Pear Just Maria - Not Just a Variety
Pear Just Maria is quite widely known in Belarus and Russia. A young and promising variety has won a considerable market share among a huge number of pear varieties. What properties contributed to this, what is just Mary and how to grow it.
Description of the variety and its full characteristics
Pear variety Just Maria was singled out at the Belarusian Institute for Fruit Growing in 1996, and in 2005 was transferred to state variety testing. It was included in the State Register in 2013 in the Central Region.
The tree is medium-sized, fast-growing. By the age of ten, the height reaches three meters. The crown is wide-pyramidal, with a diameter of up to 2.5 meters, density is medium. Fruiting mixed type - most of the fruits are formed on the ringworms and spears. Winter hardiness is high. Frost resistance - up to -38 ° C. After freezing, the plants recover quite quickly and give good yields ranging from 40 to 70 kilograms per tree. It’s just that Mary is resistant to scab, bacterial cancer and septoria. Infertility is 3-4 years after planting. Partially self-fertile, therefore, the maximum number of fruits can be achieved by placing nearby pear varieties such as Pamyat Yakovlev, Koschia, Duchesse, and others that coincide in terms of flowering. Late maturity is October-November.
The fruits are pear-shaped and have an average weight of 180 grams. They can grow up to 220 grams, sometimes more. During the harvesting period, their color is light yellow, with a light pink tan in a small area. Numerous subcutaneous dots of green are clearly visible. The skin is delicate, thin, smooth, glossy. No rust and roughness. The pulp is medium-dense, yellowish-white, juicy, fine-grained, sour-sweet, pleasant taste. Tasters rated 4.8 points; according to gardeners, Mary simply deserves a higher rating. And also many believe that the taste of its fruits exceeds the well-known industrial standards of Europe such as Williams, Bere Bosque and others. Appointment of fruits - dessert. When removing slightly overripe fruits from a tree, transportability and keeping quality are good. In the refrigerator, the fruits can lie until January, gradually ripening.
The fruits of Just Mary have a pear shape and an average weight of 180 grams
Advantages and disadvantages
Summarizing, we can highlight the main qualities of the pear Just Maria. Its advantages:
- Early maturity.
- Winter hardiness.
- Frost resistance.
- Immunity to underlying diseases.
- Presentation and taste of the fruit.
- Short tree growth.
Deficiencies could not be found.
Video: Just Maria Pear Harvest Review
Planting a Just Mary Pear
To plant a pear, you first need to find a suitable place for it. Only by creating favorable conditions for the life of a tree can we expect high and stable yields from it. A pear does not like cold northerly winds, drafts and deep shadows. At all, she will refuse to grow in swampy and flooded places, and on soils with a high alkaline reaction she will hurt.
The best results can be achieved by planting Just Mary on a small slope of the south or south-west direction with natural protection from the north or northeast in the form of a building wall, fence or thick trees. In the absence of such protection, it is possible for the first time to install special shields painted in white. This color reflects the sun's rays and creates additional heating and better lighting of the crown. The soil needs loose, well-drained soil with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. The pH level can be in the range of 5.5–6, but possibly 4.2–4.4. In the latter case, as noted by some sources, the incidence of scab is practically excluded.
It is good if from the north or northeast from the planting site there are thick trees that protect the young tree from cold winds
Although you can plant a pear in the autumn, but in this case there is a high risk that a weakly rooted tree will not tolerate winter frosts poorly. This is especially critical for the northern regions. Therefore, early spring planting is recommended when the buds have not yet blossomed and sap flow has not begun.
It is advisable to purchase a seedling in the fall - at this time there is a massive digging of them in nurseries, which leads to a large selection of varied, high-quality planting material. The age of the seedling should not exceed two years, it is better, even if it is annual. Such an age is optimal for the survival of a tree. It will quickly grow and earlier bear fruit. When buying, they examine the condition of the seedling - its roots must be healthy, well developed, without growths and cones. The bark is clean, smooth, without cracks and damage.
When buying, they examine the condition of the seedling - its roots must be healthy, well developed, without growths and cones
So that the seedling is well preserved until spring, it should be dug in the garden. To do this, dig a small hole 30–40 centimeters deep and about a meter long. A small layer of sand is poured to the bottom, the tree is laid with roots on the bottom, with a crown on the edge of the pit, the roots are sprinkled with sand and watered. First, the roots need to be dipped in a clay mash with the addition of mullein and water. This will prevent them from drying out. With the onset of the first frosts, the pit is covered with earth to the top, leaving the upper ends of the branches on the surface.
So that the seedling is well preserved until spring, it should be dug in the garden
If there is a basement or cellar, the temperature of which is maintained in the range from 0 ° C to +5 ° C, then you can save the seedling in them. Just do not forget that the roots need a moist environment, so they cover them with moss or sawdust, moisturize and place a plastic bag. In the package you need to make several small holes for ventilation. After that, you can begin to carry out planting activities.
Step-by-step instructions for planting a pear Just Maria
Pear planting is carried out according to the well-known algorithm:
- In the fall, you should prepare a pit for planting the future tree. For this:
- It is necessary to dig a hole with a diameter of 0.7-0.8 meters and the same depth. If the soil in this place is poor, you should increase the size of the pit. On sandy soils, they can reach one meter deep and a half meters in diameter, and some make them even larger.
- At the bottom of the pit dug on heavy soils, a drainage layer should be laid to drain excess water. The thickness of this layer is 10-15 centimeters. For this, crushed stone, gravel, expanded clay, broken brick, etc. are used. If the soil is sandy, instead of drainage, a clay layer is laid to hold water.
- The pit should be filled with a loose nutrient mixture consisting of equal parts of humus, peat, chernozem and sand.
- Add 2-3 liters of wood ash, 300-400 grams of superphosphate and mix well.
- Cover the pit with roofing material or other waterproof material. This is done so that spring melt water does not leach nutrients.
- In the spring, just before planting, you need to get and inspect the seedling. After making sure that he wintered normally, his roots should be soaked for several hours in water with the addition of root formation stimulants. It can be Kornevin, Epin, Heteroauxin and others.
- Open the landing pit and take out part of the soil from it, so that a small hole is formed, sufficient to accommodate the roots.
Sapling roots should fit freely in the planting pit
- A small knoll is poured in the middle, and at a distance of 10-15 centimeters from the center a peg is driven in, one meter high from the soil surface.
- The seedling is lowered into the hole, placing the root neck on the top, and the roots on the slopes of the mound.
- They fill the pit with earth and ram it. It is better to do this in layers.
- Make sure that the root neck as a result is not buried. Let it be located above the soil level by 3-5 centimeters. In the future, when the soil settles, the neck will drop to ground level - this is necessary.
- Tie a tree to a peg with any elastic material. It is impossible to squeeze the trunk.
- A trunk circle is formed around the seedling by creating an earthen roller along the diameter of the landing pit. It is convenient to do this with a plane cutter or chopper.
- Water the tree abundantly, moistening the entire volume of the pit well. As a result, the soil should adhere well to the roots, and the sinuses should be eliminated.
Water the tree abundantly, moistening the entire volume of the pit well
- After the earth dries, it should be loosened and mulched with freshly cut grass, rotted sawdust, pine needles, etc.
After watering, the soil should be mulched.
- The last stage of planting is pruning a seedling to a height of 60–80 centimeters. If there are branches - they are shortened by a third.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
In order for the tree to bear fruit in time and give regular, large yields, the main stages of care should be performed.
A pear tree, especially a young one, needs regular watering. Proceed to them in the spring, before flowering begins. Subsequently, watered with an interval of 3-5 weeks, depending on weather conditions. Watering should not be superficial; the soil should be moistened to a depth of 30-40 centimeters. After the soil has dried, the near-stem circle should be loosened. It is also desirable to cover it with a layer of mulch, this will prevent the soil from drying out quickly and reduce the need for watering. As mulch, humus, compost, rotted sawdust, hay, etc. are used.
For the growth of a young tree, the nutrition that was laid in the planting pit is quite enough. Deficiency will begin to be felt when the tree enters the fruiting season. From this time on, feeds become regular and balanced.
Table: types of fertilizing pears, timing and methods of application
|Name||Application Dates||Methods of application and dosage|
|Organic fertilizer dressing|
|Compost, humus or grass peat||Spring. The interval is 3-4 years.||For digging, consumption - 5-6 kg / m2|
|Liquid Organic Infusions||Start at the beginning of the growth of the fruit, then another 2-3 times with an interval of 2-3 weeks||A concentrated infusion is prepared. For this, two liters of mullein, one liter of bird droppings or five kilograms of fresh grass are poured with a bucket of water and insisted in a warm place for one week. Filter and dilute with water in a ratio of 1 to 10. For irrigation, spend one bucket per square meter.|
|Nitrogen (urea, ammonium nitrate, niroammofoska)||Spring. Annually.||For digging, consumption - 20-30 g / m2|
|Potash (potassium sulfate, potassium monophosphate)||Early summer||Dissolved with water during irrigation, consumption - 10–20 g / m2|
|Phosphoric (superphosphate)||Fall. Annually.||For digging, consumption - 30–40 g / m2|
|Complex mineral fertilizers are used according to the attached instructions|
An important stage of agricultural technology aimed at maintaining the optimal dimensions of the crown, its thickening and fruitfulness.
Pear Just Maria has a low tree, for which the formation of the crown according to the type of "bowl" is more acceptable. This form provides good illumination of the internal volume of the crown and its ventilation. It is also convenient to look after such a crown and harvest.
Step-by-step instructions for forming the crown of a pear as an improved "bowl"
This operation is performed in early spring, before the sap flow begins. How to do it:
- The first step - pruning a seedling, was performed during planting.
- After one or two years, three or four branches growing in different directions are selected on the trunk. And also they should be spaced along the height of the barrel with an interval of 15–20 centimeters. These are future skeletal branches. They should be shortened by 30%.
- All other branches are cut "into the ring."
- The central conductor is cut off over the base of the upper branch.
- After one or two years, two branches of the second order are selected on each skeletal branch. They should be on the upper side of the skeletal branch. The distance between the branches of the second order is chosen equal to 50-60 centimeters. They are cut off by 30-40%.
- In the future, they make sure that none of the branches becomes dominant and does not take on the role of the central conductor. This is done by shortening the branches, maintaining their equal length.
The crown formed by the type of improved “bowl” can withstand large crop loads
Regulation of crown thickening is carried out in early spring, by cutting "on the ring" part of the shoots growing inside the crown and thickening it. It is not necessary to thin out the crown excessively, as this will lose part of the crop.
To maintain high yields, young green shoots are shortened by 10-12 centimeters at the beginning of summer. This causes their additional branching, new gloves and spear grow on which flower buds are laid. This technique is called coinage.
It is carried out in the late autumn, when the sap flow is stopped. Dry, diseased and injured branches are cut “into the ring”. According to the results of winter, additional early spring pruning of frozen or broken branches may be required.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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In order for the tree to tolerate the operation of pruning branches well, their behavior must be guided by certain rules:
- The tool must be intact and sharpened.
The cutting tool must be sharpened sharply
- Before use, the tool is disinfected using hydrogen peroxide, alcohol or 1% solution of copper sulfate. Do not use gasoline, kerosene, solvent or other petroleum products.
- When pruning branches, you can not leave hemp and knots. They subsequently dry, nourish moisture, and create a favorable environment for the development of fungi.
- If necessary, cut a thick branch, this should be done in parts, in a few tricks. This will avoid damage to neighboring branches.
- After trimming, all sections, the diameter of which is more than ten millimeters, should be cleaned with a knife and covered with a layer of garden varnish or garden paint.
When choosing a garden var, one should give preference to one that is made on the basis of natural materials, such as lanolin, beeswax, etc. A garden var on the basis of petrolatum or other oil products is harmful to the plant.
Diseases and Pests
High immunity Just Mary to major diseases allows a diligent gardener to do only preventive measures.
Table: basic measures for the prevention of diseases and pests of pears
|Events||Scope of work||Dates||Achieved effect|
|The fallen leaves, weeds, etc. are collected and burned. The resulting ash is used as fertilizer.||November||Wintering pests and spores of fungal pathogens are destroyed|
|Sanitary pruning followed by burning cut branches||November, March|
|Lime whitewash tree||The stem and skeletal branches are bleached with lime mortar with the addition of 1% copper sulfate||November||Disinfection of the surface of the cortex, obstruction of the movement of insects on the crown|
|Digging of trunks on a bayonet of a shovel with a flip of layers of earth||November||Wintering pests rise to the surface, which are then affected by frost and (or) treatment with copper sulfate|
|Blue vitriol treatment||Sprayed soil and crown with 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid||November, March||Disinfection and prevention of fungi and insects|
|Installation of hunting belts||A tree trunk at a height of 50-60 centimeters is wrapped with a strip of roofing material, a thick film, etc. The upper edge is wound, and the lower edge is straightened in the shape of a cone.||March||Prevents the movement of pests to the crown|
|Pesticide Treatment||Sprayed with DNOC once every three years, Nitrafen - in the remaining years||March||It has an effective effect on all known fungi and insects.|
|Systemic fungicide treatment||Apply such tested drugs: ||The first time after flowering, then during the season with an interval of 2-3 weeks.||Effective prevention of all fungal diseases.|
In raw years, in violation of the rules for the implementation of preventive measures, the occurrence of fungal diseases is possible.
Moniliosis (monilial burn, fruit rot)
This fungus affects almost all stone fruit and pome crops. Infection usually occurs in the spring, when bees collect nectar from flowers and spread spores of the pathogen on its paws. The defeat begins with a flower, then the fungus penetrates into the shoots and further into the leaves. Drooping and blackened shoots look charred. If such signs are found, the affected shoots should be cut with a portion of healthy wood 2-30 cm long.
In the summer, the fungus infects the fruits with gray rot, after which they become unusable. Such fruits should also be collected and destroyed. Timely and regular fungicide treatments prevent the disease.
In summer, moniliosis affects pear fruit with fruit rot.
It is unlikely that the gardener will have to deal with this disease if he has taken preventative measures. But the signs of the disease will not hurt to know. Usually it begins with the appearance on the underside of the leaves of velvety spots of olive color. Then it spreads to the fruits, forming putrefactive spots on them, cracks in the skin and hardening of the pulp. Such fruits will no longer ripen and are unsuitable for food. They should be collected and destroyed, and the crown treated with fungicides.
The scab on the leaves of the pear forms spots of olive color, spreading to the fruit, covers them with putrid spots and cracks
Usually this fungus appears after the aphid. Its sweet secretions are a breeding ground for the fungus. The defeat looks like a black coating on the leaves and fruits, resembles soot. First of all, it is necessary to fight with aphids, and the fungus is destroyed by fungicides.
The defeat of a pear with a sooty fungus looks like a black coating on the leaves and fruits, resembles soot
Insecticides, for example, Decis, Fufanon, Spark, Spark-Bio help fight pests.
Usually settles on the back of the leaves, as well as on young shoots. As a rule, it enters the tree with the help of ants, which carry it and then feed on sweet secretions.
As a rule, the aphid tree enters with the help of ants, which bring it in and then feed on sweet secretions
Like other moths, this gray butterfly lays eggs in the soil of trunks. Crawling caterpillars crawl onto the crown and penetrate the fruits.
Pear moth lays eggs in the soil
Representative of a fairly large number of weevils. Winters in the soil. With the onset of spring, the soil begins to warm up and the beetles crawl out, climb a tree and begin to eat away the inside of the fruit and growth buds. At this time, you can take advantage of the feature of beetles to be in a state of stupor at low temperatures. In the morning, when it is still cold and the air has not warmed above +5 ° C, you need to spread a cloth or film under a tree and shake off the beetles. Insecticide treatment will complete the process.
Pear flowering eater eats flower contents
Just Maria Sort of selection of BelNIIP. Autumn ripening, winter-hardy, fruitful. The tree is medium-sized, a crown of medium density, wide-pyramidal. Relatively resistant to scab, septoria and bacterial cancer. Enters fruiting in the 3rd year, fruiting mixed, regular. Fruits are large (180-190 g), pear-shaped. The main color is light yellow, integumentary pink in the form of a light tan. The skin is smooth, shiny. The flesh is yellowish, tender, oily. Tasting taste assessment - 4.8 points. Frost resistance -38 degrees. The term of consumption is October-November.
I’ve just been Maria for 7 years, I can’t say anything good, every year the whole ovary is dumped by a separate tree, the flowers are very sensitive to spring frost, for example, this year it’s a full 0, although there will be a red Williams grafted into Yurathe’s crown with the crop. It’s nothing special to taste, it loses to confessions and williams, in my opinion it is lusciously sweet, the fruits are big, beautiful, yes, but they are very small, they quickly over-ripen, in general I will re-brew, the variety is not for everyone
Re: Just Maria. I have so far 5 years. И два года, что должен был быть урожай (цветочные почки явно отличались от обычных) сплошной нол. В прошлом году завязавшиеся плоды потрескались и сгнили. Это весьма странно. В этом году выжила только одна набухшая почка (в марте +8, в начале апреля заморозки -7), и ту заморозок заставил осыпатся. Но растет что сумасшедшая. Посмотрим на следующий год.
У меня растет сорт Мария. Привита на айву. Дерево слаборослое, с компактной кроной, плоды хранятся довольно долго. Вкус тоже нравится. Ничем особо не болеет. Стандартные обработки. Позднезимняя груша. Сорт Просто Мария — это осеннего срока созревания, белорусской селекции.
У сорта груши Просто Мария много достоинств и практически отсутствуют недостатки. Может выращиваться как в приусадебном садоводстве, так и в фермерских садах. Представляет коммерческий интерес. Вкусом конкурирует с европейскими эталонными сортами. Однозначно может быть рекомендована для выращивания во многих районах Средней полосы.