Pak Choy Chinese Kale: Varieties, Features, Growing and Harvesting
Pak-choy Chinese kale is one of the oldest vegetable crops cultivated in China. Today it is popular in all Asian countries and is aggressively moving to Europe and North America. The main reason for this triumphal procession is the unpretentiousness of this variety and a huge number of useful qualities.
Description of chinese kale pak choi
There are various points of view regarding which group of plants belongs to Pak-choi kale. Karl Linney, for example, singled it out in a separate view. Often this culture is combined with Beijing cabbage. In the State Register of Breeding Achievements Approved for Use in the Russian Federation, Chinese cabbage is indicated by a separate position.
In different countries and places, culture has different names. The Chinese themselves call Pak-choi an oil vegetable, since oil is made from its seeds. Other fairly well-known and common names for Chinese kale are petiole, white vegetable, mustard, celery cabbage and even horse ears.
The appearance of the vegetable resembles a large-leaf salad rather than a traditional cabbage.
This variety does not form a head of cabbage. She has an erect, semi-spreading or compact leaf rosette, the diameter of which can reach more than 35 cm. Powerful fleshy petioles are tightly pressed against each other, have an external bulge in the lower part of the plant. The leaf of the culture is large, delicate, slightly corrugated. Depending on the variety, the height of the plant can vary from 10 cm to half a meter. Three varieties of pacchoy can be distinguished, differing in the color of leaf blades and petioles:
- Joi Choi - with dark green leaves and bright, white petioles;
Joi Choi is one of the most cold-resistant varieties of Chinese kale
- Shanghai Green - leaves and petioles of light green color;
This variety of Chinese cabbage is compact, has light green stems that are distinguished by a delicate taste and delicate aroma.
- Red Choi - a plant with green petioles and bicolor leaves - green below and reddish-purple on top.
This is a hybrid variety of Chinese cabbage with a reddish-purple top and green bottom of the leaf plates.
Table: Chinese cabbage varieties included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements
|Grade name||Plant description||Ripening time||The mass of one plant, kg||Productivity, kg / sq.m|
|Alyonushka||Early ripening (45 days from germination to the start of harvesting)||up to 1.8||up to 9|
|Vesnyanka||Early ripening, (25–35 days from germination to technical maturity)||0.25||about 2.7|
|Vitavir||Early ripe||0.5–0.7||up to 6.2|
|Goluba||Early ripe||0.6–0.9||more than 6|
|Corolla||Mid-season||up to 1.0||around 5|
|Beauty of the East||Early ripe||0.7||6 and more|
|Swallow||Early ripening, (35–45 days from germination to technical maturity)||1, 5-3||about 10|
|Swan||Mid-season||1.1–1.5||from 5 to 7.5|
|Purple miracle||Mid early hybrid||0.45||about 2|
|Lynn||Early ripe hybrid||0.35||3.8|
|Maggie||Early ripe hybrid||0.35||3.8|
|Peahen||Mid-season, with a period from germination to technical maturity of 57-60 days||from 1.0 to 2.0||about 10|
|In memory of Popova||Early ripe||0.8||to 10|
|Chill||Mid-season||up to 1.5||more than 6.5|
|Four seasons||Early ripe||about 1.35||about 7.5|
The listed varieties are recommended for cultivation in personal subsidiary plots of all regions of the Russian Federation. Both leaves and petioles are used in food.
Photo Gallery: Pak Choy Chinese Cabbage Varieties
- The value of the varieties Krasa Vostoka: high yield, evenness of plants, resistance to disease and shooting
- The first harvest of greens of Chinese cabbage of the Swallow variety is possible 15 days after germination with the formation of 7-10 leaves
- Chill - an early ripe (35–40 days) hybrid for early spring and summer-autumn cultivation in open and protected ground
- The value of the variety of Chinese cabbage Four seasons: disease resistance, intensive growth
- Goluba is a mid-season (75–85 days) hybrid for early spring and summer-autumn cultivation in open and protected ground
- Chingengsai Chinese cabbage is a diet plant that helps to lose weight, increases the body's resistance to disease
- The variety of Chinese kale Vesnyanka is resistant to premature stalking, relatively resistant to mucous and vascular bacteriosis and keel
- The Chinese kale of Pamyatova Popova variety has excellent taste and high yield (up to 10.0 kg / kg / m2)
- You can’t stay with spring sowing of Chinese leaf cabbage of Alyonushka cultivar: with a day length of more than 13 hours, the probability of plant stalking is high
Useful properties of Pak-choi and its harm
Pak-cho cabbage has a number of useful qualities for the human body:
- low-calorie vegetable. 100 g of the product contains only 13 kcal, so it is ideal for those who strive to maintain good shape;
- helps to remove toxins from the body, harmful cholesterol;
- cabbage leaves contain a large amount of ascorbic acid and other useful vitamins;
- the systematic use of a vegetable has a beneficial effect on the elasticity of blood vessels and the renewal of skin cells;
- cabbage juice has a healing effect;
- leaves and roots are saturated with trace elements, fiber and natural amino acids of lysine.
This variety of cabbage is literally “charged” with anti-cancer agents and combines many other useful qualities
Pak-choy Chinese cabbage is very useful, but in some cases it can harm the body:
- this variety should not be used by people with an allergic reaction to any type of cabbage;
- it is also contraindicated for persons with a poor blood coagulation index.
It must be remembered that excessive consumption of a vegetable, like other products, can affect the hormonal background of the body.
Features of growing Chinese pak choi kale
In general, growing this variety of cabbage is easy. She is capricious and generous with the harvest, but has a number of features compared to her relatives from the Kapustny family:
- less demanding on soil fertility;
- she has a short growing season. Harvesting early varieties can begin already 3 weeks after germination;
- its roots are shallow at a distance of about 15 cm from the soil surface. This feature should be considered when loosening ridges;
- if the planting dates are not respected, the crop can release an arrow and bloom;
Pak-choi can shoot and bloom at a stage when daylight hours increase significantly
- due to rapid ripening, it is not recommended to treat the vegetable with chemical preparations;
- Chinese leaf can be dusted with Chinese cabbage
- You can grow several crops in a season.
Pak Choi belongs to the category of cold-resistant and precocious crops
Sowing Chinese Kale
You can grow pak-cho by direct sowing of seeds in the soil or through seedlings. So that the cabbage does not go into the arrow, it is important to observe the planting dates. When planting directly in open ground, this is done early - in April, so that the main growing season does not fall on a long daylight hours. According to gardeners, the most high-quality and plentiful crop is provided by the August sowing of seeds.
May-July is an unsuccessful time for sowing Pak-cho. During a long daylight hours, cabbage will bloom quickly and you will not get a quality crop.
When growing in seedlings, sowing of Chinese leaf is carried out in March, so that by the end of April to have full-fledged seedlings for planting in open ground. If you plan to grow Chinese cabbage in a greenhouse, then seeds are sown for seedlings in February, so that in March Pak-Choi seedlings have a well-developed root system, 4-5 true leaves and are ready for transplanting into the ground.
When deciding on a site for Chinese leaf cabbage, it is important to take into account the basic rule of crop rotation: do not plant the crop where cabbage or other cruciferous plants were grown last year. This is a very important requirement, since the pests of these plants are common.
Grow kale in sunny places: the shadow should not be on the site for more than 3 hours
Chinese kale does not have special requirements for soil nutrition. Soil should be at least medium fertilized. In the autumn, organic matter (1 bucket per 1 sq. Meter) should be added to the garden bed, which you will take for pak-choi. The addition of superphosphate and potassium chloride (1 tbsp.spoon over the same area) will be useful. If necessary, lime the soil. Before sowing, the soil is thoroughly loosened and 1 teaspoon of urea is added per meter of the bed. Fertilizing Chinese cabbage later is undesirable.
Seedling method of growing Chinese kale allows you to get an early crop of vegetables. The seedling of culture at the beginning of growth begins to form a long root, so it is quite difficult to transfer the transplant from the tank to a permanent place.
In order not to create seedlings of additional stressful situations, it is recommended to grow it in individual peat tablets or pots and plant it in a permanent place without transshipment.
Ready for planting seedlings should have 4-5 leaves
As a soil for seedlings, a coconut substrate is perfect. It meets the main requirement for soil - looseness. You can sow several seeds in each pot, but then pinch off the weak shoots and leave the strongest seedling. Seeds in the pot are planted to a depth of about 1 cm. If planting containers are placed in a warm room, then the sprouts will appear in 3-5 days. Seedlings will be ready for planting in about 3 weeks.
To extend the collection of high-quality crops, cabbage seeds should be planted in stages with an interval of 7-10 days.
Chinese kale seeds on a prepared bed can be sown in various ways:
- ribbon lowercase. It provides for a distance between the tapes of 0.5 m, and between the lines - up to 30 cm;
- in the holes. They are prepared at a distance of about 30 cm from each other. 3-4 seeds are planted in each hole so that in the future it will be possible to choose the strongest seedlings.
Seeds are planted to a depth of not more than 2 cm. Experienced gardeners advise immediately to sprinkle beds with ash and thus prevent the appearance of the main pest of cabbage - cruciferous flea. During spring sowing, it is recommended to insulate the area with covering material to protect the seedlings from possible return frosts.
Sprouts appear 5-10 days after sowing and quickly grow
Video: how to plant pak choi chinese cabbage
Chinese kale is resistant to growing conditions and many diseases. To get a good crop, you must adhere to the basic rules that significantly affect its quality and abundance:
- it is necessary to carry out thinning of landings on time. The first is carried out in the phase of the appearance of this leaflet, removing weaker shoots at a distance of 8–10 cm. When the row is closed, the second thinning is carried out, leaving the plants at a distance of 25–30 cm;
Properly performed thinning will ensure the growth of large outlets
- watering the crop should be plentiful. You can use the sprinkling method, but it must be borne in mind that excess moisture can contribute to the spread of fungal diseases;
- top dressing can be carried out only if fertilizers were not applied during planting and only at the beginning of the growing season. The introduction of organics is preferable: a solution of mullein in a ratio of 1:10 or bird droppings 1:20. If you use mineral fertilizers, then pay attention to the fact that Chinese cabbage is able to accumulate nitrates, so it is better to use the phosphorus-potassium complex;
- special attention should be paid to preventive measures to protect plantings from pests: cruciferous fleas, caterpillars of cabbage white, snails and slugs. Frequent watering and loosening of the soil, dusting plantings and soil with ashes, infusion of tobacco dust, dandelion roots, tomato tops, mechanical removal of clutch egg cabbage eggs, collecting slugs will help protect plants. Weeds must be weeded in time, so that the pests do not find a haven close to the beds with cabbage.
Photo Gallery: The main pests of Chinese kale pak choi
- Periodically inspect the underside of the pak-cho leaves and destroy the ovipositor of the white butterfly to prevent the emergence of caterpillars
- If pacchoy protection measures against the cruciferous flea are not taken on time, then these pests can completely destroy the plant at the initial stage of growth
- One can prevent slicker beds on cabbage beds, sprinkling row-spice with allspice, rosemary, coriander, spraying the crops with a decoction of mustard or wormwood
To protect the culture from pests and diseases, it is not recommended to carry out processing and spraying with chemical preparations and agents that are able to accumulate in parts of the pack.
Video: cruciferous flea on pak choi cabbage
The first cut of cabbage leaves can be carried out approximately 3 weeks after germination. Young leaves are cut at a distance of 2-3 cm from the root, adults are slightly higher. This technique allows you to get a re-crop of petioles and greens, since the pack-choi quickly forms new leafy shoots. In overexposed plants (more than 50 days), the leaf may become coarse and tasteless.
Cut leaves are not stored for a long time, so they are harvested as needed and immediately used in salads or other dishes.
If you cut the plant in the initial phase of the formation of the arrow, then it does not lose its juiciness, goodies and usefulness
She is a close relative of Chinese cabbage, but externally and in quality differs from her. That year, in April, first sowed this cabbage. The taste of cabbage is excellent! Ripening, used for a long time in food, unpretentious even with rare watering and elevated temperatures. I advise you to try.
JuliannaRecent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
She planted a whale last year in May and at the end of August. cabbage grade Prima. She quickly went into color and was shallow. I liked the fact that the earliest of all types of cabbage that I grew and tastes good. This year I will plant again, but unfortunately there are a few varieties in our stores.
Today I tried Pak Choi (Joi Choi F1). I liked the taste, something in between sorrel without acid, lettuce and ordinary cabbage. The vegetable is refreshing, the stem is juicy. It sowed three seeds in the greenhouse at the end of March, all sprouted, but grew slowly, the cold spring stood out. Need protection against midges after the appearance of the first true leaves, an adult plant does not seem to be critical.
The first “pack-cho” that we bought was from some company from St. Petersburg. A cardboard box with text is folded in half, and inside is a transparent pe bag with seeds and everything is sealed with a stapler. The cabbage from this package was the most successful. It was large with thick fleshy petioles. I didn’t remember one bad variety, I only remember that the name was “Korean cabbage“ pak-choi ”. В прошлом году сажали «приму» и внешне похожую на пак-чой «Ричи» от Джонсонс, но то ли капуста вырасти не успела, я понадеялся, что до ноября теплынь будет, то ли сорта такие, но капуста была меньше и более жёсткая и черешки и листья.
Пак чой хорош при очень раннем посеве и идет вместо капусты в мае до тех пор пока ранняя белокачанная пойдет. Голубцы из него отличнейшие, где-то уже писала об этом. Листья на голубцы, а корешки на омлеты и просто с овощами потушить.
Я тоже выращивала такую капусту. Не капризная, но блошки обожают. Листья сочные, но грубее, чем у пекинской. По вкусу мне не очень понравилась, но я кроме цветной, к капусте равнодушна.
Я использую эту капусту как салат, очень сочная и вкусная, но я ее срезаю не под самый корешок, а оставляю пенек, потом еще нарастает или обрывала по несколько листиков. Напоминает пекинскую капусту по вкусу.
Пак-чой лучше всего сеять сразу на грядку, с рассадой возиться смысла я не вижу. Тем более, что пересадку эта капуста не очень любит. Высевайте по 3 семечки в лунку, потом оставите по одному самому крепенькому расточку. Не забудьте обработать молодые всходы от блошек, у меня они один раз за день все листики на ростках слопали, капуста не смогла восстановиться. Пришлось пересевать. Больше никаких проблем с пак-чоем не было.
Всегда немного страшно садить, что то «заморское». Но, ведь и картошка, американка, а у нас хорошо растет! Так и с пак-чой! Этот вид капусты проще в уходе, чем наша привычная белокочанная. Сейте прямо в грунт и почаще срезайте, что б молодая зелень всегда была у вас на столе.
Я сажала капусту чой пока только рассадным способом, не скажу, что это хлопотно, всходы появляются быстро и уже через три недели можно пересаживать на грядку. Не замечала, что эта капуста плохо переносит пересадку, всё нормально. Мне очень нравится её привкус и то, что она бысто растёт, ведь уже через месяц после посадки рассады можно делать салаты из этой капусты.
Я в субботу посеяла пак-чой в ОГ, как всегда, для капуст, – под бутылки. Растила ее в позапрошлом году, правда, сеяла в июле. Капуста любит короткий день, ну я ей его «создала» – посеяла в небольшой тени и пораньше. Взойдет ли — семена позапрошлогодние… Но когда ее растила — понравилась, варила из нее щи, просто обжаривала на масле, как молодую весеннюю капусту, также делала салат. Ничего так, для разнообразия.
Китайскую листовую капусту пак-чой пока ещё редко можно встретить на наших дачных участках, хотя её многочисленные достоинства (скороспелость, холодоустойчивость, высокая урожайность) делают из неё заслуженного претендента для включения в перечень возделываемых на участке культур.