Pear Marble - description and cultivation
The excellent taste and presentation of the Marble pear has created a good reputation for it in wide circles of consumers. An extensive tolerance range attracts gardeners from many areas of the country. When choosing a variety for planting, you should familiarize yourself with the characteristics of this wonderful pear, the conditions for its successful cultivation and the rules of care.
Description of the variety and its full characteristics
The variety is quite old, isolated in 1938 in the Voronezh region. In 1947 it was transferred to state variety testing and only in 1965 it was included in the State Register for the Central, Central Black Earth, Volga-Vyatka and Lower Volga regions. Obtained by crossing varieties Bere winter Michurina and Forest beauty. The latter was widely used as the initial form for selection because of its high productivity, winter hardiness, durability, and low maintenance requirements. Bere winter Michurina, in general, can not boast of positive qualities, but the result of crossing learned a surprisingly decent.
The tree at Marble is medium-sized with a wide pyramidal crown, reaches a height of 4 meters. The tendency to thicken is medium. Bee formation is weak. The color of the trunk bark and skeletal branches is greenish-gray, shoots are reddish-brown. The bark is covered with small, barely noticeable lentils. Fruits on the glove, which are located on branches at the age of two to four years.
Gloves are the shortest of overgrown branches, have a well-developed flower bud and ribbed bark.
Gloves are the shortest of overgrowing branches, have a well-developed flower bud and ribbed bark
Winter hardiness is average, in the southern latitudes - above average. With return frosts, cases of severe freezing of flower buds are noted. Insufficient drought tolerance, with a lack of moisture there is an increased crumbling of fruits. The variety is relatively resistant to scab, according to VNIISPK (All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding) - highly resistant. And also high resistance is noted to powdery mildew. Fertility according to the State Register description is above average, according to VNIISPK - it begins to bear fruit 6–7 years after vaccination (or 4–5 years after planting if the seedling is two-year-old).
Some sources note the high self-fertility of the Marble pear, but still recommend cross-pollination with pears of the varieties Chizhovskaya, Tatyana and Lada. It should be noted that Marble blooms somewhat earlier than other varieties of pears.
Productivity is high and regular. The average crop size is from 160 to 240 kg / ha, the maximum was noted in the amount of 420 kg / ha. They remove it in late August or early September, consumption can continue until mid-October. The transportability and shelf life of the fruits are high, they have an excellent presentation. Shelf life of freshly picked fruits reaches 60–70 days.
Fruits of a round-conical shape of medium size. Weight from 120 to 160 grams, according to VNIISPK - 160-170 grams. The skin is thick, smooth. It has a basic greenish-yellow color with rusty, clearly visible subcutaneous dots. On most of the fruit there is a brownish-red or marbled blush. The pulp is juicy, coarse-grained, melting, tender, sweet and very tasty. Its color is from white to cream. The fruits have a pronounced pear aroma. Tasting score - 4.8 points. Dessert fruits.
On most of the fruit of the pear Marble there is a brownish-red or marbled blush
Video: Pear Marble
Marble pear planting
In order for the Marble pear to grow well and give high yields of large and tasty fruits, you need to take care of a suitable planting place. Such a place may be located on a small south or southwest slope with a deep occurrence of groundwater and the absence of water accumulation. Well, the pear will respond to the presence on the north or northeast side of the natural defense against cold winds and drafts. It can be walls of buildings, fences, thick trees, from which a pear should be planted at a certain distance. They should provide protection from the wind, but at the same time not create a thick shadow in which the pear will not bloom. The soil for Marble needs loose, drained with a neutral or slightly acid reaction. On alkaline soils, pears get sick.
A small slope and protection from dense trees, combined with good light. They will create a good microclimate for the pear. Marble
The best time to plant is early spring. The soil should already be warming up, but the sap flow has not yet begun. If this condition is met, the sleeping seedling will wake up already in a new place, immediately begin to root, and by the end of the season will gain strength and get stronger. Such a tree will be much easier to survive the first winter than a planted tree in the fall.
But the process of spring planting still begins in the fall. And it begins with the acquisition of a seedling. This is due to the fact that in the autumn, nurseries dig seedlings for sale, and it is then that there is a wide selection of high-quality planting material. In the spring they sell what was not sold in the fall. Choose a seedling with well-developed roots, without cones and growths. The bark should be healthy and smooth, without cracks and damage. The seedling is no more than two years old. Older trees take root worse, lag behind in development from young ones and later enter fruiting.
Sapling roots must be well developed
So that the sapling wintered well, it should be dug in the garden. To do this, you need to dig a small hole 30–40 centimeters deep and 0.8–1.0 m long. A layer of sand or sawdust is laid on the bottom, the seedlings are placed in the pit with the roots on the bottom, and the crown on the edge. Sprinkle the roots with sawdust or sand and watered. So that the roots do not dry out and are better preserved before digging, dip them in a mash of mullein and clay with the addition of water. The consistency of the solution should resemble liquid sour cream. When the cold comes, the pit is completely covered with earth, leaving only the top of the tree on the surface.
During storage, the roots of the seedling should be in a humid environment.
Also, the seedling can be stored in the basement if the temperature in it is in the range 0–5 ° C. The roots are placed in a humid environment. You can put them in a box of sand, sawdust or overlay with moss and moisten.
Step-by-step instructions for planting a pear
Plant a pear sequentially and correctly performing the following steps:
- First you need to prepare a landing pit. Do it like this:
- Dig a hole 0.7-0.8 meters deep. The diameter may be the same or somewhat larger. On fertile lands, the pit can be made smaller as well - as long as the roots fit freely. On poor, sandy soils make a hole with a volume of 1-1.5 m3.
- In the case when the soil is clay, heavy - a layer of crushed stone, expanded clay or broken brick is necessarily laid on the bottom to create drainage. The thickness of this layer should be 10-15 centimeters. A layer of clay of the same thickness is laid on sandy soils, which will retain moisture in the root area.
Crushed stone, gravel, broken brick are used to create a drainage layer.
- After that, fill the hole to the top with a nutrient mixture, which consists of equal parts of chernozem, peat, humus or compost and sand (for heavy soils).
- Then add 3-4 liters of wood ash, 300-400 grams of superphosphate and mix well with a pitchfork or shovel. If the pit is large, the nutrient mixture can be prepared in a small concrete mixer.
- For winter, the pit is covered with a film or roofing material, as in the early spring meltwater can wash part of the nutrients.
- Just before planting, they take out a seedling and inspect it. If everything is in order - soak the roots in water for 2-4 hours. It’s good to add Heteroauxin, Epin, Kornevin or other growth and root stimulants.
When soaking the roots of a seedling, it is advisable to add root formation stimulants
- A part of the soil is extracted from the planting pit so that the roots of the seedling can freely fit in the formed pit.
- A small mound is poured and a wooden peg with a height of at least one meter is driven in 10-12 centimeters from the center.
- The tree is placed in the pit with the root neck to the top, and roots to the slopes of the mound.
- Further, they fill the roots with earth to the top, tamping well.
- At this time, it is important to ensure that the root collar as a result is 3-5 centimeters above ground level. When watering, the soil will settle and the neck will drop to ground level - this is the best option.
- Using a plane cutter or a chopper, a near-stem circle is formed, raking the earthen roller along the diameter of the landing pit.
- Tie a tree to a peg. Do this so that the trunk is not transmitted.
- Watered with plenty of water. The soil in the pit should be well moistened and fit snugly to the roots. No air cavities should remain in the root zone.
The seedling is watered with plenty of water.
- The seedling is cut to a height of 60–80 centimeters, and the branches are shortened by 30–40%.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Since the usual agrotechnical methods known to most gardeners are used in growing pears, we list and describe them briefly.
The drought resistance of the Marble pear is low and therefore it needs regular watering. We must not forget that as soon as the pear begins to experience a shortage of water or nutrition, it will immediately begin to discard the fruits. During the growing season, the irrigation interval should be within two to three weeks. The humidification depth should be at least 25 centimeters, but you should not turn the trunk circle into a swamp. The stamp must be protected from direct contact with water with an earthen roller - this will protect it from being heated. When watering a pear for the first time in spring, after 2-3 days it is necessary to loosen the soil of the trunk circle and mulch it well with grass, humus, husks of sunflower, etc. A layer of mulch with a thickness of 5-10 centimeters will increase the interval between watering and relieve the gardener of the need for constant loosening the soil. Periodically, you need to check the condition of the mulch. It can settle slugs, larvae and other pests. In this case, the mulch needs to be removed, the pests destroyed and the soil dried. In the future, you can resume mulching. In late autumn, the so-called moisture-charging irrigation is carried out, which contributes to better winter hardiness of the tree.
The nutrients in the planting pit are enough for tree growth in the early years. Usually, fertilizing is started with the beginning of fruiting, when the need for food increases.
Table: when and with what pear is fed
|Types of Feeding||Consumption rate and method of application||Dates and frequency|
|Compost or humus||Make digging 5–6 kg / m2||In the spring every 3-4 years|
|Ammonium nitrate, urea, nitroammophos||Bring under digging 30–40 g / m2||Every spring|
|Potassium Monophosphate, Potassium Sulfate||Dissolve in water for irrigation 10–20 g / m2||Annually at the end of May|
|Superphosphate||Bring under digging 20-30 g / m2||Annually in autumn|
|Complex mineral fertilizers||Use according to instructions|
|Liquid nutrient infusions||Insist in ten liters of water for a week, two liters of mullein (you can take one liter of bird droppings or five kilograms of fresh grass). A bucket of water is taken per square meter of soil with the addition of one liter of the finished infusion.||Such top dressing is used during the period of growth and ripening of fruits. Spend 3-4 times a season with an interval of 2-3 weeks.|
Often, some gardeners do not pay due attention to pruning. Subsequently, this leads to the appearance of diseases and reduced yields. It is recommended not to neglect this important stage of tree care.
Crones of medium-sized trees have recently begun to form more often as a “bowl”. This method provides good ventilation and illumination of the internal volume of the crown. It also provides convenient harvesting and tree care. Distinguish between simple and improved formation of the type of "bowl". Improved "bowl" allows the branches to withstand heavy loads from the fruit crop. Work on the formation of the crown is carried out in early spring before budding. The order of execution is as follows:
- The next year after planting, 3-4 good branches are chosen, which will later be skeletal. They should be multidirectional and be from each other at a distance of 15-20 centimeters. These branches shorten by 20-30%.
- The remaining branches are cut "into a ring."
- The central conductor is cut off over the base of the upper branch.
- After 1-2 years, two branches of the second order are selected on each skeletal branch. The distance between them should be 50-60 centimeters. They are shortened by 50%.
- All other branches are cut "into the ring."
- In subsequent years, maintain the equal length of the branches, so that none of them took on the role of the central conductor - it should not be with this formation.
When forming the crown according to the type of “bowl”, you need to constantly ensure that none of the branches takes on the role of a central lead
This pruning is also carried out in early spring. It consists in the removal of branches growing inside the crown. It is carried out only if necessary, in case of excessive thickening of the crown. Excessive thinning leads to the loss of part of the crop.
Spend it in the summer during the growth period of young shoots. Marble pear has a weak ability to shoot formation. You can increase the branching of young shoots with the help of coinage. The essence of coinage is the shortening of young twigs by 10-12 centimeters, which provokes the growth of new chaffinch.
Traditionally included in the list of autumn preparations for winter. At the same time, dry, diseased and injured branches are cut out. If necessary, sanitary pruning is repeated in early spring, if damaged or frostbitten branches are found at the end of winter.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Errors in trimming can harm the tree. The rules are simple:
- Before trimming, the entire cutting tool (hacksaws, pruners, delimbers, knives) should be sharpened sharply.
- And also do not forget about the disinfection of the instrument with 1% solution of copper sulfate, hydrogen peroxide or alcohol.
- If the branch is cut off completely, a “ring” cut is made. Stumps and knots should not be left - they will eventually become breeding grounds for infections.
- Large diameter branches should be cut in pieces.
- Sections with a diameter of more than ten millimeters are cleaned with a knife and covered with a layer of a garden var.
Diseases and pests - the main representatives and methods of control
The basis of the fight against diseases and pests is the implementation of preventive and sanitary work.
Disease and Pest Prevention
Every year, the gardener must perform certain work aimed at preventing the appearance of diseases and pests. Sample list of events:
- In autumn, after the end of leaf fall, leaves, weeds, and plant debris are raked in piles. Add branches cut in the heap during sanitary pruning and burn it all. The resulting ash is then used as fertilizer.
- Inspect the bark of trees. If cracks are found, they are cut into healthy wood, cleaned and treated with 1% solution of copper sulfate. Then cover with a layer of garden var.
- After that, slaked lime is bred in water, 1% copper sulfate is added and the trunks are whitened, as well as all the thick branches of the trees. Such whitewashing will prevent the bark from sunburn and prevent the insects from spring climbing the trunk to the crown.
- Barrel circles are dug deep and with a flip of the earth. It is better to do this before the onset of frost, so that wintering pests raised to the surface can die from the cold.
- Immediately after digging, the soil and tree crowns are sprayed with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux fluid. The same treatment should be carried out in early spring.
- In addition to copper sulfate, in early spring it is advisable to process the tree crowns with DNOC. Such sprayers are carried out by gardeners once every three years. In the remaining years, they are sprayed with Nitrafen. These are potent pesticides - they are effective against all known fungi and pests.
- And also an effective measure is the installation of hunting belts on tree trunks. Insects and caterpillars will not be able to overcome such a barrier and the crop will remain intact.
- After flowering, they begin regular treatment with systemic fungicides. The processing interval is 2-3 weeks. The best drugs are Skor, Chorus, Quadris, Topaz, Strobi and others. Fungi quickly get used to a particular drug, so they should be used no more than three times a season of each item.
Marble Pear Processing - Step by Step
The method of spraying is simple, but for those who do this for the first time, we describe step by step:
- Prepare a solution of the desired drug. Usually, a separate bucket is allocated for these purposes. Dissolve the drug in warm water, following the attached instructions.
- Pour the solution into the sprayer, using a funnel with a fine sieve. This will prevent the spray nozzle from clogging.
- Spray the crown of the tree, not forgetting to use the means of protection of the skin, respiratory system and eyes.
When spraying, skin, respiratory and eye protection should be used.
- At the end of the work, the sprayer and the bucket in which the solution was prepared are washed. Hands thoroughly washed with soap.
The main diseases of the pear
We introduce the beginning gardener with signs of the main possible diseases of the pear. All of them are usually fungal and are treated with fungicides.
When this fungus is affected, a black coating appears on the leaves and fruits, resembling soot. Usually, its appearance is preceded by an attack on the aphid pear, the sweet secretions of which become a breeding ground for the fungus.
When affected by a soot fungus, a black coating appears on the leaves, resembling soot
With a spring lesion, flowers, leaves and young shoots suffer. They fade and subsequently blacken. External signs resemble a burn with flame or frost. Because of this, the disease is sometimes called a monilial burn. Affected shoots must be cut, while capturing 20-30 centimeters of healthy wood. If the disease appears in the summer, it causes gray rot of the fruit.
Moniliosis causes fruit rot
Olive spots appearing on the back of the leaves indicate infection of the plant with scab. If the fruit is affected, putrefactive spots, skin cracks and hardening of the pulp are formed on them.
Olive spots that appear on the back of the leaves indicate scab infection
The main pear pests
It is known to fight insects using insecticides. In the first half of the growing season you can use Decis, Fufanon. With the approach of harvest, they are moving to Iskra, Iskra-Bio.
A small weevil bug wintering in the soil of a tree trunk. In early spring, when the soil warms up, the flower beetle comes to the surface and rises along the trunk to the crown. There, it begins by eating flower and growth buds, then eating flowers, young leaves. In May, it lays eggs in the soil, from which larvae appear that feed on plant roots. To control bugs, they use ordinary insecticides, and you can also collect them manually. Larvae in the soil can be destroyed by treatment with Diazonin. It acts for twenty days, does not accumulate in the soil and fruits.
Pear beetle eats buds, leaves and young shoots of a plant
A gray, nondescript butterfly lays eggs in the soil, where caterpillars appear from them. They creep along the trunk to the crown, penetrate the fruits, which they feed on. Stop caterpillars must be timely installed hunting belts, as well as protective whitewashing of trunks.
Butterfly moth lays eggs in the soil of trunks
These smallest insects are brought to the tree by ants who like to feed on sugary secretions of the pest. Therefore, having taken care of installing hunting belts, the gardener will save himself from the invasion of aphids. Если на участке есть божьи коровки они помогут справиться с тлёй.
Если на участке есть божьи коровки они помогут справиться с тлёй
По осени буду удалять дерево Мраморной. Слишком многое мне не понравилось в ней. Во-первых — пресносладкий вкус. Да — сахара в ней много, но без гармоничной кислинки я вкуса груши не приемлю. Во вторых нежность и аромат её плодов, по моему опыту — сильно преувеличены. Кроме того — дерево постоянно болеет, причём непонятно чем? То какой-то хлороз по листьям, то вдруг нету молодого прироста, то плоды ни с того ни с чего останавливаются в росте, задубевают и висят так до поздней осени, так и оставшись несъедобными. Это при том, что другие сорта рядом прекрасно растут, развиваются и плодоносят. Однозначно пойдёт в раскорчёвку!
Вот моя Мраморная.Не такая яркая, как на ваших фото.Может в Подмосковье она такая.Подмерзать перестала давно.В саду живёт уже лет 20.Не супер урожайна, но вкус изумительный.Пока она у меня самая вкусная.На саженцы этой груши идёт просто охота.
Марш, Московская обл.
А вот «Мраморная» и « Десертная» другой разговор. Эти груши заслуживают уважения «Мраморная» с коричным оттенком вкуса, не меняющаяся от года, менее урожайная, чем «Десертная», на много устойчива к болезням, сладкая груша — любимица ос.
Игорь Иванов, Московская обл.
Сама Мраморная сразу видна по стволу.Её сложно правильно сформировать.Прут «волчки» отовсюду.Есть фото молодого и цветущего дерева Мраморной.и самой груши на ветке из собственного сада. Ну и вкус спелой Мраморной в начале сентября не спутать ни с чем!Тает во рту, как дыня и по вкусу напоминает.И очень сладкая.
Груша Мраморная обладает рядом достоинств, делающих её привлекательной для садоводов многих регионов Средней полосы. Некоторые незначительные недостатки — частичная самоплодность, осыпаемость плодов при недостатке влаги — вполне преодолимы. Сорт уверенно может рекомендоваться для выращивания как фермерам, так и обычным садоводам.