Pak-choy Chinese cabbage: recommendations for cultivation and care
Pak Choi is a traditional Asian culture, which has recently become popular with European and American gardeners. It is suitable for cultivation in Russia. Chinese cabbage is unpretentious, not particularly heat-loving, does not place high demands on the quality of the substrate. At the same time, it is characterized by early maturity and good productivity, it is very useful for health.
What does Chinese cabbage look like?
As you might guess, the homeland of Chinese cabbage is China. It is also very popular in Korea and Japan. In Asia, it has been grown for more than five thousand years. The culture is known by the nicknames “pak-choi” (“horse’s ear”) and “mustard cabbage”. Do not confuse it with Peking cabbage, these are close "relatives", but still different, from the point of view of nerds, culture. A kind of cabbage pak choi was considered by Carl Linnaeus. But modern botanists believe that it is more like a turnip.
Pak-choy Chinese cabbage has been grown in Asia for more than five thousand years
Peking cabbage outside of Asia is known much better than Chinese. Therefore, they are often confused. The main difference between them is that the first forms a head out. Her leaves are much paler, almost white, wrinkled, with corrugated edges. The taste of Chinese cabbage is sharper, it gives a crop much faster.
It is impossible to confuse Chinese cabbage with Peking cabbage to one who has seen both of them, the main difference is the presence of a head of cabbage
The plant looks quite unusual. This cabbage does not form heads of cabbage. It would be very difficult to distinguish it from lettuce or spinach, if not for the characteristic thickening at the base of the stem. In height, the “rosette” of leaves reaches 0.5 m, the average diameter is 35–40 cm. Petioles of white or lettuce color are pressed tightly against each other, forming something that looks like an onion, so the plants are quite compact. The diameter of this thickening most often does not exceed 5–10 cm, weight - 100–250 g. Practice shows that varieties with greenish petioles are more resistant to stem.
A rosette of Chinese cabbage can be compact, and quite spreading, it depends on the variety
Leaves of various shades of green with a bluish-gray tint, whitish veins. They are smooth to the touch. The surface can be either almost flat or noticeably “bubbly”.
The leaves of Chinese cabbage are very tender, with a characteristic bitter aftertaste.
Edible in Chinese cabbage and leaves, and petioles. The first taste is reminiscent of slightly bitter spinach or celery, the second is a cross between asparagus and leaf beet, but sharper. At home, in Asia, salads are most often prepared from it, consumed fresh. Other greens, eggs, green peas, corn, onions, garlic, radish, even ginger and tangerines are added to Chinese cabbage. Even in Korea, a kimchi snack (spicy sauerkraut with ground hot pepper) is very popular. You can replace the usual Chinese cabbage in soups, prepare side dishes from it. During heat treatment, it changes the taste to sweet, without losing its characteristic sharpness. But they boil, fry and stew it for a very short time - the leaves are extremely delicate.
Fresh Chinese cabbage is a source of many vitamins and minerals needed by the body
One of the indisputable advantages of culture is early maturity. Cabbage can be cut only 20-25 days after the transfer of seedlings to the garden. And in greenhouses and hotbeds - 2-3 weeks after emergence. Accordingly, even in a temperate climate, you can get 2-3 crops per summer. Also, its unpretentiousness, cold resistance, and stably high productivity contribute to its popularity among Russian gardeners. We must not forget about the health benefits.
The optimum temperature for its cultivation is 15–20 ° С. If it rises to 25 ° C and above, sunburn on the leaves is possible. The culture is cold-resistant (tolerates frosts to -5–7 ° C), but this applies to adult plants. If the seedlings are planted too early, stalking is almost inevitable, especially in conditions of long daylight hours.
Perhaps the only drawback of the plant is that when it reaches its maximum size, the leaves and petioles are very rough, hard fibers appear in them. Therefore, at home they prefer to cut off sockets that have reached a height of 15–20 cm. Their greens are much more tender and juicier. After cutting, a new shoot is formed quite quickly.
Chinese cabbage is characterized by a high content of vitamins (A, C, E, P, PP, group B) and essential amino acids, especially lysine, in combination with low calorie content (13 kcal per 100 g). With regular use in food, it is an effective prevention of atherosclerosis, helps strengthen immunity, get rid of chronic fatigue syndrome, increase mental and physical performance, and normalize blood pressure.
Nutritionists recommend it to those who want to get rid of extra pounds and normalize the gastrointestinal tract and liver. There is research evidence that Chinese cabbage helps prevent the development of tumors, including malignant ones, due to the presence of glucosinolates, which give it a bitter aftertaste. It is also rich in magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, antioxidants, fiber and starch.
The high content of vitamin A and folic acid, which prevents abnormalities in the development of the fetus, makes Chinese cabbage very useful for pregnant women.
In Chinese and Tibetan folk medicine, Chinese cabbage juice is widely used, especially in combination with egg white. It is used to heal wounds, ulcers, inflammations, burns.
Chinese cabbage juice has long been used in folk medicine
There are contraindications. Chinese cabbage is not recommended to be included in the diet for diabetes. The metabolic process in this case is already impaired, it can cause additional hormonal disruptions and even to whom. Also, this cabbage is not recommended for problems with the thyroid gland. With excessive consumption, it can cause problems with the absorption of iodine.
Video: pak choi's health benefits
In Russia, varieties of Chinese cabbage of domestic selection are mainly grown. Most of them are early, which allows you to get several crops per season, even in the Urals and Siberia. The following varieties are most popular with gardeners:
- Alyonushka. The most common variety in Russia, the State Register is recommended for fresh consumption. Leaves can be cut 45 days after emergence. They are quite small, dark green in color with a grayish tint, in the form of a wide ellipse or almost round. The surface is smooth or slightly wrinkled. The petiole is 8–15 cm long; they are rather thick and fleshy. It is the petioles that make up the bulk of the total mass of the plant, reaching 1.8 kg. Productivity is high - up to 9 kg / m².
- Vesnyanka. From the emergence of seedlings to ripening the crop takes 25–35 days. The first greens can be cut in two weeks. The leaves are ovoid, bright green or lettuce, smooth, with a slightly wavy edge. The central vein is very wide. The average weight of one "onion" is 250 g. Greens with 1 m² receive about 1.7 kg. The variety is characterized by a high content of vitamin C, excellent taste. Relatively rarely suffers from bacteriosis, resistant to flare.
- Goluba F1. The height and diameter of the outlet is about 40 cm. The leaves are medium-sized, salad-colored, smooth. Petioles are short and wide, juicy. The average plant weight is 0.6–0.9 kg. Productivity - 6 kg / m² or a little more.
- Corolla. One of the novelties of selection. A variety of medium ripening. The outlet is low (up to 20 cm), but sprawling (40 cm in diameter). The leaves are medium-sized, saturated green, with a pronounced "wrinkle" and smooth edges. Petiole is flat, narrow and short. The average plant weight is up to 1 kg. Productivity - 5 kg / m².
- Swallow. From the emergence of seedlings to cut greenery takes 35–45 days. The leaves are bright green, with smooth edges, almost smooth. The bulk of the plant’s mass (about 2/3) is the petioles. They are very fleshy, juicy, greenish in color. The average weight of one outlet is 1.5–3 kg. The variety is appreciated for its taste and high content of vitamin C, good resistance against bacteriosis. Does not suffer from flaccidity.
- Swan. Mid-season grade. It can be grown both in open ground and in greenhouses, greenhouses. Rosette of leaves is compact, low. Petioles are white, elongated, wide. The leaves are small, oval. Productivity is high - 5.5-7.7 kg / m². The mass of each plant is 1.1–1.5 kg. Brings crops even in not particularly favorable weather conditions, tolerates thickened plantings.
- Violet miracle. One of the latest achievements of breeders, stands out with an unusual shade of leaves. They are lilac-green, covered with a thin layer of a bluish “wax” coating. The surface is “bubbly”, the edges are highly corrugated. Petioles are violet, slightly concave. Productivity - 2.25 kg / m², plant weight - 0.45 kg.
- Peahen. A variety of medium ripening. 57-60 days pass from the appearance of seedlings to the cut of greenery. It can be grown both in the greenhouse and without shelter. Suitable for fresh consumption, does not lose its benefits during heat treatment. Petioles are very juicy, fleshy, crispy. Plant weight varies from 1 kg to 2 kg, yield in open ground - from 4.8 kg / m² to 10.2 kg / m². The variety does not go into the arrow, brings a crop when planting in the shade and with thickened plantings. Leaves and petioles are well kept.
- Chill. Mid-season grade. The height of the outlet is about 35 cm, the diameter is slightly smaller. The leaves are medium-sized, pale green, egg-shaped. The surface is finely bubbled. Petioles are dense, salad color. The variety is valued for its excellent taste and good (6.7 kg / m²) productivity. The average weight of the plant is up to 1.5 kg.
- Yuna. The outlet is 30 cm high or slightly larger, its diameter is 50 cm. The leaves are medium in size, in the shape of an ellipse, in a deep green color. The surface is bubbly, the edges are wavy, sometimes slightly dissected. Petioles are short, narrow, slightly concave, of a salad shade. The average plant weight is 0.8–1 kg. Productivity - 5 kg / m².
- Onyx. The growing season is 45–55 days. Approximately 2/3 of the mass of the plant is made up of white-green petioles. A rosette of leaves is like a vase. Its height is 40–45 cm, its diameter is 5–10 cm more. The leaves are small, smooth. The variety is valued for taste, productivity, transportability.
Photo Gallery: Chinese Cabbage Varieties Common in Russia
- Chinese cabbage Alyonushka - one of the most popular varieties among Russian gardeners
- Vesnyanka - an ultra-early variety of Chinese cabbage
- Goluba F1 - a hybrid of Chinese cabbage; collecting seeds by yourself will not work
- Chinese cabbage Corolla - one of the latest achievements of Russian breeders
- Chinese cabbage Swallow never goes into the arrow
- Chinese cabbage Swan stably brings a crop, even if the summer is not very successful in terms of weather
- Chinese cabbage Purple miracle looks very unusual, but does not differ in productivity
- Pava Chinese cabbage gives one of the last crops
- Chinese cabbage Chill is distinguished by excellent taste
- Chinese cabbage Yuna - these are low, but sprawling sockets
- Chinese cabbage Onyx is well kept
Landing procedure and preparation for it
Chinese cabbage can be grown both in seedling and from seeds. Practically any garden crops are suitable for her as predecessors, except for other varieties of cabbage, radish, daikon, radish, rutabaga. If there is a goal to independently collect seeds, Chinese cabbage is planted away from Peking. With other "relatives" she is not cross-pollinated.
A bed for planting is prepared in the fall. The culture is not particularly picky about the quality of the soil, but it is advisable to increase the fertility of the substrate by adding humus or rotted compost (10-12 l per 1 p / m) during digging. The acid-base balance of the soil is neutral or slightly acidic. The only thing that categorically does not suit her is a heavy peat substrate. Ideal option is sandy loam or loam.
Chinese cabbage does not tolerate direct sunlight, the best option for it is light partial shade
The plant tolerates partial shade and shadow, it practically does not affect productivity. But open areas of culture will not work. If the summer is hot, sunburn is almost inevitable.
To save space on the site, Chinese cabbage can be planted between rows of cucumbers and tomatoes. Growing up, these plants will create a kind of “canopy” that protects it from direct sunlight.
Wood ash - a natural source of potassium and phosphorus
Chinese cabbage, like other garden crops native to Asia, reacts negatively to fresh manure. Of the fertilizers, superphosphate and potassium nitrate are useful to her (for a tablespoon per 1 m²). You can replace them with wood ash. Dolomite flour or egg shells crushed to a powder state are additionally added to acidic soil. They saturate the soil with calcium, which any cabbage loves.
Dolomite flour - having no side effects when observing the dosage, a deoxidizing agent saturating the substrate with calcium
Seedlings are planted in the second decade of March. Culture does not tolerate picking and transplanting very well, so they are sown several in peat pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm, and then transferred to the bed together with the container. Seedlings develop quickly; transplants are carried out already 20–25 days after emergence. By this time, seedlings should have 4–5 true leaves. Between the rows leave about 40 cm, the interval between plants is 35-50 cm.
Seedlings planted in peat pots can be transported to the soil without removing it from the tank
Before planting, the seeds are heated for a quarter of an hour in a thermos with hot (50 ° C) water, then literally for a minute they are immersed in cold. To increase germination, they are soaked for 10-12 hours in a solution of a biostimulant (Epin, potassium humate, succinic acid, aloe juice). To prevent the development of fungal diseases - 15-20 minutes are etched in a solution of biofungicide (Topaz, Baikal-EM, Alirin-B, Fitosporin-M).
Chinese cabbage seeds undergo pre-planting preparation, fungicide treatment is especially important for the prevention of fungal diseases
The containers are filled with any purchased substrate for seedlings, adding a little crushed chalk or wood ash. Seeds are planted, buried by 2-3 cm. The pots are turned into "hotbeds", covered with glass or film, kept in a dark place until emergence. Then they are transferred to the windowsill of the east or south window. The optimum temperature is 18–22 ° C during the day and 14–18 ° C at night. Chinese cabbage is watered often, but sparingly, constantly maintaining the substrate in a slightly wet state, but not turning it into a swamp.
Before and after planting in the ground, Chinese cabbage is abundantly watered
To make it easier for plants to adapt in a new place, they begin to harden about a week before planting. First, the seedlings are left in the open air for a short time, then gradually extend the time spent on the street to 12-14 hours. More experienced gardeners recommend stopping watering 4 days before planting, and moisten the soil well half an hour before it.
Video: how to grow cabbage seedlings
Wells are also well shed with water. At the bottom put a handful of humus, a couple of pinches of wood ash and a little onion husk (it repels pests well). While the planted seedlings do not start growing, arcs are installed above the bed, covering it with any white covering material passing through the air.
When planting seeds directly into the ground about a week before the procedure, the bed is shed with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate and tightened with a film. Soil before and after planting seeds of Chinese cabbage must be well moistened.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Between the rows leave 30–40 cm. Seedlings appear after about 7–9 days if the seeds are deepened by about 1 cm. Prior to this, the bed is covered with polyethylene, white agrospan, and spanbond. Sprouts are watered twice a week and only with warm water.
Chinese cabbage seeds give sprouts rather quickly
In the phase of the second real leaf, the plantings are thinned out, leaving 20–25 cm between the plants. When the third leaf appears, humus is added to the roots. Practice shows that in this case, plants develop faster.
"Extra" seedlings are cut with scissors or pinched near the ground. To plant more or less uniform, the seeds are mixed with sand.
The sprouts of Chinese cabbage are thinned out so that each plant gets enough space for nutrition
Chinese cabbage is a short daylight plant. So that it does not go into the arrow, it is planted either in the middle of spring, or near the end of summer. May and June are the wrong time if the selected varieties are not resistant to flowering.
Crop Care Tips
Chinese cabbage is extremely unpretentious. The crop ripens very quickly, so all that is required from the gardener is weeding the weeds, loosening the beds, fertilizing and watering. The latter is most important. Like any cabbage, pak-choi is a moisture-loving plant.
Both young seedlings of Chinese cabbage and adult plants need watering
The root system of Chinese cabbage is superficial, the roots go into the soil by a maximum of 15 cm. Therefore, sprinkling is the best way to water it. Pouring water under the base of the outlet is undesirable - the bare roots dry out quickly. If the street is at the optimum temperature for the culture, watering is carried out every 2-3 days, spending about 1 liter of water per 1 m². In the heat, Chinese cabbage is watered daily or even twice a day. In the evenings, you can additionally spray the leaves. Mulch will help retain moisture in the soil. She saves time on weeding. Any material other than peat and fresh sawdust is suitable - they strongly acidify the soil, which often leads to the development of keel.
Mulching the beds saves the gardener time on watering and weeding
If it rains heavily in summer, plants may begin to rot. To protect the bed from excess moisture, you can use a film or a covering material stretched over the arcs.
The growing season for Chinese cabbage is very short, so any mineral fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers, which contribute to the accumulation of nitrates in the leaves and petioles, are completely excluded. For early-ripening varieties, two top dressings are sufficient, for mid-ripening - three. The first is carried out 5-7 days after transplanting seedlings into the ground or when 5-6 leaves are formed in seedlings in the garden. The second and third (if necessary) - with an interval of 10-12 days. Chinese cabbage is watered with infusion of wood ash, nettle leaves, dandelion, and other weeds. From store fertilizers, any means based on vermicompost is suitable. The consumption rate is about a liter per plant.
Nettle infusion - absolutely natural fertilizer
Video: Pak Choy Growing Experience
Chinese cabbage in a greenhouse
Seeds of Chinese cabbage germinate already at 4–5 ° C, so it can be sown in the greenhouse in spring. The gardener will have time to harvest before the time comes to plant cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplants, and other crops. If the greenhouse is heated, it is possible to sow seeds in the first ten days of March, if not, in early April. Dig the soil in the fall, add humus, shed 2% copper sulfate or a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate. For additional disinfection in the greenhouse, you can burn a small piece of sulfuric block.
With a heated greenhouse, Chinese cabbage can be grown year-round
When planting, they adhere to the same scheme as for open ground. The substrate before and after is well moisturized. Before emergence, a temperature of about 20 ° C is desirable. Then for about a week it is lowered to 10–12 ° С. Далее до сбора урожая оптимальный показатель — 16–18°С.
Подрастающие сеянцы прореживают дважды с интервалом в неделю, оставляя между растениями сначала 10–15 см, затем 30–35 см. Поливают по мере просыхания верхнего слоя почвы. Без подкормок можно вообще обойтись. Или используйте настой древесной золы.
Высаживаемая ранней весной в теплице китайская капуста практически никогда не страдает от болезней и вредителей. Для большинства из них ещё слишком холодно, личинки, яйца и споры грибка просто не успевают «проснуться» от спячки.
Китайская капуста из «кочерыжки» в домашних условиях
Основание розетки китайской капусты высотой около 5 см можно использовать ещё раз, получив зелень в домашних условиях после срезки. Другой вариант — высадить давшее корни растение в грунт и собрать ещё 2–3 урожая. Чем свежее растение и плотнее «луковица» у основания, тем лучше.
«Донышко» срезом вниз ставят в глубокую ёмкость с водой комнатной температуры так, чтобы её касалось только самое его основание. Предварительно «посадочный материал» осматривают — не должно быть следов гнили, плесени, поражения вредителями. Ёмкость нужно держать в прохладном месте, но не в холодильнике, воду — ежедневно менять. Много света китайской капусте не нужно, а вот жара очень нежелательна. Корни она даёт довольно быстро, буквально через 3–4 дня. Вскоре появится и свежая зелень.
Корни в воде «кочерыжка» китайской капусты даёт всего за несколько дней
После этого растение можно осторожно, помня о том, что корневая система у китайской капусты чрезвычайно хрупкая, пересадить в ёмкость, заполненную любым универсальным грунтом для комнатных растений с добавлением просеянной древесной золы или толчёного мела. На дне горшка обязателен слой дренажа толщиной 2–3 см. Полив после пересадки возобновляют только тогда, когда растение начнёт формировать новые листья.
Появляющуюся из «кочерыжки» зелень срезают по мере отрастания
Держат горшок на подоконнике окна, выходящего на север, северо-запад. Когда на улице стоит подходящая температура, можно выносить его на балкон. Если появляется цветочная стрелка, её немедленно срезают.
Поливают китайскую капусту умеренно, но часто, каждые 2–3 дня. Без подкормок вполне можно обойтись. Летом, чтобы создать требуемый короткий световой день, растение желательно на 12–14 часов накрывать плотным чёрным полиэтиленовым пакетом. В противном случае особенно если не поддерживается желаемая температура, быстро образуется стрелка.
Видео: как вырастить капусту из «кочерыжки»
Типичные для культуры болезни, вредители и борьба с ними
Вегетативный период у китайской капусты непродолжительный, иммунитет по сравнению с «родственниками» довольно неплохой. Многих вредителей отпугивают содержащиеся в листьях в высокой концентрации эфирные масла. Но и эта культура полностью не застрахована от атак болезнетворных грибков и насекомых.
Из вредителей для китайской капусты наиболее опасны:
- Крестоцветная блошка. Вредители и их личинки питаются тканями растения, буквально за пару дней превращая листья в нечто, похожее на дуршлаг. Через неделю после высадки или через две после появления всходов из семян почву на грядке посыпают смесью молотого перца, табачной крошки и просеянной древесной золы, взятых примерно в равной пропорции. Если блошек пока немного, растения опрыскивают настоями пижмы или чистотела. В случае массового нашествия применяют Фоксим, Актару, Фосбецид.
- Гусеницы бабочек белянки и совки. Вредители объедают листья начиная с краёв. Очень быстро от них остаются одни лепестки и прожилки. Пик активности взрослых особей приходится на май. На это время неподалёку от грядки можно разместить специальные феромонные или самодельные ловушки (глубокие ёмкости, заполненные разведённым водой сахарным сиропом или мёдом). Ночью бабочки летят на свет — эту особенность тоже можно использовать. Некоторые садоводы просто накрывают грядку мелкоячеистой сеткой — в этом случае бабочки чисто физически не могут отложить яйца на листьях. В случае их массового нашествия для борьбы со взрослыми особями используют Лепидоцид, Битоксибациллин. Личинок уничтожают Актелликом, Танреком, Моспиланом.
- Капустная муха. Личинки повреждают корни растения, через них проникают в стебли, выедая в них длинные «туннели». Для профилактики растения и грунт опрыскивают настоем луковой или чесночной кашицы. Для борьбы с вредителем используют Моспилан, Фьюри, Фуфанон.
- Aphid. Мелкие зеленоватые насекомые облепляют листья, питаясь соками растения. На них образуются мелкие бежевые пятнышки, хорошо заметные на просвет. Для профилактики капусту 2–3 раза в неделю опрыскивают настоями, приготовленными из любых резко пахнущих трав. Ещё как сырье можно использовать луковые и чесночные стрелки, томатную ботву, кожуру лимона, горчичный порошок и так далее. Они же помогут, если появление вредителя замечено вовремя. Частоту обработок увеличивают до 3–4 раз в день. При отсутствии желаемого эффекта применяют любые инсектициды общего действия — Инта-Вир, Искра-Био, Конфидор-Макси, Адмирал.
- Улитки и слизни. Вредители выедают в листьях и черешках большие дыры, оставляя на поверхности слой липкого налёта, отливающего серебристым. Массовые их нашествия случаются чрезвычайно редко, поэтому вполне можно обойтись народными средствами. Самый простой метод борьбы со слизнями — ручной сбор. Ещё в грунт вкапывают глубокие ёмкости, заполняя пивом, перебродившим квасом, кусочками капусты. По периметру грядки высаживают любые пряные травы, бархатцы, календулу, ромашку аптечную, лаванду. Основание стебля окружают «преградой» из еловых игл, песка, измельчённой ореховой или яичной скорлупы. «Тяжёлая артиллерия» против слизней — препараты Мета, Гроза, Слизнеед.
Фотогалерея: как выглядят опасные для китайской культуры вредители
- Cruciferous flea - the most dangerous pest for Chinese cabbage
- The main harm to plants is caused by the caterpillars of the cabbage scoop, but also adults must be fought
- Cabbage fly lays eggs in the soil, larvae settle on the roots of plants, it is very difficult to notice them
- Aphids - one of the most “omnivorous” garden pests
- The shelf life of Chinese cabbage, damaged by slugs, is sharply reduced, it also looks not very appetizing
In order to avoid fungal diseases, as a rule, preplant seed treatment in a solution of a fungicide of biological origin is sufficient. The causative agents of rot, bacteriosis, downy and powdery mildew do not tolerate copper compounds. Observance of the interval between plants is very important - with thickened plantings, spores of the fungus spread much faster.
For prevention, irrigation water can be replaced once a week with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. The soil in the garden is sprinkled with crushed chalk, colloidal sulfur, the plants themselves are dusted with sifted wood ash, sprayed with water diluted kefir or whey (1:10) with the addition of iodine (drop per liter). It is extremely undesirable to use any chemicals to fight against fungi - because of the short growing season, this will certainly affect the quality of the future crop. If there is no choice, preference should be given to fungicides of biological origin.
The greatest danger to Chinese cabbage is keel. On the roots of the plant, ugly growths form, the aerial part dries. It is already impossible to cure him, it remains only to tear and burn. The best prevention is crop rotation. After any Cruciferous crops, the same family can be planted no earlier than 4–5 years later.
Photo gallery: symptoms of diseases that Chinese cabbage can suffer from
- White rot on cabbage resembles peeling oil paint
- Dry rot most often develops during storage, but cabbage in the garden is not safe from it.
- Mucous bacteriosis makes cabbage completely unsuitable for eating
- Cabbage leaves affected by peronosporiosis turn brown quickly and dry
- With powdery mildew, the leaves from the inside are covered with a continuous layer of plaque, similar to sprinkled flour
- Cure cabbage infected with keel. impossible
Harvesting and storage
Harvest can be cut as soon as there are 9-10 leaves in the outlet. It is such a young Chinese cabbage that is preferred in the homeland, in Asia. Then you can gradually tear off the leaves as they grow. Another option is to cut off the sockets completely when their height and diameter have reached the size characteristic of the variety. But in this case, it is important not to be late, the leaves of overripe Chinese cabbage quickly coarse.
Fresh for a long time it is impossible to save the harvest of Chinese cabbage
Most often, greens are used fresh. But if you wish, you can save Chinese cabbage for 2-3 months. To do this, plants are dug up together with the roots and "transplanted" in boxes with wet sand or peat. The same is done if cooling is expected to reach -10 ° C or lower, and the crop has not yet ripened. Store outlets in the cellar at a temperature of 2–5 ° С. Good ventilation and high humidity (70% or more) are also required.
Sockets dug with roots are “transplanted” into a box with sand or peat and sent to the cellar
Fresh leaves are stored in the refrigerator. To do this, they must be separated from the “onion”, washed, blotted excess moisture with a paper towel and placed in the refrigerator, put, like a bouquet, in a container of water and covered with a plastic bag on top. You can also wrap them in a damp cotton cloth. In such conditions, the leaves do not lose freshness for 7-10 days.
Leaves of Chinese cabbage are washed before storage in the refrigerator so that they do not fade, it is important to maintain high humidity
Somewhat less commonly, freezing and drying of leaves of Chinese cabbage is practiced. In Asia, it is salted and pickled.
There is nothing difficult in growing Chinese cabbage on a plot of land. This crop is surprisingly unpretentious and even in conditions of a temperate Russian climate can produce several crops per season, including when grown in open ground. Pak-choi ripens much earlier than other greens, which allows you to pleasantly diversify the menu in the spring. Her taste is very good, and in terms of health benefits, she surpasses many varieties of cabbage familiar to gardeners.