Pear Conference - an old, popular variety
Pear Conference - an old variety common in many countries with a warm climate. Popular in Europe, America, China. Where and how to grow this pear - it is useful to know the gardener about this.
Description of the variety and its full characteristics
The characteristics of the pear tree Conference depend on the stock on which it is grafted. If a forest pear acts in its quality, then the tree will grow medium or high. In this case, its height usually reaches five to eight meters. During the season, shoots give an increase of 60 centimeters. Such a tree will give its first harvest only in the fifth or sixth year from the moment of planting a one-two-year-old seedling. The annual and good harvest is 60–70 kg per tree. The tree grafted on quince will grow small - 2.5-4 meters in height. The crown in any case will be wide-pyramidal, thick, highly leafy. The rate of maturity in the second case is higher - 3-4 years, but the yield will be more modest - 30-40 kg per tree or 210 kg / ha. The winter hardiness of the variety is medium, but on quince stocks it is low, trees freeze already in frosts of -15–20 ° C. Some gardeners have noted an increase in the winter hardiness of the pear conference with age. The drought tolerance of the variety is also no different and requires frequent watering. To diseases and pests, the immunity is medium, practically not affected by scab, there is a high probability of thermal burn of leaves in hot weather.
The fruits are removed in late September – mid-October. They are well stored in refrigerators until January. Pears are quite large and one-dimensional - the average weight is 143 grams. The shape of the fruits is elongated-pear-shaped, they hold well on the tree, do not crumble. The peel is quite stiff, greenish-yellow, covered with thick rusty spots. But the pinkish-cream flesh has tenderness, juiciness, butteriness, melts in the mouth and has a pleasant, sweet taste. Tasters in Ukraine rated the taste of the Conference 4.8–4.9 points. There are few seeds inside the fruit; seedless pears are often found. Fruits for table use, have good transportability.
Inside the pear fruit, the seed conference is few or no at all
Where the pear is grown Conference, including in Russia
Pear Conference for the first time as a variety was isolated in England in 1884 and ten years later it became quite widespread in Western Europe. It is easy to calculate that this variety has been cultivated for over 130 years. The Conference appeared in the State Register of the Russian Federation quite recently - in 2014, it was zoned in the North Caucasus region. The initiator was the Institute of Horticulture of the Ukrainian Agrarian Academy of Sciences.
Originator - an individual or legal entity that created, bred, or revealed a plant variety or animal breed and (or) ensures its conservation, but is not a patent holder.
Currently, the variety is distributed not only in Western but also in Eastern Europe, as well as in America and China. There is evidence of cultivation in Poland, Ukraine, Moldova. In the Russian Federation, this pear is planted in the southern regions with a warm and humid climate. Some gardeners report successful pear-growing practices at the Conference in the Moscow Region and Belarus, but there is no information about mass farmer plantings in these northern regions. Yes, this is unlikely due to the low winter hardiness of the variety.
According to some sources, the bulk of the export of pears from China to various countries is Conference. In view of this, this pear is sometimes called the Chinese Conference. But such an unofficial name rather speaks only about the origin of certain lots of fruits, and not about varietal characteristics.
How pears grow Conference
Conference pears grow both in household plots and in industrial gardens. In the latter case, seedlings on dwarf quince rootstocks are more often chosen. The lifespan of such trees is only 35–45 years, but, due to the convenience of care and harvesting, the method justifies itself economically. Dwarf pears are often grown on trellises using a palmette shape. In household plots, pears of this variety are often planted on the stocks of wild pears - in this case, the trees, as mentioned above, grow quite tall. According to some sources, the life span of such plants reaches three hundred years. It is difficult to say this with certainty, but in any case, the Conference has been living on a pear stock for quite some time.
Conference lives on a pear stock for a long time
The Pear Conference has a high self-fertility, moreover, it is itself a good pollinator. But, as often happens, yields will be higher and more stable in the presence of additional pollinators, for example, pears of varieties Williams, Bere, Lyubimitsa Klappa, Chizhovskaya.
Video: Pear Review Conference
Conference pear planting
Like any pear, the Conference loves well-lit, sun-heated, ventilated places. At the same time, these areas should not be blown by cold northerly winds and should not be in areas of flooding by soil waters. Soils are preferably loose, well-drained, having a slightly acid reaction. Alkaline soils are unacceptable, since the pear is sick and poorly developed on them. The best value of acidity lies in the range of pH 5.0-6.5, it is possible to plant on soils with a pH of 4.2-4.4.
The distance from buildings, fences or neighboring trees should not be less than 5.5-6 meters for a tall pear. Low-growing plants are planted in rows with an interval of 3-4 meters and a distance between rows of 5-6 meters. When growing on trellises, the distance between the rows is reduced to 3–3.5 meters, and the interval between the trees in the row is 2.5 meters.
Since the Conference is planted in warm regions, this can be done both in spring and autumn. In any case, there should be no sap flow at the time of planting. In the case of autumn planting of the plant for the first winter, it is advisable to cover it with a spanbond or other warming materials. Seedlings are best obtained at the age of 1-2 years, older trees can only be planted with a closed root system. By the way, in this case, the landing period can be any - from April to October.
If you plan to grow on trellises, then their installation should be taken care of in advance. Install in a row metal or reinforced concrete poles three meters high above ground level. The interval between adjacent posts is maintained equal to five meters. Several rows of steel wire are pulled between the posts, but this is more convenient to do after planting seedlings. Further planting instructions are the same for both the trellis and the single version of pear growing. It consists of the following steps:
- Preparation of the landing pit should be carried out no less than a month before the expected landing date. In the case of spring planting, a pit is prepared in the fall. Do it like this:
- They dig a hole with a depth of 70-80 centimeters and the same diameter. On sandy soils, the volume of the pit is made within 1-1.5 m3.
- If the soil is heavy, a ten-centimeter layer of drainage is laid at the bottom. Crushed stone, expanded clay, broken brick, etc. can act in its quality. If the soil is sandy, then a clay layer of the same thickness is laid on the bottom of the pit.
- After this, a nutrient mixture is prepared in an amount sufficient to fill the pit to the top. Such a mixture consists of equal parts of peat, humus, chernozem and sand with the addition of 300-400 grams of superphosphate and three to four liters of wood ash.
- Fill the pit with the mixture obtained, watered with water and leave to shrink the soil. If the pit is being prepared in the fall for spring planting, then for the winter it should be covered with roofing material, film, slate, etc.
Landing pit filled with nutrient mixture to the top
- Immediately before planting, the roots of the seedlings are soaked for several hours in water. At the same time, you can add some kind of growth stimulant, for example, Epin, Kornevin, Heteroauxin, etc.
- In the pit, make a hole with a size sufficient to accommodate the root system of the seedling. A small knoll is poured in the center of the hole, and at a distance of 10-15 centimeters from its top, a wooden stake 100-120 centimeters high from the ground level is hammered. If grown on a trellis, a stake is not needed.
- The seedling is placed with the root neck on the top of the knoll, straighten the roots and cover the ground to the top. Do this evenly, in layers, densifying each one well.
When backfilling the roots with earth, it should be well compacted
- Performing this stage, it is important to monitor the location of the root neck - in the end, it should be approximately at the level of the compacted soil.
- The seedling is tied to the stake with elastic material. If the option using trellis is chosen, they stretch several rows of steel wire with an interval of 30-50 centimeters, after which the seedlings are tied to these wires.
- A near-stem circle is formed along the diameter of the landing pit and well watered with water. As a result, the soil should be abundantly moistened and adhere to the roots of the seedling.
After planting a seedling, it is abundantly watered
- After some time, the surface of the trunk circle is loosened and mulched.
- The seedling is cut to a height of 60-80 centimeters, the branches are cut in half.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
To obtain regular and high yields of pear, the Conference needs to ensure proper and timely care.
Pear Conference needs regular and plentiful watering. With a lack of moisture, the fruits become small and tasteless. If the lack of moisture becomes critical - the pear can lose some of the fruit, or even all. Five to twelve waterings are usually required per season. This amount depends on the frequency of precipitation, air temperature and its humidity. To determine if a pear needs watering, one does just that. A handful of earth is taken from the trunk circle and squeezed into a lump. A lump is thrown to the ground from a height of about one meter. If it crumbled, the tree needs watering. Accordingly, if the lump remained intact, then the ground is quite moist and watering is not needed. Single trees are usually watered individually in formed tree trunks. In the case of ordinary plantings, especially when grown on a trellis, it is advisable to equip a drip irrigation system. In this case, water consumption and the need for loosening are reduced. And also the intervals between watering are increased in the case of mulching of trunks circles. In the fall, before leaving for the winter, water-loading irrigation is carried out. This stage increases the winter hardiness of the pear.
Drop watering is convenient for group plantings of pears
Regular fertilizing starting from 3-4 years after planting will provide high and annual yields of quality fruits. In the spring, 20-30 grams of ammonium nitrate, urea, or nitroammophoski are brought under digging each year. And also at this time, organic fertilizers are applied at the rate of 5-7 kilograms per 1 m2. It can be humus, compost, peat. They are introduced once every 3-4 years. During flowering, to increase the number of ovaries, a plant is sprayed with a solution of 0.2 g of boric acid in one liter of water.
At the beginning of summer, potash fertilizers (potassium monophosphate, potassium sulfate) are applied at a rate of 10–20 g / m2, previously dissolved in water for watering the trees. And also during the period of growth and ripening of the fruit, the pear is fed with liquid organic fertilizers. To do this, pre-insist two liters of mullein in ten liters of water for 5-10 days. Instead of mullein, you can take one liter of bird droppings or 5-7 kilograms of fresh grass. The finished infusion is filtered and consumed for watering. One liter of such concentrate is used per 1 m2 of the trunk circle, previously diluting it with water in a ratio of 1 to 10. During the season, 2-3 such top dressings can be done.
In the fall, under digging, superphosphate is added in an amount of 30–40 g / m2. In addition, trace elements are also needed. They are usually used as part of complex mineral fertilizers.
The methods for trimming and shaping the crown of a pear The Conference depends on the stock on which it is grafted and the chosen method of cultivation.
Tall Pear Conference Formation
If the Conference is grown on the stock of a forest pear, then give it a sparse-tier crown shape . Such a formation is well known and is not difficult for an experienced gardener. Spend it in early spring for 4-5 years from the time of planting.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Sparse-tiered formation is used for tall trees
Formation of undersized pears Conference with conventional cultivation method
When growing the Conference pear on a quince rootstock, it is better to use a cup-shaped formation. At the same time, good ventilation and illumination of the internal volume of the crown, as well as ease of care and harvesting, are achieved. Such a formation is usually achieved in 4-5 years. It should be remembered that it provokes a strong thickening of the crown, which is already characteristic of the pear Conference.
For pear Conference on quince rootstock, crown formation according to the type of bowl is suitable
Pear formation Conference on a trellis in the form of palmettes
With this formation, branches that are in the same plane are left. Usually, 8 to 12 skeletal branches are laid. The lower ones have an angle of inclination within 45–55 °, the upper ones — 60–80 °. All of them are attached to the trellis ceiling, bending if necessary. During the formation period, the central conductor is cut annually so that it is 60-70 centimeters higher than the base of the upper branch. All unnecessary and competing branches are cut "into the ring." Fouling branches are left with an interval of 15-25 centimeters. They are not bent or tied up, providing an opportunity for free growth.
Forming the crown of a pear according to the palmette type, leave branches located in the same plane
The Conference is especially relevant for stunted pears, but it is also possible for tall ones. Held annually in early spring by cutting shoots that grow inside the crown and thicken it.
Usually carried out in the summer during the period of active growth of young shoots by shortening (minting) by 5-10 centimeters. This stimulates the growth of additional overgrowing branches on which the next year's crop is laid. In addition, maintaining high yields can be ensured by cutting to the substitution shoot according to the type of grape formation. This method requires more experience and time.
Maintaining a high yield of pear can be ensured by pruning to shoot substitution by type of grape
This type of pruning is an important step in the prevention of various diseases. Perform in late autumn after stopping sap flow by cutting dry, diseased, broken branches. Since pathogens can contain pathogens, they are burned after removal. Sanitary pruning, if necessary, is repeated in early spring, if frostbite or broken shoots appear during the winter.
Diseases and pests - the main types and solutions to the problem
Pear Conference does not have a high immunity to diseases except scab. Therefore, when growing it, special attention should be paid to prevention and sanitation.
Table: types of preventive and sanitary work when growing pears
|Types of jobs||Deadlines||Purpose of work|
|Collection and burning of fallen leaves, weeds and other garbage||Fall||Destruction of wintering pests and spores of fungal pathogens|
|Whitewashing trunks and skeletal branches with a solution of slaked lime with the addition of 3% copper sulfate. Such a solution can be replaced with special garden paints.||Avoidance of sunburn and prevention of fungal diseases. As well as creating obstacles for insect pests to get into the crown.|
|Digging of the soil of a near-stem circle on a bayonet of a shovel with a flip of layers of earth||Late fall||Lifting wintering pests to the surface and their subsequent death from frost|
|Tillage in the near-stem circle and tree crown with a 3% solution of copper sulfate||Late fall, early spring||Prevention of fungal diseases and pests|
|Pesticide treatment of universal action. DNOC is used once every three years, in other years Nitrafen is used.||Early spring|
|Installation of hunting belts||Counteraction to hit on the crown of a pear bee-eater, codling moth caterpillars, ants, carrying aphids, etc.|
|Treatment with systemic fungicides such as Horus, Quadris, Skor, etc.||For the prevention and treatment of all possible fungal diseases. The first treatment is carried out immediately after flowering, and subsequently with an interval of 2-3 weeks. Such treatments after rains are especially relevant when favorable conditions are created for fungi.|
|Treatment with insecticides such as Decis, Spark, Spark Bio, etc.||For the prevention of various pests. The first treatment is carried out before flowering, the second - after flowering, the third - 10 days after the second.|
Table: Major Pear Disease Conference
|Disease||Signs||Prevention and treatment|
|Soot fungus||On the leaves and fruits of the pear, a grayish-white coating is observed. Over time, its color becomes black, resembling soot. Usually the disease appears in the second half of summer and is preceded by a pear aphid defeat. Its sweet secretions are a breeding ground for the fungus.||Prevention consists in preventing the ants from creeping onto the crown, which carry aphids there. Treatment with ordinary fungicides.|
|Moniliosis||A common fungal disease of pome fruits and stone fruits. There are two stages. In the spring, during flowering, bees and other insects on their feet enter the spores of the pathogen onto the flowers of the plant. The fungus infects the flowers and then penetrates the shoots and leaves. The affected parts wither, wilt, then blacken. This phenomenon is called a monilial burn. In summer, the fungus infects the fruit of the pear, causing gray rot.||If infected shoots are found, they should be cut with the capture of 20-30 centimeters of healthy wood. And also remove all affected parts - flowers, ovaries, fruits. Then follows a cycle of treatments with fungicides.|
|Rust||The first signs on the leaves of a pear in the form of small (0.5 mm) spots of greenish-yellow color appear in late April-early May. Growing, the spots turn into warts inside which are the spores of the fungus. Spores turn into mycelium, falling on the leaves of juniper. They amaze him and after 1.5-2.5 years in the spring, the spores of the fungus again hit the pear. Thus, rust strikes the pear once every two years. The defeat on the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Territory and in the Crimea ranges from 50 to 100%.||Avoid planting pears and junipers in close proximity. Carry out preventive treatment with fungicides.|
Photo Gallery: Major Pear Diseases
- Sooty fungus on pear leaves appears as black plaque
- Moniliosis in the summer affects the fruits with gray rot
- Rust on pear leaves appears next to juniper
Likely Pear Pests
Mostly only preventative measures are effective against pests. This is due to the fact that when fruits or flowers eaten by a flower beetle that are affected by caterpillars are found, it is too late to fight.
This little bug hibernates in the soil of the near-stem circle, and with the onset of spring it rises to the surface, then along the trunk it falls on the crown of a pear. There he affects the buds, flowers, ovaries, young shoots. By the end of May, it lays eggs in the soil, from which larvae appear - the so-called khrushchites. These insects feed on young plant roots. The preventative measures described above generally prevent the spread of the pest.
Pear Blossom First Affects Pear Flower Buds
It flies in the spring, lays eggs in the soil, from which caterpillars crawl out. Then they rise to the crown and penetrate the fruits of the pear. At the penetration site you can see a brownish hole with a drop of gum. You can confront a pest only by observing preventive measures.
When the pear moth caterpillars hit the fruit, it’s too late to fight them
As already mentioned, aphids fall on the crown with the help of ants. It affects the leaves on the underside, which subsequently fold into a tube. Insecticide treatment is effective only at that stage until the leaves are curled. If the leaves have already curled up, it remains only to cut them off.
Ants love to feast on the sweet aphid secretions
Conference is a taste of childhood. I don’t know about you, but my grandfather already had pretty much nothing in mid-October. As long as in supermarkets (only the top is less thick). It froze in the late 1990s because of a tinder fungus (an infection flew in). Grew in the shade (the sun from morning to 10 hours and from 18 to sunset), maybe that's why there was no net on pears. The tree is undersized. Now we have on sale seedlings of the conference and you will not find.
The reason for the widespread industrial planting of the Conference pear in Western Europe is easily explained. when was the variety Conference created? Extract from Polish pomology (in others there is no such information, except as it was derived in the middle of the XIX century): “How the variety was recorded in England in 1884. It was widely distributed mainly in Western Europe since 1894. " So, with this grade have been working for 131 years. Undoubtedly, the fact that during this time it has been studied enough in all regions where it is possible to grow it.
I can say with confidence that the pear Conference is quite winter-hardy in the suburbs. The ovaries were pollinated by the pear of Chizhevskaya.
The fruits of the Conference fully ripened at the end of September, at the very beginning of November. The average weight of the fetus was 180 grams.
Anona, Moscow region
Hello! The conference in my Sumy region is growing and bearing fruit. True, the first fruiting had to wait about 12 years. On the tree, it almost never matured, in October we pluck it on the cabinet. Gradually ripens one after another. Taste is excellent, very tasty and juicy. Very productive, the crop is either large or very large - then you have to tie up and support the branches. I am personally very pleased with this grade. Regards, Oleg.
Do not try to grow the Conference in the middle lane. There are no miracles and sooner or later it will freeze. But for the North Caucasus region, the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Territory and Crimea, this variety is commercially attractive. Due to the excellent taste, shelf life and transportability, as well as the possibility of compacted cultivation on trellises, the variety is interesting for farmers and gardeners.