Pear Talgar beauty: a good representative of the long-known varieties
Pear is one of the main fruits in Russia, a garden culture traditional for the vast majority of regions. But, despite the fact that since childhood we have known the words "Apple and Pear Blossomed", usually no more than two pear trees are planted in a summer cottage. And this means that the choice of variety must be approached very responsibly. One of the most worthy pear varieties is the Talgar beauty, bearer of beautiful and delicious fruits.
Pear variety description Talgar beauty
Pear variety Talgar beauty has long been known. It was bred more than half a century ago at the Kazakh Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture based on the Forest Beauty variety. Pollinators in the selection process were Conference, Goverla and Lyubimitsa Klappa. The variety is intended for warm regions, mainly grown in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, as well as in Ukraine. In the conditions of the Lower Volga region it grows normally, but on the Middle Volga cultivation of the Talgar beauty already causes some problems. To the north of Moscow Region, the cultivation of this pear is recognized as impossible. The people of Talgar beauty are often called the affectionate word "Talgarochka".
The tree of this pear is of medium size, rarely exceeding three meters in height. The pyramidal crown is quite dense, since the main branches are directed almost horizontally, the shoots are almost straight, their diameter is average, the color is gray-brown. Leaves of ordinary green color, shiny, oval, located on long petioles. The fruit-bearing tree seems to be squat, as the branches with the fruits sag to the ground. The tree is drought-resistant, reacts normally to frosts, can withstand temperature drops of -30 ° C, small freezes heal over time. In care, the variety is considered unpretentious.
Talgarka tree does not look very neat, as the branches bend to the ground under the weight of the fruit
The cone-shaped kidneys are large. The fruitful formations are the gloves. The variety is characterized by early maturity: the first crop is produced in the fourth year after planting, but it is small for the first 1-2 years. The yield is subsequently high, annual, gradually increasing with age. The fruits ripen late: not earlier than the end of September.
The fruits are very beautiful, large (weighing 160-200 g), elongated "bottle" shape. The skin is smooth, dense, the main color is pale yellow, but is largely covered with a bright red blush, there are numerous subcutaneous points. The pulp is dense, white or slightly creamy, juicy, crunchy, the taste is rated as good, sweet, improves during storage. Slightly unripe fruits are stored in the cellar for about two months, sometimes much longer. The ripened pears stick firmly on the tree, do not crumble with the wind, which is not always good: overripe specimens are not suitable for consumption. The transportability of fruits taken unripe is good.
It happens that the fruits of the Talgar beauty on a tree hang for a long time in clusters
Thus, the main advantages of the variety are:
- ease of cultivation;
- drought and frost resistance;
- resistance to many diseases;
- high productivity;
- attractive appearance of fruits, their size;
- good taste;
- good storage and transportability.
Among the shortcomings, the rough consistency of the fruits is noted and the fact that pears that are not taken on time deteriorate on the tree.
The main types of pollinators
Unfortunately, the Talgar beauty is not self-fertile, and in the absence of pollinators, her yield is negligible. For normal productivity, cross-pollination is necessary, that is, the presence of nearby pear trees of certain varieties. The best pollinators are those varieties that participated in the creation of Talgarochka: Goverla or Conference. Kucheryanka pollinates it well.
Naturally, for pollination, you do not need a whole tree of another variety, the necessary varieties can be grafted into the crown of the Talgar beauty.
But, firstly, it should not be one branch, and secondly, until vaccinations grow, you will have to do with a very meager crop. Along the way, we can say that the vaccine is often used also in order to have several branches of the Talgar beauty on the site: if you plant it on a forest pear, winter hardiness will increase significantly. In addition, the variety grows well with quince, which is also often used in practice.
Planting a pear: step by step instructions
Posada Talgar beauty does not differ from planting other types of pears and is not difficult for an experienced gardener. The best time to plant is spring, early April, as soon as the opportunity comes to work in the garden with the ground. At this time, the buds are still sleeping, and the seedlings take root well. In the south, autumn planting is also possible, after leaf fall, but long before severe frosts.
One-year-olds, which still either have no lateral branches at all, or they have only outlined and do not exceed 10 cm in length, are better than others. The trunk of an annual seedling should be at least 10 mm in diameter, without damage to the bark. But the main thing, of course, is healthy roots: in addition to the main ones, thick ones must also be fibrous, and all of them must be alive and healthy. Two-year-old seedlings are also quite good for planting, but their ratio of roots and aerial parts is even more important: the root system must be very powerful so that from the very beginning of life in a new place it can nourish already well-developed main branches and their branches.
The Talgar beauty needs a lot of sunlight, so the site should be chosen so that it is not covered by tall buildings or other trees, at least from the south-west or south side. It is not particularly picky about soils, but planting on sand, clay or in very wetlands should be avoided; loams and sandy loams with a neutral reaction are optimal. In the event of a close occurrence of groundwater, the pear should be planted on a specially constructed mound.
Pears are always planted in a sunny place, only in this case the fruits acquire the characteristics characteristic of the variety
As with planting any fruit trees, it is advisable to plan the location in advance so that you can not only dig a planting hole in the fall, but also long before digging the area around the future tree: over time, the roots will develop and they will not be enough of the fertilizers that will be placed in pit. Therefore, in the summer it’s worth digging a plot of about 3 x 3 meters, removing powerful perennial weeds and introducing the doses of organic and mineral fertilizers that are usual for digging beds. And already in the fall, shortly before frosts, to begin arrangement of the planting pit so that by spring the soil has ripened and biological equilibrium has been established.
So, the sequence of steps for planting a pear is as follows.
- In the summer, we dig a plot.
A site excavated in advance helps a pear to live normally in the first few years
- In the autumn, we dig a large hole, a depth of up to a meter, but no less than 70 cm, in diameter - as it happens, but 80 centimeters is necessary. We add the fertile soil nearby, scatter the lower soil layers along the paths.
The pear hole is deep, the bottom is often clay, the layer is thrown away
- We add 3-4 buckets of humus and half a bucket of wood ash to the fertile part of the soil, mix well. Superphosphate, in small doses, is optional.
Wood ash is one of the main fertilizers in the garden
- We lay a drainage on the bottom of the pit with a layer of 10-15 cm: pebbles, broken bricks, slate fragments, etc.
Crushed stone at the bottom of the pit will prevent stagnation of excess water
- We pour half of the prepared nutrient mixture into the pit, drive a strong stake about a meter high above the soil surface, and fill in the rest of the mixture. Waiting for spring.
- In spring, we bring the pear seedling to the site and lower it with the roots in a container of water for at least a day, so that the roots are saturated with moisture.
When delivering a seedling to the country, you can’t dry the roots, but it’s better to wet them anyway
- We take out part of the soil from the planting pit so that the roots can freely fit.
- Dip the roots for a few minutes in a clay mash.
Clay and mullein chatter greatly increases the chances of successful pear survival
- We put the seedling in a pit, straighten the roots so that they are located in a natural way, without stress, and gradually we fall asleep with their excavated soil.
Roots must be flattened.
- We make sure that the root neck remains 4–5 cm above the surface of the earth: if necessary, shake the roots and raise the seedling.
The board laid on the ground or any level object helps to correctly assess the level
- When backfilling the soil we periodically trample it: first with the hand, then with the foot.
The soil must be compacted evenly without leaving voids.
- We tie the seedling to the stake with a strong ribbon, performing the "eight".
The G8 will reliably hold a young pear near the stake
- Gently water the pear with water. It will take 2-3 buckets.
It is necessary to saturate all the soil in the planting pit with water well.
- Mulch the near-stem circle with hay, humus or dry grass so that around the stem there are 3-5 cm of non-mulled space (in order to prevent undermining).
Mulching is good, but you can't fall asleep
Over time, the soil will settle slightly, and the root neck will be close to ground level. If the seedling is weak, and the area is windy, for the first time you can build a small fence around the tree. The ribbon should be periodically monitored so that it does not sag, but does not crash into the trunk of the pear.
Distance between trees
It is unlikely that an ordinary summer resident will plant more than two pear trees on the site. At least, when the author of these lines in his young years planted four (of different varieties and ripening dates), problems arose in the sale of the crop: not everyone knows how to trade, but for an ordinary family and immediate family this is clearly a bit much. But in any case, when planting most varieties of pears, which have medium growth strength (which is the Talgar beauty), a distance of at least four meters should be left between the trees, and preferably five.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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In the early years, the gaps between the seedlings can be occupied by beds with vegetables, flowers, and even plant strawberries. But after three years, you will have to stop with these plantings: the branches of neighboring pear trees will approach each other, and then they will close.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Pear Talgar beauty is unpretentious to growing conditions, but basic care will be required throughout her life. As with all fruit trees, it comes down to watering, periodic top dressing, a little pruning, and preventative spraying. In addition, in the middle lane it should be slightly prepared for hibernation.
- Intensive watering is required only in the first two or three years of a tree's life, until the roots penetrate deep into the ground and can not find moisture for themselves. As the soil dries up, 2-3 buckets of water should be applied under the young seedling. Adult trees need watering during the active growth of shoots (early summer) and fruit loading (August). During these periods, watering is required abundant, up to 20-25 buckets per tree. Rains only partially solve the problem. The rest of the time should be watered only in case of prolonged dry weather. It is advisable to mulch the soil around young trees after watering, and adult pears are often kept under sod.
- In the first two years there is no need to feed a pear. Later in the early spring, on frozen soil, urea or any nitrate (up to 15 g per 1 m2) is scattered around the trees. If you are not late with the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers, you can not bury them: when the remnants of ice melt and the soil softens, they will be pulled into the root layer. In the autumn, after harvesting, 50 grams of superphosphate and a liter jar of ash on each tree are buried in a shallow groove in the trunk circle.
- Crown formation begins in the second year of life. Pears are cut early in the spring, before the sap flow begins, but large wounds are always covered with garden varieties. Pruning is carried out so that the conductor rises above the main branches. Pruning does not present difficulties: pruning should be broken, dried and obviously thickening the crown branches.
- A young seedling makes sense to protect for the winter, even in the southern regions. Protection consists in whitewashing the stem and wrapping it with paper, roofing paper or non-woven material. Attached spruce branches or even old kapron tights save from rodents. Preparation for frosts for adult trees is needed only in regions with severe frosts. It consists in cleaning and digging the trunk circle, whitewashing the trunk and the bases of skeletal branches with lime-clay mortar with the addition of copper sulfate, wrapping the trunk with non-woven materials, mulching the trunk circle. In winter, if it is possible to visit the garden, an additional amount of snow from the paths can be poured under the pear.
- For the prevention of diseases in spring, the pear is sprayed with Bordeaux liquid or a solution of iron sulfate, and for collecting pests, hunting belts for trunks are arranged for the entire summer period.
The Talgar beauty bears fruit fully in the fourth or fifth year after planting. Harvest should be harvested on time, preferably slightly immature. In a good cellar, pears can survive until the end of winter; in addition, they are suitable for all types of processing: stewed fruit, jam, jam, etc.
Diseases and pests: the main types and solutions to the problem
One of the undoubted advantages of the Talgar beauty is its high resistance to most diseases and low susceptibility to pests. Usually, preventive spraying in early spring ensures no problems in this regard. In addition to the simplest chemical formulations (iron sulfate or Bordeaux liquid), folk remedies are also used for this purpose: infusions of nettle, marigold, chamomile.
The Talgar beauty almost never gets sick with the most dangerous fruit tree disease - scab, she is not afraid of many pests, but a number of problems can not bypass her. The most common misfortunes of this pear are given in table 1.
Table: Diseases and pests characteristic of pear varieties Talgar beauty
|Pests or diseases||Diagnostics||Prevention and treatment|
|The leaves of the pear are covered with uneven spots of rusty color, and an orange coating forms on the back of them.|
|Black cancer||Damages and cracks appear on the trunk and branches of the tree, similar to burnt areas.|
|Aphid||Colonies of black or light green insects 1–2 mm in size appear on leaves and young shoots.|
|The pear buds are deformed before opening, then a sticky transparent coating appears on the leaves of the tree, and white clots appear in the form of balls on the fruits.|
|Pear moth||The fruits of the pear inside are consumed by larvae, and the seed chamber acquires a brown hue.|
Of the other diseases that are rare, fruit rot and powdery mildew can be noted. However, a pear treated in the spring with Bordeaux liquid can rarely be affected by rotting fruits, and even if some specimens rot, they simply need to be removed and destroyed. Colloidal sulfur preparations help cope with powdery mildew.
Other measures to prevent diseases and invasion of enemies are the timely cleaning of fallen leaves, repairing damage in the bark and hollows, timely cleaning of the contents of hunting belts.
How to spray a pear: step by step instructions
Proper agricultural technology usually ensures that there is no need to use powerful plant protection products; preventive drugs used in spring are not very dangerous for humans and the environment. In the case of the appearance of real sores, the use of "heavy artillery" may be required. It is better not to bring it to this, but if it is necessary to use it, the preparations should be used strictly according to the instructions. However, any spraying is unacceptable if three weeks or less is left before harvesting. Work should be carried out in calm, dry weather, preferably in the morning or in the evening. Air temperature should not be lower than +5 ° C.
The course of the spring preventative treatment of the pear depends on the chosen preparation and the model of the sprayer available, but in general it consists of the following procedures that are carried out after spring pruning of the tree.
- We clean the adult tree with a hard metal brush from lichens, lagging bark, fruit debris, etc.
Only peeled trees need to be sprayed
- We dig a shallow near-stem circle (if it is not sodded) to extract the insects hidden in the upper folds of the earth.
Before spraying, it is worth removing the pests wintering in the soil outside.
- We re-read the instructions for the drug, put on personal protective equipment. To prepare the working solution, rubber gloves and glasses are enough.
Any, the simplest, glasses protect from the spray solution
- We are preparing a solution of the drug. For a young pear, 2-3 liters is enough, for an adult tree it may be required up to a bucket.
Any chemical preparation must be provided with detailed instructions on the preparation and use of the solution.
- We put on a suit that will be easy to wash, a hat, glasses, any simple respirator or even a gauze bandage that protects the respiratory system.
It is necessary to dress so that the spray does not get into the nose, mouth, eyes
- Pour the working solution into the sprayer.
- We slowly walk through the nozzle of the sprayer at a distance of 15–25 cm from the treated surfaces in all parts of the tree: large and small branches, and then the trunk.
We must try to make sure that the chemical gets on all branches
- We take out the remainder of the solution outside the site and pour it into the hole in the place where no plants are planted, cover it with earth.
- We wash the sprayer and all used containers. Take off work clothes. Thin gloves and gauze bandage are thrown away, my boots and glasses, clothes are sent to the wash. The disposable respirator must be disposed of; we clean the reusable respirator according to the instructions for it.
The pear is hassle-free, very productive. For her life - and she is already over 30 years old, only 1 year there was no harvest. I don’t remember the reason, but that year there were no fruits on all the trees. In late August, it is already becoming edible. On the market is sold on the fly. Huge, beautiful ones grow on the tops of pears. No sores were noticed. Only at the beginning of the season does aphid appear on young tops. But this is quickly corrected by spraying. I would not say that she has good keeping quality. If you collect the ripened, then when stored it turns into a "potato".
We were treated with Talgar beauty, I tried it. To the touch is a hard, oil-grated peel that exudes an unusual aroma. Like a storey Forest Beauty. Crispy, very juicy pulp, but not stone. Harmonious sweet and sour taste, juice when biting directly sprinkles. The only thing missing is the oiliness of the pulp. Parthenocarpic, it seems, there are almost no seeds. The variety is considered to be autumn, but there is information about the excellent preservation in the basement until April.
The pear is practically not affected by diseases and is winter-hardy, drought-resistant, annual and abundant fruiting, this is a plus. Fruits to taste so-so, a sweetish-sweet taste, without a twist (albeit very juicy), crunchy (I personally prefer buttery ones), they are not stored for a long time and not timely removal from the tree threatens with a loss of juiciness and taste, this is a minus. If for myself and my family, then one such pear in the garden with my head, even a lot. I noticed that children like her, though they don’t argue about tastes, but I described my opinion.
Pear Talgar beauty is a good representative of varieties that have proven themselves in distant times. It is not an ideal variety, but its main advantages are ease of care and high yield. In the middle lane it is not the best option, but in the Black Earth region and southern regions it enjoys well-deserved popularity.