Orange at home or how to grow a room sun
The orange on the windowsill, on the one hand, may seem like an excess, and on the other, a testament to the determination of human nature. Buying citrus fruits at the supermarket is simple, but uninteresting. To grow a real fruiting tree at home is a pleasure for the elite, who can patiently wait.
The main varieties and types of indoor oranges
Low oranges are grown indoors, as they are convenient to care for. Dwarf varieties up to 1.5 m high are popular, with medium-tall (2–4 m) problems already arise.
Indoor oranges are divided into 2 groups:
- light with orange flesh (ordinary and umbilical, having a rudimentary or underdeveloped fruit on top of the main fruit under the skin). Popular varieties:
- Washington - without thorns, grows up to 2.5 m. Fruits annually, sweet oranges ripen in winter; they are sparsely seeded, weigh from 200 to 500 g; can remain on branches for up to 3 months;
- the fruits of the dwarf variety Merlin are smaller - up to 250 g, but the same sweet and aromatic; ripen in January; transportable;
- Korolkovye (Sicilian) - fruits with red pulp. Unusual color for an orange is only a characteristic varietal trait and does not affect the taste. Uneven pigmentation means that the fetus is not yet ripe. Varieties:
- Kinglet is a typical representative of this group. Dwarf sapling with a pyramidal crown. The pulp of the fruit is burgundy, coarse-grained. Used for making juices;
- Fragola (strawberry) - a variety with a high growth rate, winter-hardy. It bears fruiting in the second half of December. The flesh is orange, but red spots may appear in ripened fruits.
Photo gallery: types and varieties of oranges
- Korolyok fruits are juicy, with dark flesh
- Orange Washington - a variety with an "additive" (undeveloped germ of an orange)
- Orange Fragola smells like strawberries
- e The fruits of Merlin are small but very tasty
Ripening oranges lasts 7–9 months. In ripe fruits, the peel becomes a characteristic orange or reddish color. If the ripened orange does not fall, it is not ripped off for another 1-2 months, so that the taste is finally formed.
Planting and caring for an orange
Caring for an orange will not take much time and effort.
Orange prefers light slightly acidic or neutral soil (pH - from 6 to 7). Planting young sprouts in the ground, it is not specially fertilized - as long as the plant has enough nutrients, its roots will grow, mastering the interior of the pot. In abundantly fertilized soil, the roots "are lazy", develop poorly.
Recipes of substrates:
- 2 parts of turf + 1 part of humus (from cow or horse manure), sheet soil and sand. For transplanted trees: 3 parts of turf land + 1 part of humus and leaf land, the amount of sand can be left the same or reduced by half;
- turf + leaf + peat land + dung humus + sand in equal parts for planting a young orange. For an adult plant transplant, the amount of turf land is doubled;
- 2 parts of sod land + 3 parts of leaf humus + 1 part of dung humus + 1.5 parts of sand;
- garden land + sand + peat in a ratio of 2: 1: 1;
- peat and ready-made special soil in equal proportions.
Ready soil can be used for the substrate as one of the components
At the bottom of the pot, drainage is made of pieces of brick, stones, expanded clay with a height of about 2 cm. So that the water does not "fall out" through the drainage and the earthen lump is wetted evenly, 1.5 cm of sand is poured on top. The earth is mulched with moss (sphagnum) or rotted manure.
Only freshly sown seeds are used for planting. At an air temperature of 18–22 ° C, they will germinate in about 2 weeks.
Algorithm of actions:
- At the bottom of glasses or cut plastic bottles, drainage is placed, filled with a substrate of peat and purchased soil (1: 1), moistened.
- The seeds are buried 1 cm in increments of 5 cm and at a distance of 3 cm from the walls.
- Young seedlings are thinned out, grown in a mini-greenhouse: the cups are covered with the second half of the bottle or tied in a plastic bag. To prevent the bag from settling, small arcs of wire are inserted into the ground.
- Containers are placed in a bright place, avoiding direct sunlight; air daily for half an hour.
Gentle shoots must be protected from direct sunlight.
- In the phase of two leaves, oranges dive into separate containers, trying to scoop up roots with the ground. The diameter of the new pot is at least 10 cm. Filling: substrate + finished soil.
- Plants with a height of 15–20 cm are transplanted by transshipment into new pots.
Germinate seeds also in a wet paper towel, placed in a plastic bag. Bent to 2 cm seeds are stuck in the ground.
Video: how to plant an orange
Orange is watered infrequently, but abundantly, from above. Appearing water in the pan means that the earthen lump has been saturated with all. Her excess is drained. It is best to use soft rain and snow water, soften hard water (5 g of citric or 4-5 drops of acetic acid per 1 liter of liquid); water is upheld in an open container for at least a day. The frequency of watering depends on the indoor climate. It is time to water when the top layer of the substrate is half a finger dry, and the pot becomes much easier.
So that the earthen lump is saturated with moisture evenly, choose pots that are the same in height and width or with a diameter larger than the height.
At least 3 times a week, citrus is sprayed from a spray bottle, in hot weather this is done daily. Soothes a tree in the shade, because every drop of water in the sun turns into a lens and can provoke micro-burns of leaves. Monthly, wipe the orange leaves with a damp cloth or take a shower. To do this, wrap the pot with cellophane, tied it near the trunk so that the tap water does not fall into the ground, and watered with cool water.
Bright sunlight or artificial light positively affects the growth of shoots and roots, abundant flowering and sweetness of fruits. Direct rays of the sun are dangerous, the victims of which are citruses on the southern windowsill: leaves burn out and dry, the roots in the pot overheat. Light gauze curtains or adjustable blinds scatter the rays. So that the earthen lump does not overheat, use light-colored pots, set them below the level of the windowsill. Oranges are provided with daylight 12-15 hours long.
So that the shoots receive equal sunlight, the tree is rotated 1 time in 10 days by 10 ° (the turning step is indicated by a mark on the pot).
Daylight hours in autumn and winter are shortened, citrus slows down growth and falls into a drowsy state. It is kept in a room with a temperature of 5–8 ° C without bright light. If there is no cool room, the plant is extended the artificial day to 12-14 hours using fluorescent or biolamps. A sharp change in temperature, when the plant is transferred from a cold room to a warm one by spring, can cause shock and leaf fall in it. Therefore, the roots "wake up" - watered with almost hot water, and spray the crown with cold - so that the moisture evaporates more slowly.
Pruning is carried out for better branching, building green mass. This brings the fruiting period closer and gives the plant the strength to “bear” the crop. The crown can be of different shapes (round, bush, palmette), but usually indoor trees are made "round." The central shoot is cut at a level of 20–25 cm from the ground, which stimulates the growth of side shoots. On three or four skeletal branches, shoots of the second order will form, and so on until shoots of the fourth order. Each new order of branches is cut to a length of 15–20 cm.
Orange in the greenhouse
Growing an orange in a greenhouse does not require any specific conditions - these are the same low trees in pots or tubs as on the windowsill. But, unlike indoor plants, greenhouse plants receive more light, fresh air, and are distinguished by good health. From an unheated greenhouse with the onset of cold weather, citruses are brought into the room. If the greenhouse is buried below the freezing point of the earth, there is heating and light, plants can grow in the soil all year round and are able to winter even at -35 ° C outside.
How to grow citrus on the street
It is not possible to grow indoor oranges in open ground in the conditions of the Moscow Region, Siberia or, for example, in the North-West region. Subtropical climate plants will quickly “bend” in their harsh climate. But you can take out pots of oranges in the fresh air. They are placed under the protection of tall trees, hiding from direct sunlight. It is easy to spray on the street. During this period, citruses are checked with particular care for pests. Before the threat of cooling, the pots are brought into the room.
Photo gallery: where to place oranges
- Citrus trees grow well on the balcony
- In an unheated greenhouse, oranges grow in pots
- Using an orange in combination with other plants create winter gardens
- Placing a pot below the window sill will protect the roots from overheating
How to fertilize a room orange
The best fertilizer for orange - ready-made balanced fertilizers purchased in specialized stores. The working solution is prepared according to the instructions and is used immediately if the shelf life is not indicated. The main rules for feeding:
- Better to be undershot than to convey - from an excess of fertilizers, an orange can seriously suffer, and an "underfed" plant will get off with a slight malaise.
- Top dressing is carried out after watering so as not to burn the roots.
- After transplantation, the plants are fertilized after 1.5–2 months.
Weak and sick oranges do not feed. Fertilizing is also limited by:
- from the beginning of fruit set and increase to the size of hazelnut so that there is no mass falling of ovaries;
- during the dormant period (they are stopped or reduced to 1 time per month, if the plant overwinters in the warmth with additional illumination).
Regular top dressing 2-3 times a month is carried out during the period of active orange growth from March to October - November. For convenience, make up a calendar where the days of making mineral, organic and complex fertilizers are celebrated. Fertilizers with an equal content of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, for example, from the Fasco series, are selected. Organic solutions (mullein, bird droppings) can be prepared independently:
- 1/3 capacity is filled with raw materials.
- Top up the water. After the mixture ripens, it ceases to foam.
- Dilute the solution with water in a proportion of 1:10 (1:20 - for bird droppings).
Between top dressing an orange is watered:
- growth regulators, for example, Gumi-20, Ribav-Extra;
- a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate (watering is carried out in a dark room, because potassium permanganate quickly decomposes in the light);
- infusion of wood ash (stir 1 tbsp. l. ash in 1 l of water);
- vitriol (1–2 g per 1 liter of distilled water);
- wood glue (2 g of glue is boiled in 1 liter of water until it becomes liquid, the plant is cooled and watered; after an hour the soil is loosened).
As a top dressing, use a banana peel in any form, previously washed with hot water:
- pieces of fresh skins are laid on the drainage, covered with earth;
- infusion of fresh skins - 2–3 banana “covers” are put in 1 liter of water. Insist for several days, filter, dilute with water in a ratio of 1: 1;
- small fragments of fresh skins are laid out on the surface of the earth and sprinkled on top.
Fertilizing an orange with a banana peel is an idea that raises some concerns. On the one hand, banana contains a lot of potassium, fertilizer based on it has a good effect on the roots of citrus. On the other hand, it is not known what kind of chemistry the peel is covered from damage and whether it can be washed off without a trace. In addition, a sweet aroma will attract insects with a magnet.
If the orange continues to languish, foliar dressing is performed, giving the roots a timeout:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- The pot is wrapped in polyethylene, tied around the trunk.
- Dip the crown in a solution of nitrogen fertilizer in concentration for spraying for 20-30 minutes.
What to do with an overdose of fertilizers
In case of an overdose or the use of expired fertilizer, an orange can become sick and discard even healthy looking leaves. The plant is resuscitated by washing the earth, while the top layer can be removed. The essence of the procedure is that a large amount of water flows by gravity through an earthen lump, washing out unwanted substances. Water is allowed to drain thoroughly and the pots are returned to their original place.
Surprisingly, after such washing, the water began to leave much better (but my soil, it can be said to be light, almost without clay), every single plant produced an increase, and the strangest thing is that the growth leaves are of normal shape and color, even where before of this, curves were growing due to a lack of potassium. It seems that due to prolonged drainage, the soil has become more permeable ... roots grow much better. Yes, it is interesting that I did not loosen the surface of the earth after irrigation, and crusts did not form anyway, on the contrary, irrigation water leaves faster than before.Jah Boris
How to transplant citrus
An orange transplant is carried out using the transshipment method:
- during the first year of life 2-3 times;
- up to 5 years of age annually;
- from 5 years onwards, the operation is carried out with a frequency of 1 time in 2-3 years, but the topsoil to the roots is updated more often.
The optimal transplant time is in January - early February.
Transshipment is as follows:
- They lay their hands on the ground, passing the trunk of an orange between the index and middle fingers.
- The pot is turned upside down, the top layer of the earth, which will need to be removed before the first roots, is sprinkled on its own or it is scratched. If the earth in the pot is slightly dried, an earthen ball will come out much easier and will not fall apart in your hands. This stage is carried out with an assistant.
- Inspect the earthen lump: if everything is entwined with roots, then a transplant is necessary. If the roots are not visible or they have rotted, it means that the orange has been planted in too large a capacity and it must be transplanted into a smaller one by removing diseased roots and dusting them with charcoal powder. If there are few roots and they are healthy, the plant is not transplanted.
If the roots are covered with an earthen lump, the plant needs a transplant
- The plant is turned upside down, inserted into the prepared new pot 2-3 cm larger than the previous one.
When transplanting, an earthen lump does not destroy
- They fill the space between the earthen lump and the walls of the pot with fresh earth, tapping the bottom of the pot on the floor and tamping the ground, watered. If there are voids, the root growth will be disturbed, which will lead to yellowing of the leaves and even their falling. The root neck is not buried.
- After transplanting, the orange shade for several days from direct sunlight.
Transplanting a flowering citrus plant, performed by the method of transshipment, is quite possible. With this method, citrus does not experience stress, preserves buds, flowers and even fruits, if the latter are present at the time of transplant. In his practice, due to force majeure circumstances, he successfully handled such plants without any negative consequences. However, it is better not to do this without objective necessity.Grigorich Maistrenko Sergey
Ways to breed orange
At home, the orange is propagated by seeds, grafts, cuttings and aerial layering.
Seedlings from seeds quickly adapt to environmental conditions, but lose some of the varietal properties, and enter fruiting after 8-10 years. Therefore, they are used as a valuable material for stocks on which grafts of other varieties or other types of citrus, in addition to mandarin, are grafted. The ideal pair is calamondine (a hybrid of mandarin and kumquat) on an orange stock. Kalamondin is an evergreen tree, unpretentious to humidity of the earth and air; its flowers are not striking and lack aroma. The tree looks beautiful at the time of ripening - it is strewn with orange balls, but only lovers can appreciate the bitter-sour taste of fruits.
Kalamondin feels great on the rootstock of an orange
Orange is usually vaccinated from April to May, when the stock (what they vaccinate) woke up, and the scion (what they vaccinate) is at rest. Secateurs and a knife, as well as the vaccination site, are disinfected; slices do not touch the hands. To make the cut surface smooth, it’s worth stuffing your hand. The joints are fixed with food film tapes, electrical tape; the plant is placed in a mini-greenhouse.
For spring vaccination, take buds from the shoots of the current year, for summer - the previous one. The most popular flap budding:
- On a rootstock at a height of 5–7 cm from the ground, an incision is made with the letter “T”, the bark is pushed back with the tip of a knife. The length of the transverse incision is 1 cm, the longitudinal one is about 2.5 cm.
- The leaf near the kidney or eye is cut off, leaving a short stalk, for which the graft is convenient to keep on weight.
- At a distance of 1.5 cm from the kidney, transverse incisions are made at the top and bottom, with one movement from the bottom up, the bark with the kidney is cut between the notches. The knife is held almost parallel to the shoot.
- The shield is tucked under the bark, fixed, put on a plastic bag, tie the edges.
Some experience is required to complete the budding.
Into the cleavage
- The central shoot of the stock is cut to the desired height of the stem (on average 10 cm), a stump is obtained.
- Split it in the middle to a depth of about 2 cm.
- The leaves of the shank are cut in half, its lower part is cut with a wedge (the length cut corresponds to the depth of the slit on the stock).
- Insert the handle into the slot so that there are no voids between the cambium of the stock and scion.
- They fix the place of vaccination, put on a bag on top, tie it up.
Fusion of stock and scion occurs in about a month
The orange from the cutlery retains all varietal characters, bears fruit on average after 4 years, but the cuttings do not take root in some varieties. For quick rooting it is required:
- ambient light or partial shade;
- warm loose substrate;
- moderate humidity.
In the apartment, pots with cuttings are placed on an extractor hood above the stove, on cabinets or on a battery, placing a plate under the glass. Only after the appearance of the roots (they will be visible in a plastic cup) do the cuttings gradually accustom themselves to brighter light.
- Cuttings with 3-5 leaves are cut from a ripened branch. The upper section passes 5 mm above the upper kidney, the lower - 2-3 mm below it.
- The upper 2-3 leaves are left, the lower remaining are cut. If the upper leaves are large, they are cut off halfway, in this case rooting takes longer (you can try to root even cuttings without leaves).
- The sections of the cuts are powdered with Kornevin or the stalk is lowered into a solution of a stimulant (Heteroauxin, Kornerost, Humat, Zircon, Ecopin); preparation and duration of processing are indicated in the instructions.
- Pour drainage, sand and a substrate of vermiculite or finished soil in half with sand into a cup in layers.
- Cuttings are stuck into the substrate to a depth of 2-3 cm, watered until water flows into the pan
- Water is drained, a glass is placed in a greenhouse from a bottle, a plastic bag, put in a warm place. Cuttings are not watered, because the necessary microclimate and humidity are kept in the greenhouse for a month.
- The rooted cuttings are transplanted into separate pots, again they arrange the likeness of a greenhouse, which is periodically aired, gradually accustoming the plants to the microclimate of the room.
Orange from cuttings will retain varietal characteristics
If the branch is knocked out of the crown and it’s a pity to cut it off just like that, they make layering on it and get a full-fledged plant. A necessary condition is active sap flow.
How to lay off:
- Having retreated from the trunk a few centimeters, the working area on the shoot is wiped from dust, with a clean knife, make an annular cut of the bark 1-2 cm wide.
- The slice is treated with a root stimulant.
- A plastic bag is put on the cut, tied down below the cut.
- Fill the bag with a moist substrate - sphagnum, soil + vermiculite (1: 1), sand in half with moss; tie the bag above the cut.
- After the formation of the roots (they will be visible in a transparent bag), the shoot is cut off under the bag.
- The roots are exposed, the shoot is pruned by secateurs close to the root bundle, the cut is dusted with charcoal.
- An orange shoot is planted in a pot, covered with cellophane, and placed in diffused light.
- After 2-3 weeks, cuts are made in the walls of the greenhouse so that room air gradually penetrates inside and the plant adapts. Over time, cellophane is removed.
Typical “internal enemies” of indoor orange are the following pests:
- scale shield. A brown-looking insect; eats cellular juice, leaving behind a poorly washable sticky coating;
- spider mite. It spreads through the air, affects mainly the lower part of the leaf, similar to grains of flour. In places of puncture of the leaf with a tick, spots appear, with a severe defeat, the leaves fall off;
- mealybug. It settles in the axils of the leaves;
- whiteflies - small butterflies;
- thrips - whitish flies, whose larvae develop inside the leaf, on the surface of which light stripes are visible;
- aphid. Prefers tender tops of branches, leaving behind a sticky coating;
- the gall nematode cannot be seen; these worms live in the substrate and on the roots. Swelling appears on the affected areas, the metabolism is disturbed, the leaves and ovaries fall off;
- weevils are invisible bugs, gnawing leaves and eating flowers. Active in the dark, their presence give out round holes in the affected area.
Photo gallery: who harms the orange
- Tick infection occurs by air.
- Nematodes are more dangerous with their invisibility
- You can’t get rid of annoying whiteflies at a time
- "Modest" bugs eat leaves and flowers
- Thrips multiply with fabulous speed
- The worm gives the color of its body
- Shield - insect-sticking
From nematodes, the roots are immersed in water at a temperature of 50 ° C, damaged ones are removed, transplanted; use Ecogel, which includes Chitosan (responsible for strengthening immunity and cell walls). Solutions of insecticides (Akarina, Fitoverma, Aktara) will cope with most insects, and all plants in the house are treated. After several uses, the drugs change because insects develop immunity.
Of folk methods against sucking pests, use:
- spraying with tansy (1 tbsp. l. to 1 tbsp. boiling water), a solution of garlic (1 head per 1 liter of water);
- rubbing the inside of the leaves with undiluted 96% alcohol;
- spraying with a solution of laundry soap;
- spraying with citrus peel infusion - 1 kg of peel per 5 l of warm water, a solution in a proportion of 10 l of water per 100 g of infusion leaves are sprayed 3 times with an interval of 5 days.
Whiteflies are caught on sticky traps hanging on branches. Ticks are washed off with a shower, having previously covered the ground with cellophane and tying it around the trunk. Then a 3-5-minute tanning session is carried out under an ultraviolet lamp.
Diseases of citrus and their treatment
Untreated diseases of the orange include:
- tristeza - in a light form, a tree loses its leaves, in a heavy form - it dies entirely;
- leaf mosaic - leaves are covered with light or dark stripes, are deformed, orange growth slows down. Good care and top dressing stop the process;
- cancer - the plant dies. To prevent the disease, spring treatment is carried out with copper-containing fungicides.
Treatable diseases include:
- Anthracnose - the leaves become covered with brown spots, the ovary and buds fall off, the bark is destroyed, the young branches rot. Spraying with 1% solution of copper sulfate helps; cracks are covered with garden varnish; each new shoot order is sprayed with 1% Bordeaux fluid;
- homosis - caused by waterlogging of the substrate, deepening of the root neck, mechanical damage to the cortex, an excess of nitrogen and a lack of phosphorus and potassium. Manifestations: gum flows from cracks at the base of the trunk, the bark dies. Treatment: cracks are disinfected with potassium permanganate, glossed over with garden varnish, regulate top dressing;
- iron chlorosis (iron deficiency) - leaves discolor, flowers and ovaries fall, the tops of shoots dry. Treatment: spraying with iron preparations, for example, Ferovit;
- brown spotting - caused by a fungus, manifests itself in the form of small spots on the leaves. Treatment: spraying with 1% Bordeaux fluid.
How to fix problems
Reasons for dropping orange leaves:
- poor condition of roots that grow in a heavy substrate. The plant is taken out with an earthen lump, which is soaked in water with the addition of a root agent. At this time, a new substrate is prepared and the soaked orange is transplanted into another pot. To reduce stress, the crown is tied with polyethylene, if the crown is large, each branch is packed in a bag. Until complete engraftment, the branches are periodically ventilated, but the rest of the time they are kept in bags, maintaining humidity inside by spraying;
- voids in the substrate. The plant is taken out with an earthen lump, lowered into place, adding fresh soil and ramming it;
- excess phosphorus, which causes a lack of potassium, iron, copper, zinc or boron. Output: balanced top dressing;
- violation of agricultural technology: lack of light, mineral starvation, dry air, poor watering. Treatment: good care.
Sometimes in autumn, new unopened leaves dry up near an orange. This problem may be related to:
- hypothermia of the roots;
- lack of potassium before wintering;
- violation of habitual conditions of detention.
The roots are inspected, if necessary, the earthen lump is washed. The plant is provided with the necessary care, potassium top dressing is performed. After such events, the orange should recover.
Growing an orange at home is problematic only for residents of the north side of the house, because without sunlight the fruits do not grow. The rest of the orange will be quite light earth, regular top dressing and spraying.