Pear Diseases and Pests: Prevention and Control
Pears are often susceptible to disease and pest attacks. To overcome such problems, the gardener must know the signs of the underlying diseases, the appearance of the pests, the consequences of their attack. And also knowledge of prevention and methods of dealing with these troubles is needed.
Pear Diseases: Description, Prevention and Treatment
To a large extent, the gardener will get rid of the problems associated with pear diseases and possible pests if he regularly and systematically performs sanitary and preventive measures.
Table: Pear Garden Prevention
|Scope of work||Deadlines||What effect is achieved|
|Collect fallen leaves, weeds, dry branches. They are burned, and the ash formed in this process is used as fertilizer.||In autumn, after leaf fall||Fungal spores and wintering pests are destroyed|
|Deeply dig or plow the soil of the trunks with simultaneous flipping of the earth||In late autumn, before the onset of the first frosts. At the same time, pests wintering in the soil rise to the surface and die from frost.|
|Inspection of the cortex and treatment of cracks when they are detected. This is done by cleaning the damaged areas and cracks to a healthy bark and wood, followed by treatment with fungicides and applying a protective layer from the garden vare.||Fall||Prevention of black cancer, cytosporosis and other diseases|
|Whitewashing trunks and skeletal branches with lime mortar or special garden paint. In order for whitewashing not to be washed off, silicate glue or PVA glue is added to it.||Protection of the bark from sunburn, the destruction of spores of fungi located in cracks of the bark.|
|Processing of soil and crown with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture.||Late autumn and early spring||Prevention of fungal diseases and pests|
|Treatment of the crown with potent universal pesticides. For this, DNOC is used once every three years, and Nitrafen in the remaining years.||In early spring|
|Installation of hunting belts on tree trunks||Creating a barrier for beetles, ants, caterpillars|
|Regular treatments with systemic fungicides. Proceed to them immediately after flowering, then spend at intervals of 2-3 weeks. Due to the fact that such drugs are addictive, you can use each of them no more than three times per season. Before harvesting, drugs with a short waiting period are used.||Prevention and treatment of all types of fungal diseases|
|Insecticide treatments begin during the period of swelling of the flower buds. At this time, you can use Decis, Fufanon. After flowering is complete, Spark Bio, Bitoxibacillin, Biotlin, Fitoverm and others are used.||The destruction of various butterflies, caterpillars, bugs|
Fungicides - drugs to combat fungal diseases of plants.
Insecticides are drugs for controlling insect pests.
Acaricides are tick control drugs.
Pesticides are the generic name for these drugs.
This fungal disease has a second name - white spotting of a pear. It usually appears after flowering in the form of small grayish-white spots on the leaves and fruits. By mid-summer, in conditions of high humidity, the disease reaches its peak in development. By this time, the size of the spots increases to two millimeters, in rare cases - up to four millimeters. Framing of spots is barely noticeable, has a brown or brownish tint. The leaves turn yellow and dry out, which causes their premature discharge. As a result, growth is weakened, winter hardiness of the tree is reduced, the quality of fruits is deteriorated and productivity is reduced. Fungal spores are usually stored in fallen leaves, so they should be collected and burned.
The second name for Septoria is pear spotting.
If signs of septoria are detected, fungicides are treated. You can use the well-known and tested Chorus, which is a systemic drug. This means that its active substance penetrates into the plant and after 2-3 hours it is impossible to wash it off. The drug continues to act for 7-10 days, after which the treatment is repeated. In just one season, you can carry out up to three treatments. Further, due to the addiction of the fungus to the drug, the effectiveness of the treatments is sharply reduced. Chorus works well at temperatures from +3 ° C to +22 ° C. For spraying pears, 2 grams of the drug are diluted in 10 liters of water. Not phytotoxic, safe for bees. The waiting period for eating fruits is 14 days. The drug is effective against a number of fungal diseases, including scab, moniliosis, rot, spotting, rust, etc. The disadvantage of the drug is that it is effective only on young leaves and shoots. It penetrates worse into coarser tissues, which limits its use.
Chorus fungicide is effective against most fungal pathogens
Another effective drug is Skor. It is also a systemic drug with a wide spectrum of action, which can be used at any stage of pear development. It is effective at an early stage of infection - no later than 2-3 days after ingestion of fungal spores. It begins to act after 2-3 hours after treatment and maintains a preventive effect for 6-7 days. A solution for pear treatments is done immediately before use, using 2 grams of the drug per 10 liters of water. Most effective in the temperature range of 14-25 ° C. The waiting period is 20 days. Not toxic to humans. The number of treatments is 3.
Skor - a broad-spectrum systemic drug
The most effective drug is Strobi (Kresoxim-methyl). Its action is local-systemic. It not only quickly stops the development of the disease, but also blocks the development of fungal spores. This allows the drug to be used in the later stages of the development of the disease and prevents the further propagation of the pathogen. The effectiveness of the protective effect lasts for two weeks, in severe cases - one week. Similarly to the previous preparations for the working solution, take 2 grams of strobes per 10 liters of water. Nontoxic to humans, harmless to bees. The waiting period is 20 days. The number of treatments is 3.
Strobi is one of the most effective anti-fungal drugs.
Fungal disease, which affects pears and apple trees. May affect leaves and fruits. Usually at first red-brown spots form on them, which after a while become depressed. Then the fruits turn black, wrinkle and mummify. But still, the fungus mainly affects the bark of the tree and this is the most dangerous manifestation of the disease. After wintering in the cracks and roughnesses of the cortex, spores develop, and indented spots of brown-violet color appear on the cortex. Then these spots grow in concentric rings. After this, the affected areas crack and blacken, the branches become as if charred, and a lot of small black tubercles form on them. These are the so-called pycnids, inside of which there are spores of the fungus.
Pycnidia, pycnidia (from other Greek. Πυκνός - dense, dense) - the fruiting body of conidial sporulation of fungi, found in rust and marsupials, as well as in lichens.
The bark begins to tuberize, the lesion grows and rings a branch or trunk. At this stage, the tree is no longer saved and destroyed. If the disease is detected at an early stage, it is treated by cleaning the diseased bark and wood with the capture of healthy parts. Then the wound is treated with fungicides and covered with garden varieties or natural drying oil. Some gardeners for the treatment of black cancer recommend the use of a solution of copper naphthenate (20 parts) in kerosene (80 parts). The most effective drug is Strobi, which can be alternated with Horus.
In places of defeat by black cancer, the cortex is tuberous, the lesion grows and rings a branch or trunk
This disease is most common in areas with a humid climate, as well as in other areas in rainy years. The best temperature for the development of the fungus is +25 ° C. Under favorable conditions, the degree of damage to trees reaches 100%. The spores of the pathogen winter in the cracks of the bark and fallen leaves. The disease usually begins in the spring when round brown-olive spots form on the underside of the leaves. In the future, spots grow, darken and spread to flowers, ovaries, fruits. Putrid spots and cracks appear on the affected fruits, the flesh beneath them becomes hard, stony. You can get rid of scab in the garden by regularly performing preventive work using fungicides, as well as growing pear varieties that are resistant to this disease. Some of them: Marble, Lada, Chizhovskaya, Moscow, Moskvichka, Severyanka, Thumbelina, Veles and others. The methods for controlling scab and the drugs used are the same as in the case of Septoria.
Putrid spots and cracks appear on the affected fruits, the flesh beneath them becomes hard, stony
Orange spots on pear leaves
Most likely, the pear is affected by rust. This disease is caused by a fungus that grows and develops on juniper bushes. It has a two year life cycle. In the first year, the disease progresses on the juniper, forming swelling and sagging on the branches. In the spring, spores are carried by the wind and, falling on a pear, the disease already affects it. Next spring, pear spores fall on the juniper and the cycle repeats.
On a pear, the disease manifests itself in spring immediately after flowering. The leaves are covered with small greenish-yellow spots, which by the middle of summer acquire a “rusty” color. Dense nipple growths are formed on the underside of the leaf, inside of which are spores of the fungus.
By the middle of summer, spots become “rusty”.
The areas where rust is most likely to occur are the Black Sea zone of the Krasnodar Territory and Crimea. Here the defeat in some years reaches 50-100%.
It is clear that when growing pears it is better to avoid the neighborhood with juniper. But, since it is a fairly common ornamental plant, to observe this is not always possible. Therefore, in such cases, preventive maintenance should be carefully performed not only on the pear, but also on the juniper.
If signs of the disease are detected, spraying of the crown with fungicides should be carried out with an interval of 7-10 days. The most effective at the same time Skor, Strobi, Abiga-Peak. The latter is a solution of a 40% solution of copper oxychloride and is also effective against many fungal diseases - rust, moniliosis, scab, spotting, etc. It contains adhesives that prevent the preparation from being washed off by rain. Low hazard for bees and earthworms, does not affect the quality of the soil, as well as the taste of the fruit. For spraying on 10 liters of water spend 40-50 grams of the drug. The duration of the therapeutic effect is 2-3 weeks. You can carry out up to four treatments per season.
Abiga Peak is effective against many fungal diseases
Video: rust control on pear leaves
Leaves and fruits turn black: causes and methods of control
Blackening can be caused by several reasons.
Moniliosis (monilial burn)
Spores of this fungus are usually carried by bees during the flowering of a pear. Starting the development in flowers, the fungus penetrates through the pestle into the shoot, then into the leaves. The affected parts of the pear will fade, then blacken and look as if burnt. Such shoots should be immediately cut with a piece of healthy wood to stop the spread of the disease . And of course, a fungicide treatment cycle should be carried out. The first treatment can be carried out immediately after trimming the affected parts of the tree. If flowering has not yet ended at this time, use Horus, which does not harm the bees. Two more treatments are carried out with an interval of 7-10 days. You can apply Strobi, Skor, Abiga Peak.
With moniliosis, leaves and shoots look burnt
In the summer, moniliosis causes damage to the fruit with gray (fruit) rot. Affected fruits, leaves, shoots are removed and destroyed, after which 2-3 treatments with Strobi fungicide are carried out. And also recently, the biological fungicide Fitosporin-M, which contains live spores and cells of soil bacteria that are in a sleeping state, is gaining popularity. When the substance is soaked, the bacteria become active and begin to feed. As a result, the growth and reproduction of pathogens and fungal spores is suppressed. The use of Fitosporin eliminates the problems of infection in the early stages. In advanced cases, chemistry is indispensable. You can use the biological product throughout the growing season for all plants in the garden. The interval is 2 weeks, in rainy weather - 1 week. The drug is released in powder or in the form of a paste. For pear treatments, dissolve 5 grams of powder or 3 teaspoons of paste in 10 liters of water. The use of Fitosporin increases productivity and significantly increases the shelf life of fruits.
Fitosporin-M - biological fungicide
Bacterial burn (bacteriosis)
This disease is caused by the defeat of the Erwinia Amilovora bacterium and is spread worldwide. The onset of the disease is characterized by a blackening of inflorescences that dry up, but do not fall. Following them, leaves and branches turn black, then the trunk. Blackening moves from the top of the tree to the base. As a result, the tree dies. Although this disease does not apply to fungal infections, fungicides (especially Strobi), copper sulfate and Bordeaux liquid are effective for prevention. For treatment, antibiotic treatments are used, dissolving 1 thousand units of the active substance in 10 liters of water. Such drugs can be used: gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, rifampicin, chloramphenicol and others. Affected branches are removed and burned.
Inflorescences affected by a bacterial burn, ovaries, leaves turn black, dry out, but do not fall
Video: pear treatment for bacterial burn and scab
This fungus appears on the leaves of a pear, as a rule, after an aphid or tormentor attack on it. It is their sweetish discharge (honey dew) that is the breeding ground for the fungus. A soot fungus can be recognized by a black soot-like coating on the leaves. Being, in fact, the excrement of the fungus, this coating is easily erased from the surface of the sheet. Affected pear fruits become unfit for human consumption.
Pear fruit affected by soot fungus become unfit for food
The fight against aphids and tinkers will simultaneously save the gardener from soot fungus. If the defeat has already occurred, you can first well wash off the soot deposits from the leaves with a strong jet of water from the hose, and then carry out 2-3 treatments with Skor or Strobi.
Pear Pests: Representatives and Pest Control
The pear has quite a few possible pests. To avoid their attacks, as well as reduce possible damage, is possible only if the preventive measures described at the beginning of the previous section are carried out.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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How to get rid of ants
By themselves, ants do not harm plants, although some species still feed on leaves and berries. The main problem they create is aphids. In the process of life, these insects secrete a sugary liquid, for the sake of which ants spread aphids on the crowns of trees and shrubs, in order to subsequently receive a coveted treat from it. For this reason, one should get rid of ants on the site. There are many methods to achieve the goal. Radical are:
- Destruction of insects by insecticides - Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Antimurave and others.
- Boric acid paralyzes the nervous system of insects. Apply the bait in the form of pieces of sugar soaked in this tool.
- Pouring boiling water over an anthill.
- Processing anthill with kerosene.
But there are many more humane folk remedies:
- In the evening, when the ants fall asleep, simply shift the anthill with a shovel into a bucket and remove it from the site.
- Plant plants on the site, the smell of which repels ants. For example, anise, wormwood, garlic, parsley, oregano, wild mint.
- You can scare away ants with rags soaked in kerosene, carbolic acid, bleach.
- You can block the way to the crown of the tree by setting an hunting belt.
- If the lower part of the trunk is greased with hemp oil, this will also stop the ants.
Located on the underside of pear leaves and feeds on their juice. Over time, the leaves curl into a tube. Also, aphids can affect young shoots, flowers and ovaries. Having driven ants out of the garden, the gardener also gets rid of aphids. In addition, you can plant on a plot of calendula. This flower attracts ladybugs, who readily feed on aphids.
Aphids settle on the underside of leaves and also on the tips of young shoots
If aphids are found on the leaves of a pear, try to cut them off as much as possible. After this, the crown should be treated with insecticides. German decis copes with aphids perfectly. It begins to act within 50 minutes and within ten hours after processing, the aphid will be finished. It retains a protective effect for 2-3 weeks. Effective against almost all types of insects. It is used at any time during the growing season, the waiting period is three weeks. Allowed 2-3 processing.
Another effective drug is Fitoverm. Its peculiarity is its effectiveness in hot weather. In cold weather, it is better not to use it. The damaging effect extends to aphids, codling moths, whiteflies, leafworms, ticks and other pests. It starts after 12 hours, after devouring the treated leaves by the pest. A paralyzed insect dies 72 hours after eating poisoned food. It does not affect pest larvae, therefore, for complete destruction, repeated processing is required. For processing pears, one milliliter of Fitoverm is used per liter of water.
Fitoverm used in hot weather
Biological product Spark The double effect is an effective and safe means of combating not only aphids, but also with a flower eater, moth, leafworm, etc. The drug is non-phytotoxic, safe for humans, animals, bees, fish. For ten liters of water, 10 ml of the product is used during processing. The waiting period is 7 days.
Biological product Spark Double effect is an effective and safe means of combating not only aphids, but also with a flower eater, moth, leafworm
There are many popular methods of fighting aphids. But before using them, you need to know that they are not aimed at extermination, but at scaring away the pest.
- 300 grams of ash are boiled in ten liters of water for half an hour. Before processing, add 40 grams of planed laundry soap.
- 2 tablespoons of ammonia per bucket of water have a similar effect.
- There are many plants, infusions of which repel aphids:
- Red pepper;
- potatoes and many others.
- To combat aphids, tobacco dust is effectively used, which is poured with water in a ratio of 1 to 10 and insisted for 48 hours. After that, dilute with water 1 to 3 and spray the pear.
This small jumping insect no more than three millimeters in length brings many problems to gardeners in different countries of the world. Able to fly and jump. Due to its latest quality, it is sometimes called leaf-leaf. In Russian gardens, the most common are spotted and red tinkers. Especially massive their appearance is observed after a warm winter. Wintering in the cracks of the bark, as well as in fallen leaves, in early spring, the insect is located on the upper ends of young shoots, feeds on their juice, and also extracts juice from buds, buds, flowers, leaves, ovaries and fruits. As a result, the affected leaves and ovaries fall, the fruits become hard, stony, small. We are no longer talking about a normal crop. Larvae appear from the eggs laid by the tartar, which, eating the same juice, excrete excrement in the form of the so-called honey dew. This, in turn, provokes the appearance of a soot fungus, for which sugary secretions are an excellent nutrient medium. As a result, leaves and shoots stick together, become dirty black.
The dimensions of the pear tinnitus do not exceed three millimeters
At this time, the fungus and larvae can be washed off with a stream of water from a hose under high pressure. After this, treatment with bioprotective preparations such as Iskra Bio should follow. Before flowering, you can use the powerful drug Commander. This is a prolonged-acting systemic insecticide that fights against various types of pests, including pear tinnitus, leaf flies, aphids, pear beetles, butterflies, and is also effective against insects inside the soil. It is used in a wide temperature range - from -3 to +30 ° C, optimal values - 15-25 ° C. The action begins 2-3 hours after application, and the full population of the pest is destroyed in a day. The protective effect lasts at least two weeks, the drug is not addictive. For processing pears, dissolve 4 ml of the drug in 10 liters of water.
Commander is a prolonged-acting systemic insecticide that fights various types of pests.
The pear tinnitus has natural enemies - ladybugs, lacewings, spiders, ground beetles, fire bugs. The predatory bug Anthocoris nemoralis is particularly effective at eating leaf-leaf. In specialized stores you can buy these beneficial insects in packs of 200 and 500 pieces. And also this bug destroys raspberry flies, ticks, caterpillars, butterflies, codling moth, leafworms, etc.
Bedbug Anthocoris nemoralis is sold in packs of 200 and 500 pieces.
A small weevil bug hibernates in the soil of tree trunks. With the onset of spring, the flower beetle comes to the surface and rises to the crown of the pear. Female insects gnaw buds and lay eggs inside. A week later, voracious larvae emerge from them, eating away the entire inside of the flowers.
Fruits will not grow from the buds affected by the flower-eater
In early spring, beetles are harvested by hand. To do this, early in the morning, when the air has not yet warmed above +5 ° C, and the beetles are sitting on a branch in a daze, they are shaken off on a fabric pre-spread under a tree. Insecticide treatments help get rid of the problem completely. В период до начала цветения можно применить эффективный препарат Фуфанон, действие которого начинается через один час после применения, а полностью жуки погибают через сутки. Защитное действие препарата длится в течение 10—15 дней. На 10 литров воды расходуют 10 мл Фуфанона. Безопасный доступ к обработанным растениям возможен по истечении десяти дней с момента обработки. После цветения обработку следует повторить.
Фуфанон отлично справится с гуршевым цветоедом и не только
Довольно опасный вредитель, распространённый в садах, расположенных во влажных местах. Часто встречается в Крыму, на Кавказе, Ставропольском и Краснодарском краях. Летающие насекомые длиной 5—6 мм. Лёт их совпадает по времени с порозовением бутонов груши и длится от одной до двух недель. После спаривания самка делает надрез у основания цветка и откладывает по одному яйцу в каждое цветоложе. В течение двух недель из яиц появляются личинки, которые выедают зачатки семян молодых плодов. Затем переходят на следующие. За период 3—4 недели каждая личинка успевает уничтожить 3—4 плода. Повреждённые плоды темнеют и опадают. Затем личинки уходят в почву, где зимуют на глубине 10 сантиметров.
Грушевый пилильщик — самка и личинки
Предотвратить проблему можно опрыскиванием за 5—6 дней до цветения фосфорорганическими препаратами, например, Метафосом. Это средство контактного действия с широким спектром. Применяют для уничтожения плодожорок, тлей, клещей, долгоносиков, пилильщиков и т. д. На 10 литров воды добавляют 10 мл Метафоса и опрыскивают грушу ранним утром либо после захода солнца. В жаркие дни обработку не проводят. Повторную обработку следует повести сразу же после цветения, и третью ещё через неделю. Срок ожидания — 30 дней.
Это насекомое наносит вред груше ранних сортов. Зимует в коконах, находящихся в почве. Вылет бабочек в зависимости от региона происходит от начала до конца июня. Это бывает примерно через месяц после окончания цветения. Активность насекомых наибольшая в сумеречное время суток до наступления полной темноты. В течение 30—40 дней самка откладывает яйца в средних и верхних ярусах груши. Примерно через неделю появляются личинки. Гусеницы сразу же вгрызаются в плоть плода и заползают в семенную камеру. Выгрызают семена, заполняя камеры экскрементами. Через 3—4 недели покидают плод и располагаются на зимовку. В качестве профилактики помогают перекопка либо вспашка почвы, с последующей обработкой растворами медного купороса, бордоской смеси, либо сильнодействующими гербицидами, как было описано выше. В период лёта бабочек и откладывания яиц проводят 2—3 опрыскивания инсектицидами — Децис, Фуфанон, Фитоверм и т. п. С гусеницами, проникшими в плод, к сожалению, бороться невозможно.
С бабочкой грушевой плодожорки борьбу начинают весной
Так называют личинок различных жуков и долгоносиков, которые появляются из яиц, откладываемых в почву. Наиболее распространены: майский жук, апрельский жук, долгоносики, грушевый и яблонный цветоеды. Размеры различных хрущей находятся в пределах 4—35 мм. Как правило, они появляются в первой половине июня. Питаются корнями растений и молодым деревьям могут нанести значительный вред. Живут хрущи около месяца, затем окукливаются. Эффективным препаратом для борьбы с хрущами является Диазинон. В обработанной им почве сохраняет действие на протяжении трёх недель, чего вполне достаточно для уничтожения популяции вредителя. В почве и плодах не накапливается.
Хрущи повреждают корни молодых растений
Кроме того, с хрущами можно бороться устраивая для них ловушки. Для этого вблизи груши насыпают небольшую кучку компоста, поливают водой и укрывают чёрной плёнкой либо шифером. Через некоторое время хрущи начнут перебираться в такие комфортные для них условия, после чего их просто собирают и уничтожают.
Frequently asked Questions
В процессе выращивания груш садоводы сталкиваются с различными проблемами.
Груша не цветёт и не плодоносит: причины и методы борьбы
Если груша не цветёт, а вследствие этого не плодоносит, тому могут быть несколько причин:
- Выбран нерайонированный сорт для посадки. В этом случае плодоношение может быть отложенным на несколько лет, а в худшем варианте не наступить вообще.
- Приобретён некачественный посадочный материал. В обоих случаях можно порекомендовать приобретение саженцев только в специализированных питомниках и выбирать сорта, районированные для региона выращивания.
- The basic conditions for choosing a place for landing are not met:
- The plant is planted in the shade.
- Flooding with soil water, as a result of which the roots and stump are warmed up.
- Cold northerly winds destroy flower buds even before the onset of flowering.
- Poor plant care is a lack of moisture and nutrition.
- Damage to flower buds by pests - pear beetle, pear tinnitus.
In all cases, we can recommend that you more carefully adhere to the basic rules for planting and caring for the pear, and perform work on the prevention of pests and diseases.
Why do pears rot on a tree
Fungal diseases - moniliosis, scab, bacteriosis cause rotting of pears on a tree. And also, as a result, the fruits affected by the pear moth rot.
The tips of the branches of a pear dry: causes and methods of struggle
It is not very easy to identify the cause of this phenomenon. To do this, consider possible options and find the answer using the method of exclusion.
- Preheating of roots and stem due to close occurrence of groundwater.
- Inadequate watering.
- Freezing as a result of return frosts.
- Bacterial burn.
- Infestation by pests: pear beetle, aphid, tinnitus.
- Damage to the roots by moles, bear, khrushchev.
Methods of dealing with the problem will depend on its cause.
Why does a pear produce small hard fruits
Such a phenomenon can be a sign of diseases: scab, black cancer, bacteriosis. And also with a high probability it is possible to diagnose a lesion with a pear tinnitus.
What to do with frosted pear branches in spring
Spring sanitary pear pruning is the answer to this question. All frozen, dry, diseased, damaged branches are cut to the ground using the “ring” methods. After that, the place of cut is cleaned with a sharp knife and covered with a layer of garden var.
Frozen branches are cut in the spring "on the ring"
Any growths on the leaves, as a rule, are a repository of fungal spores. Most likely, this is the pear rust described above.
Cracked bark on a pear
Most often, bark cracks appear in winter as a result of frostbite. This can occur in cases where there is no whitewashing of the trunk and thick branches. On a frosty sunny day, the temperature difference between the crust on the shadow and sunny sides of the trunk reaches significant values. As a result, cracks appear at the boundary of these zones.
Another possible reason is poor-quality whitewashing of trees. It happens that it is partially washed off by rains and streaks remain on the trunk. White stripes reflect the sun's rays and the crust below them remains cold. At the same time, dark stripes with washed whitewash become very hot. As a result of the resulting temperature difference, cracks occur.
To prevent such a disaster in the fall, you must whitewash the trees and use only high-quality materials. In lime whitewash, you can add PVA glue, which will prevent rinsing.
If cracks appear, they are cut into healthy wood, treated with 3% solution of copper sulfate and covered with a layer of garden var.
A pear cannot be called a capricious culture, but it suffers from diseases and harmful insects more often than other fruit crops. Compliance with simple and time-consuming sanitary and preventive measures will help the gardener cope with possible problems.