Pear Veles - a unique variety at the disposal of gardeners
A fairly young pear variety Veles was created in Moscow for Muscovites. Judging by the reviews of gardeners, the attitude towards him is ambiguous. It is necessary to understand in more detail the features and characteristics of this pear to help the gardener in choosing a variety for planting.
Description of the variety and its full characteristics
Selection variety VSTISP (All-Russian Institute of Horticulture and Nursery). Included in the State Register in 2001 and zoned in the Central region. Distributed in the home gardens of the Moscow region and neighboring areas.
It has a medium-growth tree with a drooping pyramidal crown of medium density. By ten years, the height of the tree reaches four meters. Fruiting on rather large gloves, evenly distributed over the arched shoots of cherry-brown color. The variety has high winter hardiness of wood; ovaries tolerate frosts up to -2 ° C. Some gardeners claim that the assessment of winter hardiness of the variety is overestimated. Insufficient drought tolerance. Resistance to fungal diseases is high. The rate of maturity is 5–7 years from the year of growth in the nursery. The fruits ripen in the fall almost simultaneously. They are usually collected in two stages. At first they break off the largest ones, in a few days - the rest. Productivity is high, annual. The average yield in industrial gardens is 126 c / ha. The disadvantage of the variety is the tendency to chop fruits with abundant yields .
By the age of ten, the height of the Veles pear tree reaches four meters
The fruits have a regular, wide-pear-shaped shape. The average weight is 120 g. The skin of the fetus is smooth. Color - greenish-yellow, on a smaller part of the surface of the fetus there is a light orange tan. The subcutaneous points are small, barely noticeable. The creamy flesh has a juicy, semi-oily and delicate structure. The taste is excellent, sour-sweet. Tasting score - 4.6 points. Dessert fruits, have high commercial qualities. The refrigerator is stored until mid-November.
Veles pear fruit is regular, broad-pear-shaped
Variety Veles is partially self-fertile. Possible pollinators: Voskresenskaya large, Just Maria, Chizhovskaya, Rogneda and others.
Video: Veles pear
Planting Veles pears
To successfully grow a pear, you need to create a favorable microclimate for it. Therefore, the first task facing the gardener is to choose the best place for planting. Such a place should not be swampy, flooded by nearby groundwater. As well as adverse factors are drafts and cold northerly winds. The best option is the south or southwest slope, which has a wind barrier in the form of thick trees, a fence or a wall of the structure from the north or north-east side. In their absence, you can protect the landing site for the first time with specially made wooden shields. It is advisable to paint them white with lime mortar - this will create a reflective effect for sunlight, providing additional lighting and heating. Do not plant the pear too close to the trees or the fence - a dense shadow from them will not allow the tree to bloom and bear fruit. When group planting trees of Veles pear, you must observe a distance between plants of at least four meters.
When planting trees of Veles pear trees in groups, the distance between plants should be at least four meters
Pear loves loose, light, drained soil. The reaction should be neutral or slightly acidic. On alkaline soils, pears are ill and poorly developed. The pH should be in the range of 5.5–6.0, 4.2–4.4 is allowed.
The pear should be planted in early spring, when the snow has already melted and the soil has begun to warm up. In this case, the kidneys should not swell yet, there should not be any sap flow. In this case, the young tree will have time to take root well, gain strength and grow stronger before the winter. In this state, it will be much easier for him to move the first winter.
In the case of planting seedlings with a closed root system, planting dates are not important. You can plant at any time from April to October.
In October, nurseries begin digging seedlings and put them up for sale. It was at this time that it was advisable to purchase a pear seedling for a future spring planting. Choose a tree with good, well-developed roots, on which there are no any growths and cones. The bark of the trunk should have a flat, smooth surface without cracks and damage. The best age for a seedling is one or two years. In this case, the survival rate is high, entry into bearing occurs earlier.
Choose a tree with well-developed roots, on which there are no growths and cones
In order for the seedling to be safely preserved until spring, it must be buried in the ground. To do this, pre-dip its roots into a mash of mullein and clay with the addition of water. Such protection will prevent the roots from drying out. Then, in a suitable place, they dig a small hole with a depth of 25–35 centimeters. Its length should be slightly less than the height of the seedling. A layer of sand is poured into the bottom of the pit. They put the seedling roots on the sand, and the top on the edge of the pit. They fill the roots with sand and water it. When the cold comes, the pit is filled with earth to the top. Only the top of the tree remains on the surface.
Seedlings tolerate winter well dug in the garden
If there is a basement with an air temperature of 0–5 ° C - you can save the seedling in it. It is only necessary to provide a moist environment for the roots, for example, place them in sand or sawdust and moisten.
After this, prepare the landing pit. This is done in the following sequence:
- At the place chosen for planting, you need to dig a hole with a depth and diameter of 70–80 centimeters. For humus-poor soils, the size of the pit increases. On sandy soils, its volume should be at least one cubic meter.
- If the soil is clayey, heavy, it is necessary to lay a drainage layer 10-15 centimeters thick at the bottom. It can consist of crushed stone, expanded clay or broken brick. On sandy soils, a layer of clay should be laid to the bottom to hold water.
- The next step will be the preparation of the nutrient mixture and its filling in the pit. If the pit is small - you can prepare the mixture directly in it. In the case of a large volume, it will be easier to do this on the surface in some trough or in a mixer. The mixture consists of chernozem, peat, humus and sand, taken in equal proportions. Additionally, 2-3 liters of wood ash are poured, 300-400 grams of superphosphate are mixed and mixed. The pit needs to be filled to the top.
The nutrient mixture can be prepared directly in the pit
- For the preservation of nutrients, the pit is covered with a waterproof material.
Step-by-step instructions for planting a pear
In the spring on time, they begin to land. For this:
- A seedling is taken out and convinced of its safety.
- The roots are soaked in a bucket of water, to which growth and root formation stimulants (Epin, Heteroauxin, Kornevin, etc.) are added.
- A part of the soil is removed in the center of the planting pit so that the roots of the seedling can freely fit into the formed pit.
- A small mound is poured and a wooden stake 1-1.3 meters high above the soil level is hammered 10-15 centimeters from the center.
- A sapling is placed on the mound, carefully spreading the roots.
A sapling is placed on the mound, carefully spreading the roots
- They fill the pit with earth by tamping layer by layer.
- The tree trunk is tied to a peg using an elastic material. It is impossible at the same time to crush the bark, as this will impede sap flow.
The trunk of the tree is tied to a peg using elastic material
- The diameter of the landing pit using a chopper or a ploskorez form a trunk circle.
- Watering abundantly, providing good soil contact with the root system.
- After drying of the top layer, the soil is loosened and mulched with grass, compost, spruce branches, etc.
- Cut the central conductor of the seedling to a height of 60-80 centimeters, and the branches to half the length.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
It is enough to master the basic techniques of agricultural technology for fruit crops to grow Veles pear without any problems.
Pear should be watered regularly, especially in dry years. With a lack of moisture or nutrition in the soil, the fruits become smaller and can even just crumble. They begin to water the pear in the spring, before flowering begins. In the future, watering intervals should be within 3-4 weeks. Young trees with a weak root system and shallow roots may need more frequent watering. The depth of humidification should be controlled - after watering it should be 25-30 centimeters. Before watering, protect the tree trunk with an earthen roller from direct contact with water. This will avoid possible aging.
Before watering, protect the tree trunk with an earthen roller from direct contact with water
Trunk circles after drying the soil must be loosened and covered with a layer of mulch with a thickness of 5-10 centimeters. In the future, you can water without removing the mulching layer - so the soil will remain moist for a longer period of time and will not require additional loosening. From time to time, you need to check the condition of the mulch - it can collect slugs, grubs and other pests. In this case, they should be collected and destroyed, the soil should be dried, then the mulch should be returned to its place. In late autumn, one should not forget about the pre-winter water-loading irrigation - it contributes to better winter hardiness of the plant.
Planting pit is the main source of nutrition for the young tree for 3-4 years after planting. In the future, additional feeding will be needed.
Table: types of fertilizers for pears, when and how to feed
|Types of fertilizers||Dates and interval of feeding||Methods of application and dosage|
|Compost, humus or grass peat||Spring or fall every 3-4 years||Digging in the soil when digging. Dosage - 5-10 kg / m2.|
|Liquid fertilizer||With the onset of fruiting in June - July annually. Spend 3-4 feeding with an interval of 15-20 days.||An infusion of two liters of mullein is prepared in advance (and you can also use one liter of bird droppings or 5-7 kg of freshly cut grass) and ten liters of water. Insist 5-7 days in a warm place, then filter. Dilute the concentrated infusion with water in a ratio of 1: 10 and water the plant at the rate of one bucket per square meter.|
|Nitrogen-containing (nitroammofosk, urea, ammonium nitrate)||Spring, annually||Digging in the soil when digging. Dosage - 20-30 g / m2.|
|Potassium-containing (potassium sulfate, potassium monophosphate)||May - June, annually||Dilute in water when watering. Dosage - 10–20 g / m2|
|Phosphorus-containing (superphosphate, double superphosphate, supegro)||Autumn, annually||Digging in the soil when digging. Dosage - 20-30 g / m2.|
|Complex fertilizers||Apply following the instructions in the attached instructions.|
It is difficult to get a decent crop without a pruning complex.
It is recommended for Veles pears to apply crown formation as an improved bowl. This form is suitable for trees of low and medium growth. It provides good ventilation and illumination of the internal volume of the crown. In addition, caring for a tree and harvesting becomes much easier. Such a formation is carried out easily. The procedure is as follows:
- It is assumed that the first step in cutting the seedling was performed during planting.
- In the second third year, in the early spring before the onset of sap flow, the second stage of formation is carried out. In this case, it is necessary to choose 3-4 strong branches growing in different directions and located at a distance of 15–20 centimeters from each other. These are future skeletal branches. You should shorten them by one third, and cut all other branches “into the ring”.
- The central conductor is cut above the base of the upper branch.
- In the third and fourth year after planting, second-order branches are formed. For this, two branches are selected on skeletal branches, located at a distance of 50-60 centimeters from each other. They are shortened by 50%. All other branches grown on skeletal are cut "into a ring."
- In the future, you need to ensure that all branches remain the same length. If any of them begins to dominate, then it will assume the role of the central conductor, and this should not happen.
When forming as an improved bowl, good ventilation and illumination of the internal volume of the crown are provided
It consists in the fact that when it is carried out, the thickening of the crown is regulated. To do this, cut out part of the shoots that grow inside the crown, creating conditions for its good ventilation and light. This pruning is necessary only if necessary. If there are branches growing inside the crown, but they do not overlap and do not obscure the neighboring ones, they should not be cut. After all, they also have gloves on which the fruits grow. Spend this pruning in early spring.
Needed to maintain stable yields. A simplified version is chasing young green shoots, carried out in the summer by shortening them by 5-10 centimeters. This provokes the growth of additional annulus on which flower buds are laid. More experienced gardeners use the method of replacing fruit-bearing shoots, forming substitution shoots according to the type of grape formation.
Experienced gardeners use the method of replacing fruit-bearing shoots, forming substitution shoots according to the type of grape formation
Sanitary pruning is carried out annually in late autumn by removing dry, diseased and damaged branches. If necessary, it is also carried out in early spring, if frostbite and broken branches have formed as a result of winter.
Certain rules must be followed when trimming wood. Otherwise, instead of benefit, the plant can be harmed. The rules are simple and straightforward:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- Do not start trimming if the cutting tool (secateurs, delimbers, saws, knives) is not sharpened.
- Before starting work, it is necessary to treat the tool with a disinfectant solution. You can apply:
- 1% solution of copper sulfate;
- 3% hydrogen peroxide solution;
- alcohol, etc.
- Cutting branches do not leave knots or hemp. When they dry, they will become a hotbed of fungal diseases.
- Large diameter shoots are cut in a few tricks.
- All sections, the diameter of which exceeds ten millimeters, should be cleaned with a knife and covered with a layer of a garden var.
Diseases and pests - the main types and methods of control
Lesions of various diseases and pest invasions usually annoy the gardener, who neglects regular sanitary and preventive maintenance.
It is much easier to complete simple work on the prevention of diseases and insect attacks in due time than to deal with their consequences. The list of such works is small:
- Every fall, gardeners tidy up the site. In this case, you need to collect all the fallen leaves, weeds, branches, etc. In all this garbage various pests probably hide for the winter, so it needs to be burned. Such garbage should not be used for composting.
- An important point is the monitoring of the state of tree bark. She needs to be examined. If cracks are found, damage should be healed. To do this, cut cracks to a healthy bark and (or) wood, treat with 1% solution of copper sulfate and cover with a layer of garden var.
- Next, whitewash the trunks and skeletal branches with a lime solution with the addition of 1% copper sulfate. And you can also apply special garden paints for this. This is done in order to prevent possible sunburn of the bark, as well as to create obstacles to the movement of insect pests on it.
- Before the onset of frost, they dig the soil of near-stem circles deeply. At the same time, pests wintering in it will be raised to the surface and affected by the onset of frost.
- After digging, the soil and the crowns of the trees are sprayed with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux fluid. In early spring, the treatment is repeated. Perhaps the use of a 5% solution of iron sulfate.
- In early spring, it is also advisable to treat the crown and trunk with DNOC to prevent all known diseases and pests. Such treatment is carried out once every three years, and in the remaining years, Nitrafen is used.
- To prevent crawling of insect pests on the crown in early spring, a hunting belt must be installed on the trunk of each tree. They make it from a strip of roofing material, a thick film, burlap, etc. Set a belt at a height of 50-60 centimeters from the ground.
- After flowering, you need to start regular treatments with systemic fungicides to prevent fungal diseases. The processing interval is two to three weeks. The best and most tested drugs are Chorus, Skor, Quadris, Strobi and others. Each of the drugs should not be used more than three times a season. The fungus gets used to the drug and it becomes ineffective.
Pears are mainly affected by fungal diseases. The methods of control, prevention and the drugs used are almost the same. These are mainly the fungicides indicated above.
Table: pear major diseases
|Disease||Method of infection||Signs of illness||Features of the fight|
|Moniliosis (monilial burn, fruit rot)||During flowering, bees, along with pollen, enter the spores of the pathogen||Flowers, leaves, young shoots fade, blacken. This phenomenon looks like a chemical or thermal burn.|
In summer, the fruits are affected by gray rot.
|If signs of the disease are found, all affected shoots should be immediately cut, while capturing 20-30 centimeters of healthy wood. Affected fruits are harvested and destroyed.|
|Soot fungus||It usually develops after an attack on the aphid pear, the sugary secretions of which are a breeding ground for the fungus||A black coating resembling soot appears on the leaves and fruits.||To prevent soot fungus, they primarily fight ants in the area, as they carry aphids on a tree.|
|Scab||Fungal spores can be carried by the wind||First, olive-colored spots appear on the leaves, then spread to the fruits. On the fruit, the spots become putrid, the skin becomes cracked, the flesh becomes hard and unfit for food.||Affected fruits and leaves are removed and destroyed.|
Photo Gallery: Signs of Major Pear Diseases
- In summer, moniliosis affects pear fruit with fruit rot.
- When infected with scab, olive stains first appear on the leaves, then spread to the fruits
- When a soot fungus is affected, a black coating appears on the leaves and fruits of the pear, resembling soot
The preventative measures described above are most effective in pest control. As the main means for processing insects, insecticides are used, such as Decis, Fufanon, Spark, Spark Bio and others.
Table: main pear pests
|Pest name||How does it fall on a pear||Signs of defeat and damage||Features of the fight|
|Pear beetle||Beetles usually winter in the soil of tree trunks. In the early spring, when the soil warms up, crawl out and climb the crown.||In the spring you can find yellowed buds and flowers, eaten by a flower beetle. It’s hard to see the beetle itself, as it is very small and shy.||If signs of an attack by the flower beetle are found in early spring, you can manually collect insects. In the early morning, when the air has not warmed up yet, and the temperature has not risen above +5 ° C, the beetles sit motionless on the branches, in a daze. At this time, they are shaken off on a fabric or film pre-spread under the tree.|
|Pear moth||Butterflies lay eggs in the soil of tree trunks. Caterpillars crawl out of the eggs, which climb the trunk to the crown of a tree.||Climbing inside the fruit, the caterpillars feed on pulp. You can detect by the presence on the surface of the fetus of small dark holes through which the caterpillar climbed inside.||When the caterpillar is already inside the fetus, it’s too late to fight. Only the preventative measures described above are effective.|
|Aphid||It is carried by ants who like to feast on the sweet aphid secretions.||As a rule, aphids can be seen on the inner surface of the leaves, as well as on young shoots. After some time, the affected leaves are folded into a tube. If you do not fight aphids, it can cause significant damage to the leaf apparatus of the plant.||Leaf-wrapped leaves should be cut off and destroyed if possible.|
Photo Gallery: The main pear pests
- Caterpillars of the codling moth hatched from eggs crawl onto the crown and penetrate the fruits
- Flower beetle eats flower buds from the inside
- Ants love to feast on the sweet aphid secretions
I have Veles in the crown, she froze very much after the winter of 2005-2006 (that winter all the pears in the Moscow Region got it), but now everything is in order (restored).
My Velesa tree froze in 2005–6. After 2010, it began to fall out in parts. In 1012 she was uprooted, like her
Alina, Moscow region
In the late 90s and early 2000s, they planted Veles twice. They froze. Then the winters were harsh, if you remember. No more attempts were made.
We grow a pear Veles. Last summer we got the first crop. You can read about it in detail on the site that Amira-12 indicated, returning to the list in the direction of the arrow. We liked the pear - tasty, moderately sweet, juicy. We still have the memory of Yakovlev, but I liked this one more.
I have a pear Veles - 6 years. Last year was strewn with pears. In this - not very much, but there were ... This is after such and such a winter. So I think Veles is very suitable for the suburbs, quite winter-hardy.
In Belarus she took a -2-year-old at the TSHA from Susov 3 years ago, and Veles - 5-year-old the year before last in Biryulyovo. They dug it under me, wrapped the roots in a damp newspaper and rushed to plant it ... Planted in 1–1.5 hours ... That same summer, she gave a lot of fruit. You could say no leaves were visible. somewhere I had a photo ... In appearance and taste Veles corresponded to the description.
Veles is a quick variety, according to the author of the variety Efimova. I saw 2-year-olds with fruits on the experimental plot, though there were 4–5 pears, but there were.
Pear Veles gained wide circulation and popularity due to the commercial qualities of the fruit, as well as excellent taste. This variety was especially fond of Muscovites and residents of the Moscow Region. And although some gardeners mention its lack of frost resistance, other reviews suggest the opposite. And if the gardener, who decided to plant Veles pear, creates favorable conditions for her - he will not fail and will get good harvests of delicious and beautiful fruits.