fertile varieties are cross-pollinated, then their productivity is greatly increased. Do not ignore this fact, it is better to plant another tree. Of the plants considered, the self-fertile ones include: Chizhovskaya, which is the best pollinator for many varieties, Rogneda, Just Maria, Kirghiz winter, Yurate. Late Belorussian and Lada have partial autonomy. In addition to them, as a pollinator, you can also use such varieties as Tenderness, Marble, Banquet, in Memory of Yakovlev, which are zoned in Belarus.
There are no complaints about the quality of Lada fruits - an excellent variety. But all the fruits must be consumed in 10 days. Later they become uninteresting.
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The best for an early harvest is Lada and Chizhevsky. Both varieties are large, sweet, juicy, very fruitful! Chizhevsky’s taste is slightly richer, tastier. Like all early ones, the keeping quality is small.
3 years ago, they planted Just Mary, the Sorceress, Late Belorussian and Veles. This year was the first crop. Just Maria was the best.
The tree of the Lagodnaya variety survived the 2nd season, and already had the first harvest - 7 pieces of pears weighing about 150g. The growth was not particularly affected, rushing as if not in itself (the earth is very "pear" there), next year many flower buds were laid. Taste - no frills, simple, sweet with a slight acidity. The flesh is crunchy, but when overripe it becomes mealy, you can not overexpose it on a tree. Like a pear, it is much tastier, but in its ripening period (the first decade of August) it has no particular competitors.
At present, choosing pear varieties that will satisfy you as much as possible in terms of quantity and quality of fruits is not difficult. The assortment available at the moment can satisfy the needs of the most demanding gardeners. The Republican Research Institute for Fruit Growing offers more than a thousand varieties that have been tried and tested well in Belarus. The choice is yours.