Overview of Popular Apricot Varieties
Today in the world there are over 1 thousand varietal apricots. There are apricots that ripen early, there is a medium term, and there are late ripe ones. There are apricots that are resistant to fungal diseases, are columnar or stunted. Such a variety of varieties creates the problem of choosing an apricot for planting on your site. This article will help you decide which apricot trees are best for you.
Apricot: a brief description of the plant
Apricot is a deciduous tree 5–8 m high with a trunk up to 30 cm in diameter. Trees above these parameters are rare. The leaves are rounded in the form of a heart or an egg with a length of 6–9 cm, a width of 5–8 cm. The flower is white or pink, single, 2.5–4 cm in diameter. It has a brown sepal, one pistil and 25 to 45 stamens. Drupe fruits, roundish, juicy and fleshy up to 5 cm in diameter, color range from almost white to red-orange, but more often yellow. The weight of the fetus usually ranges from 15–80 g.
The fruits are consumed fresh, and are also processed into the manufacture of confectionery. In the household, fruit, jam and seasoning for various dishes are made from fruits. A large amount of fruit goes to drying: dried apricots (dried fruit without a seed) and apricot (dried fruit with a bone). Varietal apricots from the southern regions have sweet kernels and can be eaten fresh. Edible oil can also be squeezed out of them.
Apricot flower can reach 4 cm in diameter, it has a brown sepals, one pistil and from 25 to 45 stamens
The tree itself is a wonderful honey plant. Apricot wood is a valuable material for the production of wood products. Apricot has established itself as a stock for many fruit crops.
There are two main types of apricot: wild and varietal. Wild apricot, unlike varietal, is less demanding on environmental conditions, the fruits are smaller and often with bitterness. Varietal apricots, there are over 1 thousand, their fruits have a high taste. The vast majority of varietal apricots known in the CIS countries are frost-resistant. Apricot, as a rule, is a self-fertile or partially self-fertile culture. For a self-fertile crop, one tree in the garden is enough to get a plentiful harvest. Partially self-fertile culture requires at least two different varieties, they will provide cross-pollination and contribute to higher yields.
Apricot tree lives over 100 years. The period of abundant fruiting is up to 30-40 years, so gardeners replace trees at this age. And in production they try to keep trees only up to 20 years, since it is problematic to harvest from a high crown. Apricot starts bearing fruit from 3-5 years, flowering period is March - April, fruit ripening period is May - September (depending on variety and region of cultivation). Apricot is thermophilic, but can withstand short-term frosts down to -30 ° C. The weak point of the apricot is its buds and flowers, which can die even with short-term spring frosts. The tree is light-loving and drought-resistant, loves loose soil with good aeration and without stagnation of water. Apricot varieties are propagated by grafting; both types of apricot, cherry plum, almond and plum usually serve as stock.
Early ripening apricots
These trees are very popular among gardeners, because they manage to ripen in the north of their tolerance region. The tolerance region is a certain set of territories where the tested apricot varieties show the greatest resistance to the external environment and give a stable and abundant crop. The early apricot varieties also have disadvantages, they are afraid of cold and rainy spring. Every year, early apricots delight with their wonderful taste; crops can be harvested from the third decade of June. The fruits of this group are eaten fresh. Early grades include: Zhigulevsky Souvenir, Early Kiev, Early Bryansk, Tsunami, Airlie Blash, etc.
Feels great in the Central Black Earth region
The variety was obtained as a result of crossing apricot Companion with apricot Satser, and then with apricot Krasnoshchekiy. The tree is fast-growing and prone to overgrowth. This apricot is medium-sized, reaches 4 m in height. He does not like waterlogging, so control of soil moisture is necessary. Gives an annual plentiful harvest. With an excessive harvest, the fruits are smaller. Apricot has a yellow color with a red blush turning into dots. The fruits have a juicy, sweet and pleasant taste, rated at 4.0 points. Their size ranges from 26–33 g. The stone is easily separated from the pulp. Good transportability. The tree is winter-hardy, and also has high resistance to pests and fungi. She feels great in the Central Black Earth region. Self-made apricot for table and dessert purposes.
The fruits are small, have a pleasant sweet and sour taste.
A fast-growing medium-sized tree reaching 4 m in height. Gives basal shoots annually, which should be removed so that the yield does not decrease. The crown is thick, spreading. The fruits are small, yellow with a reddish spray, slightly pubescent, weighing an average of 13–20 g. The flesh is yellow, dense, with a pleasant sweet and sour taste, estimated at 4.0 points. The stone is quite large, does not stick to ripened pulp. The fruits are well stored. Average yield. Winter-resistant variety for universal use. It bears fruiting in the third year.
Grade Sibiryak Baykalova
Low fertility, the best pollinators Sayan and Mountain Abakan
To obtain this apricot, a seedling of an unknown Far Eastern variety was used. Specially bred for the south of Siberia. The tree is low up to 4 m in height, the crown is spherical, sprawling. Self-fertility is low, it is better to use pollinators of northern varieties (for example, Sayan and Mountain Abakan). Begins to bear fruit in the third year. Withstands cold winters and yields a plentiful harvest. The tree is demanding care. Fruits are round, yellow-orange, with a blush and medium pubescence, the mass is in the range of 27–35 g. The taste is fleshy and sweet, the rating is 4.8 points. Apricot universal purpose.
Three years ago an apricot seedling of the Siberian Baikalov variety was bought at the Gardening store. And now the first year he pleases us with the first harvest. Many are surprised that this heat-loving plant grows in Siberia. This is a merit of our Abakan breeder and honored agronomist of Russia Ivan Leontyevich Baikalov. Apricots grow throughout Khakassia; he devoted almost 50 years of his life to the cultivation of winter-resistant varieties. His name is listed in the Russian Book of Records. He is already quite a respectable age, but he is still whole days on his apricot plantation. If apricots ripen in the south in June, ours only in August, but they are good in taste and superior in beauty to the south.ira_nad
Recognized as one of the best varieties for growing in the suburbs
The variety is obtained as a result of free pollination. The tree is fast-growing, with an average growth of 3–3.5 m, a crown of medium density. Enters fruiting in the third year. Apricot requires regular feeding. In the spring there is a risk of infection with fungal diseases. The leaves are ovoid with a pointed end, green in color, smooth to the touch, glisten in the sun. The petals of the flowers are white. The tree gives an average yield. Fruits are rounded yellow-orange in color with a reddish dusting and slight pubescence, with an average weight of 18–22 g, are transportable. The pulp is yellow in color, tastes sweet and sour, but juicy and pleasant, tasters rated 4.0 points. The bone is medium-sized, easily detachable. The tree is resistant to winter. Recognized as one of the best varieties for growing in the suburbs. The fruits have a universal purpose.
Has a very early maturity
Apricot Crimean selection. The tree grows quickly, reaches an average height, the crown is sprawling and dense. The first crop can be obtained in the third or fourth year. The tree has low frost resistance and moderate resistance to drought. The leaves are small, rounded, smooth and “play” in the sun. The fruits are creamy yellow, with rare carmine impregnations, slightly pubescent, the weight ranges from 32 to 36 g. The pulp is sweet with a slight acidity, the rating is 4.0 points. The stone is small, does not stick to the pulp. Apricots lie well, you can transport them. It has a very early ripening period. Tree fruitful for destination.
Apricots of medium ripening
The largest group of varieties. They normally tolerate spring frosts and are adapted to the summer heat. Almost all mid-season fruits are universal: you can eat fresh, dry or preserve . Most often they have the highest taste. Ripening of fruits occurs from the second decade of July until the beginning of August. Mid-season grades: Manitoba, Harkot, New Jersey, Voronezh Ruddy, Phelps, Augustine, Laureate, Shalah, Superior, Masterpiece, Orange Red, Sunny, Uralets.
The variety is self-infertile, requires replanting pollinators
Selection of the State Nikitsky Botanical Garden. The tree is medium-sized, a crown of medium density, flat-round. The leaves are ovoid, large and wide. It bears fruiting in the fourth or fifth year. Fruits are oval, large, weighing 30–50 g, yellow color with small red blotches, slightly pubescent. The flesh is sweet and sour, fibrous and juicy, cream-colored, a tasting score of 4.5 points. The bone is separated from the pulp, the nucleolus is sweet. The variety is self-fertile, therefore, requires a pollinator, which must bloom with it at the same time. A productive and winter-hardy tree for universal use.
One of the best pollinators for other varieties.
Selection of the South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato, a variety obtained by free pollination of Manchu apricot. The tree is medium-sized, a crown of medium density, flattened. Fruits only in the fifth year. The leaves are medium sized, dark green in color, rounded. The fruits are small, dense, roundish, yellow, in mass can reach 15 g, are transportable. The flesh is sweet and sour, juicy, the score is 4.5 points. The tree has strong winter hardiness. Great pollinator for other varieties. The variety is self-fertile, i.e. requires a pollinator. Fruits of universal purpose.
Fruits well in the Central Black Earth region
A tree of medium height (up to 4 m) with a wide, not very dense crown. Harvest gives from the age of three. The leaves are large, oval, without shine. Fruits are small, ovoid in shape, flattened, light orange with red blotches, slightly pubescent, weighing 33 to 35 g. The flesh is closer in yellow color, sweet, but with a slight acidity, the score is 4.2 points. The bone does not stick to the pulp. This is a partially self-fertile variety. High resistance to frost. It bears fruit well in the Central Black Earth region.
When ripening, the fruits do not crumble, do not crack during rainy years
Medium-sized tree with a rounded elongated medium density crown. The leaves are large, ovoid with a slight sharpening at the end. Fruits are large with slight pubescence, salable, weighing over 30 g. The shape is round-elongated, with a beak on top. The pulp is yellow, juicy, sweet and sour, of a pleasant taste, the rating is 4.0 points. The bone is easily detachable. Ripe fruits do not crumble and are not afraid of rain. Winter-hardy and productive variety for universal use.
In the Far East, the climate is very harsh, but despite this, wonderful, sweet and fragrant apricots ripen in our country. Not worse than the south. The Akademik variety blooms in early spring and is successfully pollinated by the first insects. The tree is not very tall, about three meters. Fruits abundantly and annually. Frost-resistant variety, but does not like moisture under the roots. Harvest pleases. The fruits are not gigantic, but large. At the same time, the flesh is very sweet, with a characteristic aroma. The variety is acclimatized to severe Khabarovsk winters with frosts down to -45 and strong winds. I am very glad that I planted 4 trees of this variety at one time. From apricots I roll compotes, cook jam, dry in an electric dryer for compotes. I take a crop of up to 8-10 ten-liter buckets from one tree. It is very tasty to eat fresh - the fruits to taste like southern.Larisa2012
It has high winter hardiness and annual yield
Far Eastern grade. The tree is medium-sized with a dense rounded crown. The leaves are large, ovate with a sharp point on top, matte. The flowers are pink. It bears fruiting in the third or fourth year. Fruits are medium, round, with a light lateral suture and a pronounced beak at the apex, weighing 26–32 g, are transportable. The pulp is orange, tender, sweet and sour, tasting grade - 3.5 points. The bone easily lags behind the pulp, the nucleolus has a sweet taste. It has high winter hardiness and annual productivity. Resistant to moniliosis and drought. The variety has a table setting.
Sweet variety for the South Ural region
The variety was bred as a result of free pollination. The tree is fast-growing, of medium height, reaches 3 m, the crown is spreading of medium density. Begins to bear fruit annually from the age of four. The variety is partially self-fertile. The leaves are oval, green, glisten in the sun. Fruits with slight pubescence, yellow and red blush, weighing 18-22 g, have a presentation. The pulp is yellow-orange, juicy, sweet, tender, the taste was rated at 4.9 points. The bone separates well. Sweet variety for the South Ural region. The tree is resistant to drought and various diseases. Frost-resistant variety for universal use.
Late ripening apricots
Harvesting late varieties of apricots takes place from early August to the first decade of September. These varieties are not afraid of sudden spring frosts, because the flowers bloom much later. The fruits have a dense pulp, so they are well stored. They are eaten fresh or used for conservation. Late-ripening varieties: Edelweiss, Hargrand, Kompotny, Pogremok, Sardonyx, Northern Lights, Hardy, Comrade.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Good shelf life, up to 2 weeks at low temperature without loss of presentation
A fast-growing tree of medium height with a spreading crown of medium density. Gives fruit in the third year. The leaves are large, ovoid, dark green in color, smooth and shiny. Fruits are oval, pubescent, yellow with a red blush, weighing 22-30 g. There are yields with fruits of 50 g. Good keeping quality, up to 2 weeks at low temperature without loss of presentation. Sweet and sour flesh, yellow, aromatic, tasters rated 4.0 points. The stone is large, separated from the pulp with effort. The tree is resistant to moniliosis. Winter-resistant variety for universal use.
Not demanding variety with periodic fruiting
The variety was obtained by free pollination of Dessert apricot. It grows quickly, medium size with a flat-round crown of medium density. It bears fruiting at the age of three. The leaves are medium, rounded, light green, matte. Fruits are medium and pubescent medium, round, yellow, weighing 30 g. The flesh is yellow-orange, slightly rough, gristly, sour-sweet taste, a rating of 4.2 points. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp. The frequency of fruiting is observed. Winter-hardy, undemanding variety for universal use.
Possesses high winter hardiness of wood and flower buds
The tree has an average growth and a spreading crown. It begins to bear fruit only in the fourth year of life. The leaves are dark green, smooth, ovoid. The fruits are small, oval, yellow, with an average weight of 17–18 g. The flesh is sweet and sour, dense, light orange. Apricot is rated 4.4 points to taste. The bone does not stick to the pulp. Apricots hold well on a tree, do not crumble when overripe. The variety is partially self-fertile. Drought tolerant. It has high winter hardiness of wood and flower buds. High-yielding variety for universal use.
Column-shaped trees have a straight trunk with lateral branches extending from it no more than 20 cm long, very similar in shape to a column. In height, these apricots rarely reach 3 m. Often the fruits are not very large and ripen in the second half of summer. Trees early bear fruit and have good yields, moreover, the fruits have universal properties. Column-shaped apricots have a number of features:
- Compact size. A tree with an area of 1 m in diameter is sufficient, does not create a shadow.
- Decorativeness. During flowering, it looks like a continuous flowering column.
- Convenience of harvesting. Compact size both in width and in height.
- The need for annual pruning.
- In the first year of the tree's life, it is necessary to remove all formed buds. This procedure will allow you to receive a plentiful harvest in the future.
Grade Prince March
The tree can be kept in flowerpots, thanks to the shallow roots
Bonsai up to 2 m in height. The variety is frost-resistant, suitable for central Russia. It begins bearing fruit in the second year. The fruits are large, orange, with a red blush, average weight 30-60 g. The pulp is sweet, juicy, tender, orange. The stone is easily separated from the pulp, the nucleolus is sweet. Resistant to disease and pests. Requires annual pruning. The fruits are eaten fresh or processed. The tree can be kept in flowerpots due to the shallow rooting.
High yield, fetal mass can reach 100 g
The tree is 2–2.5 m high. It begins bearing fruit in the second year. Blooms in April for two weeks. The fruits are very large, yellow in color, with an average weight of 70–100 g. The pulp is yellow, juicy, sweet, aromatic. The tree is resistant to frost. Requires annual pruning. Resistant to disease and pests. The variety is high-yielding.
From such trees it is convenient to harvest
A self-made tree is 2–2.5 m high. It comes into bearing in the second year. The fruits are large, yellow with a red blush, with an average weight of 30–50 g. The pulp is juicy, sweet, aromatic. The variety is high-yielding. Frost resistant. The tree is convenient for harvesting.
Moniliosis (fruit rot, monilial burn) is a fungal disease, not only apricots suffer from it. Pathogens enter, as a rule, through apricot flowers into the tree, inhibit its growth and development throughout the entire growing season. When launched, the tree leads to death. The main cause of infection with moniliosis is the cold spring during the flowering period of the tree with cloudy weather and, accordingly, high humidity. If such a spring is constant in your region or you want to get a good harvest stably every year, then it is better to choose late apricot varieties, in which flowering begins much later or choose apricots that are resistant to moniliosis.
Variety Special Denisyuk
The fruit in appearance and taste resembles a peach
The variety is late ripening. The tree is medium-sized, a crown of medium density. Seedlings in appearance can be confused with the "wild". The fruits are large, yellow-red, with an average weight of 50-60 g. The flesh is juicy, sweet, aromatic, with a rating of 4.9 points. The bone is poorly separated from the pulp. In appearance and taste it resembles a peach. Fruits hang on a branch for a long time. The variety is winter-hardy and resistant to diseases and pests, especially fungi. Productivity is high, which can lead to tree overload.
It differs in large fruits, which can reach 120 g
Late variety of American breeding. The tree is medium-sized with a spreading crown, has white flowers. The fruits are very large, oval, yellow-orange, with a blush, with an average weight of 70–90 g. In some cases, the mass can reach 120 g. The flesh is orange, juicy, sweet, 4.7 points. The stone is large, well separated from the pulp. The winter hardiness of the variety is average, but it is resistant to diseases and pests. Apricot for table use, suitable for commerce. Popular in Ukraine.
Variety Peter and Paul
A distinctive feature - the fruits do not grow smaller when overloaded with a crop
A tree of medium maturity. Often called Petrovsky. This is a Ukrainian variety obtained by crossing a domestic variety with a Chinese one. The strength of growth is weak. It bears fruiting in the third or fourth year. The fruits are very large, oval, yellow, with a blush, weighing from 70 to 120 g. The pulp is sweet, juicy, aromatic, taste rating 4.6 points. Fruits do not have the ability to grind. The variety is frost-resistant, productive, has immunity to fungal diseases.
Promising variety of Ukrainian selection
A tree of medium maturity. Medium-sized with a rounded pyramidal crown. The fruits are large, rounded, light orange in color with a blush, average weight 45-60 g. The flesh is sweet and sour, juicy, aromatic, the score is 4.6 points. The stone is medium in size, easily separated from the pulp. Resistance to winter is high. The tree is high-yielding, not afraid of fungal diseases. Promising variety of Ukrainian selection.
Low-growing apricots are formed by the dwarf rootstock “Pumiselect”. Thanks to it, the growth power of trees is two times less, and the crown volume is three times less than on ordinary stocks. Therefore, trees on a dwarf rootstock rarely reach 3 m in height, and the crown is 2 m in width. Low-growing apricots occupy an intermediate position between ordinary apricots and columnar apricots. They take up less space in the garden than ordinary apricots, earlier they bear fruit and earlier reach a period of maximum productivity. They are easier to trim, tie, clean and fertilize. However, in all these parameters they are inferior to columnar apricots. Trees sometimes require support for branches because of the abundant harvest. The life expectancy of stunted apricot varieties is about half lower.
Geography of Apricot Varieties
For each region, a certain apricot variety will show the highest, stable yield and will be resistant to damaging factors of the winter period.
For the Central region of Russia, such varieties as Iceberg, Alyosha, Aquarius, Countess, Lel, Monastyrsky, Favorit, Tsarsky will best show themselves.
For the Central Black Earth region - Kunach, Orlovchanin and Ulyanikhinsky.
For the Middle Volga region - Kuibyshevsky Jubilee, Firstborn of Samara, Samara, Amber of the Volga region.
For the Lower Volga region - Saratov Rubin, the Son of Krasnoshchekoy.
For the south of the Ural region - Kichiginsky, Piquant, Snezhinsky, Chelyabinsk Early.
Для юга Восточно-Сибирского региона — Восточно-Сибирский, Горный Абакан, Любимый, Саянский, Сибиряк Байкалова, Солнышко.
Для юга Дальневосточного региона — Академик, Амур, Гритиказ, Хабаровский.
Для Северокавказского региона подойдут большинство сортов абрикоса, т. к. этот регион по климатическим условиям больше всего подходит этому дереву.
Для Беларуси районированными сортами являются Знаходка, Память Говорухина, Память Лойко, Погремок, Спадчына, Память Шевчука, Триумф Северный.
Для Украины районированными сортами являются Ананасный Цюрупинский, Краснощёкий, Консервный Поздний, Никитский, Венгерский Лучший, Юбилейный.
Таблица: расшифровка регионов России
|Центральный регион России||Брянская, Владимирская, Ивановская, Калужская, Московская, Рязанская, Смоленская, Тульская области|
|Центрально-Чернозёмный регион||Белгородская, Воронежская, Курская, Липецкая, Орловская, Тамбовская области|
|Средневолжский регион||Пензенская, Самарская и Ульяновская области, Мордовия и Татарстан|
|Нижневолжский регион||Астраханская, Волгоградская и Саратовская области, Калмыкия|
|Уральский регион||Курганская, Оренбургская и Челябинская области, Башкортостан|
|Восточно-Сибирский регион||Бурятия, Тыва, Хакасия, Иркутская область, Красноярский и Забайкальский края|
|Дальневосточный регион||Амурская область, Хабаровский и Приморский края|
|Северокавказский регион||республики Северного Кавказа, Крым, Краснодарский и Ставропольский края, Ростовская область|
Мы дали характеристику абрикосовому дереву и провели обзор основных сортов абрикоса популярных на просторах России, Украины и Беларуси. Эта статья позволяет сузить рамки в выборе сортового абрикоса в зависимости от района и климата, а также целей и задач, которые ставит перед собой садовод.