Pear Lada: all about a variety tested for decades

The fact that the Lada pear variety is more than half a century old and has been zoned over a rather large territory makes us think about the advisability of choosing it for planting on the site. Apparently, it is not in vain that so many people choose this variety. Why this happens - we will try to figure it out.

Description of the variety and its full characteristics

Lada pear variety was isolated at the Moscow Agricultural Academy in 1955. In 1980 it was transferred to state variety testing and only in 1993 took its place in the state register of selection achievements. The range of access is extensive - Central, Central Black Earth, Northwest, Mid-Volga and even East Siberian regions. Obtained by crossing two varieties of pears, which at that time were often used in breeding. The first pear is Olga, common in the Far East. From her, Lada got immunity to diseases, early maturity and immobility of fruits. The second is Forest Beauty. She conveyed unpretentiousness, productivity, self-fertility and good taste of the fruit.

The medium-sized tree has a conical and dense crown. The stamp has a smooth bark of dark gray color, the skeletal branches are somewhat lighter. Fruiting is of a mixed type - that is, flower buds grow both on the ringworms and on the twigs, spears, fruits and fruit bags.

Pear Lada bears fruit on all growing branches

Widespread Lada owes its qualities:

  • High winter hardiness.
  • Adaptability to adverse conditions.
  • Immunity to diseases, including scab.
  • High and annual productivity. The average eat fruit is 50 kilograms per tree.
  • Early maturity. For 3-4 years after vaccination receive the first fruits.
  • Early ripening.

Partial autonomy of a variety, needs pollinators, which can be pears of varieties:

  • Chizhovskaya;
  • Cosmic
  • Northerner;
  • Otradnenskaya;
  • Rogneda.

Fruits are broad-pear-shaped, medium-sized. The average weight of the fetus is 100–120 grams. The color of the main coloration is light yellow, with barely noticeable subcutaneous dots. The integumentary coloration of the thin skin is bright red in the form of a blush on the sunny side of the fruit. The stalk has a delicate rust. There are few seeds in the fruit - not more than five pieces. The pulp is juicy, tender and fine-grained. It has a pleasant sweet and sour taste and a pronounced pear aroma. Tasters rate the taste of Lada at 4.1-4.4 points.

The integumentary coloring of the thin skin of the pear Lada is bright red in the form of a blush on the sunny side of the fruit

Fruits do not tolerate transportation. Carefully selected fruits placed in ventilated boxes can be stored in the basement or in the refrigerator at 0 ° C for up to two months. Good for processing and eating fresh as desserts.

Planting pear varieties Lada

How to plant a pear Lada - yes, just like any other. First you need to find a place where the tree will feel good. To do this, you need to know that pears do not grow in wetlands, as well as in soils with close occurrence of groundwater. Soils with alkaline reaction do not suit them. Better grow on neutral or slightly acidic. It was noted that with an acidity of pH 4.2–4.4, the incidence of scab is completely absent. Soil structure is important - it must be loose and well drained. Pear needs a lot of sunlight - in the shade it will grow, but it will not bloom and bear fruit. Cold north winds do not benefit Lada. It is better if there is a natural defense from the north or northeast of it - a fence, a wall of a building or thick trees. In their absence, experienced gardeners install wooden boards painted white with lime. Painting, reflecting the sun's rays, contributes to additional lighting and heating of the young tree. A pear will grow well on a small south or southwest slope.

Pear grows well on a small slope.

The pear is planted in early spring before the onset of sap flow. In the southern regions, you can plant a pear in the autumn, but in the northern regions there is no alternative to spring planting. It is better to buy a seedling in the fall, when the nurseries are digging for sale. At this time, the best choice of planting material of any crops. You should choose a tree at the age of one to two years. Such ones transfer the transplant much better, take root faster and enter fruiting earlier. When choosing a seedling, they pay attention to the state of the root system - it should be well developed, without growths and cones. The bark should not have cracks or other damage. Leaves, if any, should be cut off.

Seedlings with a closed root system can be planted at any time - from the beginning of April to the end of October.

To save the seedling, they dig it into the ground. To do this, in the garden you need to dig a hole one meter long and a depth of 30-40 centimeters. At the bottom, a small layer of sand is poured onto which the roots of the seedling are placed. First you need to dip the roots into the talker, which is prepared from equal parts of clay and mullein with the addition of water. The consistency of the solution should resemble liquid sour cream. This treatment will not allow the roots to dry out. Sand the roots and watered. Before the onset of frost, they fill the pit with earth to the top, leaving the top of the tree outside.

Sapling for winter storage is dripped in the garden

You can also store the seedling in the basement if the temperature in it does not drop below 0 ° C and does not rise above +5 ° C. In this case, the roots also need to create a moist environment, for example, wrap them with moss and moisten.

Step-by-step instructions for planting a pear

The landing algorithm is as follows:

  1. In the fall, they prepare a landing pit. It is done like this:
    1. Dig a hole of suitable volume. On fertile lands, 60–70 centimeters deep and of the same diameter is enough. The poorer the soil, the more volume will be needed. Pits with a volume of at least one cubic meter are made on sandy soils.
    2. If the soil is heavy, clayey, a drainage layer with a thickness of 10-15 centimeters should be laid on the bottom. For this, you can use broken brick, crushed stone, expanded clay. If the soil is sandy, then a clay layer is laid at the bottom, which will retain water.

      Crushed stone can be used as drainage.

    3. Build food for the future tree. To do this, chernozem, peat, humus or compost and sand are poured into the pit (sand, of course, is excluded on sandy soils) in equal proportions.
    4. Additionally, 2-3 liters of wood ash and 300-400 grams of superphosphate are poured, after which the mixture is thoroughly mixed with a shovel or pitchfork.

      In the landing pit lay food for the future tree

    5. In order to avoid leaching of nutrients, the pit is covered with a roofing material, a film, etc.
  2. When the time has come for planting, the seedling is taken out of the storage place and inspected for safety. If he wintered well, the roots in the water are soaked for 2-3 hours. Heteroauxin, Kornevin, Epin, or other growth and root stimulants can be added to water.
  3. From the landing pit, a certain amount of land is selected so that the roots of the seedling can freely fit in the pit.
  4. A small mound is formed from friable soil in a hole. In 10-15 centimeters from the center, a peg 90-110 centimeters high is driven in.
  5. A sapling is placed on the knoll with the root neck to the top. The roots spread on the slopes.
  6. The pit is covered with earth, densifying well. It is important that as a result of this operation, the root neck is at the soil level or 2–4 centimeters higher. Deepening the root neck can lead to its digestion.

    Do not deepen the root neck, as this may lead to its digestion.

  7. A trunk circle is formed and the tree is tied to a peg. To do this, use some kind of elastic material so as not to transmit the trunk.
  8. Water the sapling with plenty of water. All soil in the planting pit should be well saturated with water for a better fit to the roots and eliminate air bubbles that inevitably form when filling.
  9. A few days later, when the soil dries and a crust begins to form, the trunk circle must be loosened and mulched. Freshly cut grass, compost, spruce branches, etc. are used as mulch.
  10. At the end of the planting, a seedling is cut to a height of 60–80 centimeters, and the branches are cut in half.

Features of cultivation and subtleties of care

It’s not difficult to grow Lada pear. Agrotechnics of caring for it is simple and does not require special knowledge. It is enough to fulfill a certain set of well-known rules.

Watering

Pear is not a drought tolerant crop and requires fairly frequent watering. On average, during the growing season, the interval between irrigation is one month. Young trees, whose root system has not yet grown and deepened, require more watering. As a rule, a pear is watered before flowering, after flowering, during the period of fruit and shoot growth, two weeks before fruit ripening, after harvesting and in autumn. Before irrigation, the root neck and the lower part of the trunk must be protected from water from entering the roller from dry ground . If this is not done, the tree may spawn. Every time you need to make sure that the depth of soil moisture is at least 25–35 centimeters. After each watering, when the soil dries, it must be loosened and mulched.

After each watering, when the soil dries, it must be loosened and mulched.

Top dressing

If the landing pit was prepared in accordance with the recommendations outlined above, then the nutrients in it should be enough for the first years of the tree's life. When the pear begins to bear fruit and food consumption increases, the plant begins to feed.

Table: types of fertilizing pears, timing and methods of application

Types of FeedingDates and frequency of applicationMethods of fertilizing and dosage
Dry organic fertilizers (compost, humus, peat)Spring or autumn, interval 3-4 yearsThe norm is 5-6 kilograms per 1 m2 of the trunk circle. Spread and dig evenly.
Liquid Organic FertilizerDuring the period of ovary formation and fruit growth, 2-3 dressings are carried out with an interval of 2-3 weeks. If there is no fruiting in the current season, then feeding is not necessary.For this top dressing, you need to prepare a concentrated infusion of organics. Take two liters of mullein, one liter of bird droppings or five kilograms of fresh grass. Pour one bucket of water and insist in a warm place for 5-10 days. After that, dilute with water in a ratio of 1 to 10 and water the tree at the rate of one bucket per square meter.
Nitrogen fertilizers (nitroammophosk, urea, ammonium nitrate, etc.)Every springThe norm is 20-30 grams per 1 m2 of the trunk circle. Spread and dig evenly.
Potash mineral fertilizers (potassium monophosphate, potassium sulfate)Annually in late May-early JuneWhen watering a tree, 10–20 grams of fertilizer is added to each bucket of water. One bucket per square meter of soil.
Phosphoric mineral fertilizers (superphosphate, supegro)Annually in late autumnThe norm is 30–40 grams per 1 m2 of the trunk circle. Spread and dig evenly.
Complex mineral fertilizers Apply according to instructions

Trimming

By pruning, they reduce the risks of diseases, increase the size of crops and the active life of the pear.

Formative pruning of Lada pear in spring, including in the suburbs

Regardless of the region of growth, the formation of the crown is designed to provide convenience of tree maintenance, harvesting, as well as good illumination of the internal space of the crown and its ventilation. The most common are the low-rise form of the crown, as well as the shape of the type of "bowl". Since the Lada crown tends to a pyramidal shape, a sparse-tier version will be more appropriate for it.

Step-by-step instructions for forming a sparse-tiered crown of a pear

This form has existed for more than a dozen years and it is not difficult to fulfill it. Formation is performed annually in early spring before the onset of sap flow.

  1. Start with pruning a seedling. This step was taken while landing.
  2. For 2-3 years after planting, all branches except two or three are cut “into the ring”. Leaves are located at different levels at a distance of 15–20 centimeters from each other. They must also grow in different directions. These are future skeletal branches of the first tier. They are shortened by 30-40%. The central conductor is also shortened. Its slice should be located above the upper branch by 20-30 centimeters.
  3. 1-2 years after the formation of the first tier, the second tier of skeletal branches is formed according to the same algorithm. By this time, branches of the second tier should already grow on the branches of the first tier. Of these, leave two pieces on each skeletal branch and shorten them by 40-50%. Extra branches are cut "into the ring."
  4. In the next 1-2 years, the third tier of skeletal branches is formed.
  5. The process is completed by trimming the central conductor above the base of the upper branch.

    The formation of a sparse-tiered crown of a pear takes 4-6 years

Adjust cropping

This pruning is designed to regulate the thickening and height of the crown. Spend it also in early spring. And since the crown of Lada is prone to thickening, then, most likely, it will have to be thinned out annually. At the same time, shoots growing inward, intersecting and interfering with ventilation and lighting of the inner space are cut. This should be done without “fanaticism”, since flower buds also form on the inner branches. Excessive thinning can lead to the loss of part of the crop. They also monitor the growth of skeletal branches, periodically shortening them, and transferring to the lateral shoot, expand or narrow the crown.

Support Crop

The purpose of this pruning is to maintain a high level of fruiting. It is carried out by the method of the so-called coinage - shortening young shoots by 10-15 centimeters. This causes their additional branching and the formation of more fruit buds, which increases the yield of next year. Coinage is carried out at the beginning of summer, when rapid growth of young shoots is observed.

Video: An interesting method of supporting pear pruning

Sanitary pruning

As a rule, they spend it in late autumn after stopping sap flow. Dry, sick, as well as damaged shoots are cut. If necessary, additional sanitary pruning can be carried out in early spring.

Cropping Rules

In order not to harm the tree, all types of pruning should be carried out in compliance with certain rules:

  • Hacksaws, secateurs, delimbers, knives used for trimming should be sharpened sharply.
  • Before starting work, the tool should be disinfected so as not to cause infection. To do this, you can apply:
    • One percent solution of copper sulfate.
    • The solution of hydrogen peroxide.
    • Alcohol.
  • Slices of whole branches are carried out by the “on the ring” method. You can not leave knots and hemp, because after drying, fungi can settle in them.
  • Thick branches should not be tried to be cut in one go - you can damage neighboring ones, as well as break out part of the bark and wood of the trunk. It is better to do this in a few tricks, cutting the branch in parts.
  • All sections, the diameter of which exceeds ten millimeters, are cleaned with a knife and covered with a layer of garden varnish or garden paint.

When choosing a garden var it is undesirable to purchase one containing petrolatum or other oil products. This can be harmful to the plant. It is better to give preference to formulations based on natural components (beeswax, lanolin).

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Diseases and Pests

Diseases and pests are much more likely to annoy those gardeners who neglect the implementation of sanitary and preventive measures.

Table: preventive and sanitary measures

What doHow doWhat are they doing forWhen do
Collect fallen leaves, weeds, plant debris. They are burned, and the ash formed in this process is stored for use as fertilizer. These measures will allow you to get rid of pests that settled in the foliage for wintering, as well as spores of various fungi that can be found in dry and diseased branches.Fall
Sanitary pruningAccording to the above rules. At the end, cut branches are burned. The ash is saved.Late fall
Whitewashing treesTrunks and thick branches are bleached with lime mortar with the addition of 1% copper sulfate. You can use special garden paints.To prevent sunburn of the bark, to disinfect it, as well as to create an obstacle for insects, which in early spring will try to climb the trunk to the crown.Autumn early spring
Digging trunk trunksCarry out as deeply as possible, with the implementation of the revolution of the earthFungal spores, weevils and other pests can winter in the soil. Once on the surface, they can die from frost, as well as from spraying with copper sulfate.Late fall
Sulphate sprayingApply a 1% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid for spraying the dug up trunks and tree crownsTo combat wintering pests and fungiLate autumn, early spring
Strong Pesticide SprayingApply
  • DNOC - once every three years;
  • Nitrafen - in other years.
For the prevention of fungal diseases and pestsIn early spring
Systemic fungicide sprayingUse drugs with a short wait time
  • Speed ​​- 20 days;
  • Chorus - 7 days;
  • Quadris - 5 days.

The drugs are addictive to fungi and after three treatments lose their effectiveness. Therefore, they should be alternated.

For the prevention of fungal diseases.The first time after flowering, then regularly with an interval of 2-3 weeks. Processing after rains is especially important, since at this time favorable conditions are created for the development of fungi.

What diseases is affected by the pear Lada

Good immunity Lada to scab and other fungal diseases in combination with ongoing preventive measures can protect the tree and the crop from trouble. But still, it will not be superfluous for the gardener to know the signs of the underlying diseases.

Moniliosis

As a rule, infection with this fungus occurs in spring during the pear flowering period. Bees and other insects that collect nectar carry fungal spores on their feet. Starting the development inside the flower, the fungus through the pestle moves into the shoot and then penetrates the leaves. These parts of the plant fade, wrinkle and then blacken. From the side it looks like a burn with flame or frost. This similarity led to the appearance of the second name of the disease - a monilial burn. When diagnosing this disease, the affected shoots should be immediately cut with the capture of 20-30 centimeters of healthy wood in order to prevent the spread of fungus. After this, a cycle of treatments with fungicides is carried out.

In the summer, the fungus affects the fruits on which gray rot appears, making them inedible. Such fruits are also subject to collection and destruction.

Moniliosis affects the fruit with gray rot

Scab

The defeat of the scab begins with the appearance on the lower side of the leaves of olive-brown spots with a velvety surface. Spreading, the scab affects the fruits on which putrefactive spots appear, the skin crackes, the flesh becomes hard. Affected fruits become unusable and must be destroyed.

Spreading the scab affects the fruit, on which putrefactive spots appear, the skin crackes, the flesh becomes hard

Soot fungus

Most often, this fungus appears in the second half of summer. It is preceded by an attack on the aphid pear, whose sweet secretions are a breeding ground for the fungus. A black coating appears on the leaves, fruits and shoots, resembling soot - hence the name of the fungus. The use of fungicides from the fungus, and insecticides from aphids will cope with the problem.

When a soot fungus is affected, a black coating appears on the leaves, fruits and shoots of the pear, resembling soot

What pests can attack a pear Lada

Resisting pear pests is easy. For this, the implementation of preventive measures is usually enough. But still the enemy is better to know in person.

Pear beetle

One of the galaxy of weevils. Winters in the soil of the near-stem circle, appearing from a pupa in late summer. Если ему ничего не помешает, то с наступлением весны, когда почва начнёт прогреваться, выползет на поверхность и поднимется на крону дерева. Там он приступает к питанию, а первую очередь выедает цветочные почки, которые после этого уже не распустятся. Далее, он станет питаться цветками, которые всё же распустились, листьями, завязями и кончиками молодых побегов. В начальный период можно собрать основную массу жуков вручную. Для этого рано утром, когда воздух ещё не прогрелся и температура не превысила +5 °C, выходят в сад и расстилают под деревом ткань или плёнку. При такой температуре жуки находятся в спящем состоянии и сидят на ветках оцепеневшие. Остаётся стряхнуть их с веток и уничтожить. Дальнейшая борьба осуществляется с применением инсектицидов, например, Децис, Фуфанон, Искра-Био и др.

При низкой температуре цветоед сидит на ветке в оцепенении

Pear moth

Это невзрачная бабочка, которая откладывает яйца на почве приствольных кругов. Из них появляются гусеницы, которые впоследствии заползают по стволу на крону и проникают в плоды, повреждая их и делая несъедобными. Предотвращают эту неприятность установленные весной ловчие пояса, известковая побелка штамбов и обработки фунгицидами.

Эта невзрачная бабочка способна погубить урожай груш

Aphid

Как уже упоминалось выше, тля в процессе жизнедеятельности выделяет сахаристую жидкость, которой любят питаться муравьи. Они заносят тлю на кроны деревьев, где и расселяют её на листьях. Методы борьбы очевидны — создать преграды для муравьёв, а также обработать крону инсектицидами.

Муравьи любят лакомиться сладкими выделениями тли

Reviews

Характеристика Лада соответствует, я с вами согласен. Хочу дополнить по срокам созревает у меня 20 ИЮЛЯ. Затем начинают работать осы. подвой ВА-29 Начали плодоносить на 3 году посадки.

Ерамасов Виталий, Воронеж

Re: Лада Цитата: Сообщение от Oksana1 Посмотреть сообщение А какая груша по вкусу? Указанная дегустационная оценка 4, 1–4, 4 балла не сильно вдохновляет По вкусу груша хорошая, но стоит ее несколько дней передержать на дереве- становится по вкусу как картошка(.

Anona, Московская область

Самое большое достоинство Лады- это её раннее поспевание. В этом (16 году) желтеть — поспевать начала 20 июля.С 1 августа полное поспевание.Не одновременно и растянуто недели на 2–3.Как раз груши заканчиваются к поспеванию Чижёвской.Собрал урожай с дерева 10 августа. Пока груша не стала мягкой — она очень вкусная.В этом году немного паршой поражалась, но не критически. Других, более ранних сортов у меня пока нет, да и я не знаю такие. Поэтому Ладу лучше иметь, чем без неё. Рекомендую.Отличная морозоустойчивость, ежегодная плодовитость.

Марш, Московская обл.

По поводу сортов груши. В связи с потеплением климата ( имеется ввиду лето) груша Лада это бестолковая груша в одни выходные есть нельзя твердая не созрела, приезжаешь в следующие выходные валяется на земле перезрела и есть невозможно, разве что свиней кормить.Да и будут ли они её есть.

Владимир из Н.Новгорода

По поводу Лады, в 2002 году в момент закладки плодового сада, никого не слушая, кроме авторитетной литературы остановилась именно на этом сорте. Сейчас, ни в коем разе не рассматривала бы этот сорт даже в качестве прививки. Чижевская во сто крат вкуснее и зимостойкость выше. Сейчас именно этот сорт в любимцах, со стабильным плодоношением из года в год, наблюдаю в саду за забором у соседки(соседка при подходе к выбору сорта груши, доверяла не литературе, а мнению садоводов-опытников). Я выкорчевала Ладу в этом году, а прививки Чижевской у меня на 2-х деревьях. По поводу Береженой, личных впечатлений нет. Учитывая длительный опыт общения на данном форуме, и отзывы по сорту отдельных форумчан, мнению которых доверяю, отказалась бы от идеи заводить этот сорт.

Алина, Московская обл.

Сорт груши Лада обладает множеством неоспоримых преимуществ. Незначительные недостатки легко преодолимы и не станут камнем преткновения при выборе этого сорта. Садоводам Средней полосы, а также Восточной Сибири можно с уверенностью рекомендовать эту грушу к выращиванию.

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