The nuances of planting and caring for garden gerberas
Large flowers that look like chamomile, but painted in a variety of bright colors - these are gerberas. In indoor floriculture, plants have been known for a long time. But in the open ground, their cultivation is associated with certain problems. But for those who are in love with these beautiful flowers, nothing is impossible. Heat-loving plants are ideal for southern gardens and parks. But flower growers of cooler regions, knowing little secrets, can also create elegant corners in their garden and enjoy optimistic colors. Having understood the nuances of planting and caring for garden gerberas, you can make your personal plot much brighter.
Gerbera History and Description
Hot Africa is not only endless deserts. The continent gave the world many unusual plants, among which there are flowering. One of the representatives of the African flora was first described in 1737. The name received in honor of the German physician and botanist Traugott Gerber. I think that you have already guessed that we will talk about gerberas.
There are other names for gerbera. For example, in English literature, a plant is called a “transvaal daisy / daisy”.
Gerbera is very similar to a modest daisy, but the bright color makes it a real queen of the flower garden
Gerbera combines the modest appearance of chamomile and a large range of colors in which the flowers are painted. These are herbaceous perennials that are successfully grown in open ground, in greenhouses and on the windowsill. A bright flower is an indispensable participant in many landscape projects and bouquet compositions.
Elongated pinnately dissected leaves of a juicy green color are collected in a basal rosette. The root system is well developed. The base of the leaf plate, peduncles and petioles of some species are covered with fluff. The flower has typical for aster inflorescences - baskets located on long, up to 60 cm, and flower-bearing stalks without leaves. The diameter of the gerbera inflorescences depends on the variety. There are also small flowers - up to 4 cm, and large - 15 cm. The inflorescence is collected from 2 types of flowers. Several hundreds of individual flowers can be combined in one basket. After flowering, the fruit is formed - the achene.
In fact, a gerbera inflorescence consists of hundreds of individual flowers
By the way, about the color scheme of the plant. In the market you can find gerberas of various colors and their shades - red, pink, yellow, purple, white, orange, cream. Perhaps the only color that cannot be recreated in a natural way is blue.
Gerbera color palette delights
Gerbera in the open ground
Gerbera is one of the most popular flowers for open ground, able to decorate a plain garden corner, flower garden, public park. But it is worth considering the African roots of the plant. The summer months in central Russia are quite satisfied with an elegant flower, but on the condition that there will be no differences in day and night temperatures. But cold autumn and frosty winter are not at all the conditions under which a gerbera is able to winter. If you do not dig the flower in time, it will turn into an annual, that is, it will simply die and next spring you will have to plant a new plant.
Therefore, in general, the climate of central Russia is not intended for year-round cultivation of African beauty in the open ground. In such climatic conditions, the flower is best grown in greenhouses or mobile pots.
But residents of warm regions were more fortunate. Mild winters are suitable for a period of rest on the street, but sheltering the root system with a pile of fallen leaves or straw is an indispensable condition for the survival of the flower. It is with this care that the gerbera is able to grow for more than one year.
In the south, the plant manages to unleash its full potential. The inflorescences are large, do not fade for a long time and the maximum number of flowers on one plant.
Gerbera blooms all summer. Bright colors delight the eye for 3-4 months. But this period may be different, it all depends on the characteristics of the variety or hybrid. If you want to collect a bouquet of these bright flowers, then the peduncle will have to be broken out or gently twisted from a leaf outlet, being careful not to damage it. If even a small piece of the stem remains after pruning, the plant may rot and die.
Bright elegant gerberas feel great in warm regions and can even winter on the street
- In winter, the gerbera feels great at a temperature of 6 - 8 ° C. As already noted, in the southern regions the plant is able to survive the winter months with an average temperature of 0 to –3 ° C, being in the open ground under reliable shelter.
- Despite the love of plenty of sunlight, the flower needs to be slightly shaded during the hottest midday hours. At this time, the leaves may slightly wilt. But with the arrival of evening cool turgor in them is restored.
- Gerbera does not need to be specially sprayed. The fact is that moisture that has got into a leaf outlet can cause a process of decay, which can destroy the whole plant.
What is the difference between indoor and outdoor varieties
Strong plants with a high peduncle and large inflorescence are grown in open ground. They are more resilient and resistant to diseases and pests.
In indoor floriculture, preference is given to undersized compact hybrids with short peduncles and small flowers. These plants are more pampered and demanding on living conditions and care.
Read more about cultivating indoor gerberas in the article.
Unlike gerbera grown outdoors, indoor varieties are compact in size.
Popular species, hybrids and varieties with photos
In nature, according to various sources, there are from 30 to 80 species, which are mainly distributed in South Africa and Madagascar. Due to the high commercial success of the flower, breeding work does not stop even for a minute. As a result, the creation of a huge number of varieties and hybrids that differ from each other in the appearance of inflorescences and various colors. Therefore, a gerbera is often classified by external signs:
- small flowered;
- large-flowered with narrow petals;
- large-flowered with wide petals;
- half terry.
But the founders of all this splendor are considered 2 species - Jameson's gerbera and green leaf gerbera.
Gardeners are offered a large selection of garden plants. I will describe only a few of them:
- Gerber Jameson. This species is considered an ideal plant for the garden. Herbaceous perennial has a strong bush. Slightly raised long (up to 20 cm) feathery leaves, sometimes with slight pubescence, are collected in a socket. Peduncle is thick, not too high. A daisy-like inflorescence reaches 10 cm in diameter. A long flowering period (up to 3 weeks) and bright colors make this species a welcome guest in the flowerbed.
Gerber Jameson - the ancestor of many hybrid forms
- Gerbera garden hybrid Garvinea Sweet Dreams. The large plant is new to gardening. The bush reaches a height of 45 cm and a diameter of 30–40 cm. The hybrid strikes with an abundance of flowers, because one plant can simultaneously produce up to 20 peduncles. The color is varied. Flowering continues from spring to early fall.
Gerbera Garvinea Sweet Dreams has a long flowering period
- Gerbera hybrid (patio) Klondike. The plant is large - the height of the bush and its diameter are almost equal in size - 45 cm. During the season, the hybrid can give up to 50 flowers. Striking a huge variety of shades. The flowers are large - up to 12 cm in diameter, semi-double. The flowering period is from July to October.
Gerbera Klondike strikes with an abundance of peduncles
- Gerbera Abyssinian. Perennial, reaching 45 cm in height. Elliptical leaves form a basal rosette. The plate is 22 cm long, 14 cm wide, and the edges are wavy or notched-finely serrated. The young leaf is covered with a light fluff. Inflorescences are single, apical. Reed flowers, painted white, but sometimes have reddish hues.
Gerbera Abessin - an incredibly delicate and beautiful plant
- Gerbera orange (auranticka). Elliptical leaves form a rosette. The bush is low with a thick root. Single basket inflorescences are colored in orange, bright red, pink, dark scarlet and yellow. The middle flowers may be black or dark purple.
Gerbera orange is presented in yellow-red-orange tones.
- Gerbera Wright. Lobed or cirrus leaves with whole, sometimes jagged edges, form a broad basal rosette. A long peduncle is crowned with a daisy-like flower. Depending on the variety, the inflorescences are colored in red, orange, purple, yellow, pink. The middle can be yellow or white.
Gerbera Wright looks like a big bright daisy
- Gerbera Vega. Refers to varieties of American selection. It is distinguished by a large inflorescence - up to 13 cm in diameter and narrow long petals. Peduncle high - 70 cm. Coloring orange-yellow.
Gerbera Vega - one of the varieties with narrow petals
Obtaining gerbera in the open ground using direct sowing of seeds is unlikely to succeed. Too specific conditions for their germination will be required. Therefore, for planting on a flower bed, you first need to grow seedlings. As you may have guessed, this is a very exciting thing, but it requires a lot of patience.
First you have to get seeds. The main task is to correctly determine their expiration date. Germination persists from six months to 10 months.
Seeds can be obtained independently using existing plants. But for this it will be necessary to resort to manual pollination of gerbera.
Garden gerbera seeds are planted from January to March. It is also important to take into account that plants grown from seeds will bloom only after 10 - 11 months, therefore, spring sowing is desirable for a garden variety.
- Prepare the nutrient mixture. To do this, take:
- 2 parts of turf land;
- 1 part leaf and humus;
- sand (but not fine).
- As a container, use low oblong pots with drainage holes.
- To exclude the development of pathogenic flora in the soil, spill it with a hot solution of weak potassium permanganate. After the soil has cooled, proceed to sowing at home.
- Seed close shallow - 0.2-0.3 cm. It is best to spread them on moist soil, and sprinkle lightly with dry top.
- Landing pattern 3 - 5 mm. Such crowding is not terrible, because not all seeds will sprout.
- Cover the container with glass or a bag to create a greenhouse inside. Periodically moisten the soil (this is easy to do with a spray gun) and ventilate the shelter. During this period, it is important to maintain a stable temperature of 18 ° C.
- The first shoots will appear on the 5-7th day. Within 10 days, the remaining seedlings appear. After 2 weeks, real leaflets are already forming on them.
The first shoots appear early - on day 5
- Take a picking when there are 3-4 real leaves on the seedlings. Plant seedlings in separate pots with a diameter of 8 - 10 cm.
Pick picking is carried out in a phase of 3-4 leaves
- The temperature for growing seedlings is 18 - 20 ° C. The place is bright, but not direct sunlight. Drafts are contraindicated. Water only after the topsoil has dried. Water should be at room temperature.
- A month after the picking, you can feed young seedlings with complex mineral fertilizers. The next time the nutrient solution is added after 15 - 25 days.
- If your windows face north, then the seedlings may not have enough natural light. Correct the situation and stop the stretching of seedlings will help fluorescent lamps.
Sowing gerbera seeds - video
Gerbera seedlings are very tender, so you should eliminate errors that can destroy seedlings:
- watering with cold water;
- high humidity;
- non-compliance with the temperature regime;
- low light;
- deepening of the root neck during a dive.
A transplant into the ground is possible only when the threat of night frosts is completely gone. Such conditions develop in late May - early June. A later transplant will reduce the possible flowering time. But first, you need to find a place worthy of a bright beauty. This should be a well-lit area, in the shade of flowering you will not wait. And if the flowers appear, they will be small and small. But in the southern regions, where the sun is very aggressive in the summer, a scattered shadow at noon is desirable for a gerbera. Although the mature bush is not afraid of the wind, still make sure that the plant is protected from the prevailing air flow.
Only strong and healthy seedlings are suitable for open ground. Those who are not strong enough are best left in pots and continue to care for them in comfortable conditions.
For open ground, prepare only strong and healthy plants.
Before transplanting into open ground, seedlings need to be hardened. To do this, take young plants outside, gradually increasing the time they spend in the fresh air.
In the middle of Russia in the summer, differences in daytime and nighttime temperatures are possible. Therefore, in advance, prepare a light prefabricated shelter consisting of a wire frame and non-woven material, which must cover the gerbera in case of a sharp cooling.
The soil on the flower bed should be prepared in advance:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- clean from weeds, dig well, adding sand and peat in equal parts. High friability, moisture and air permeability of the soil - the main conditions for successful growth. Gerbera prefers soils with a neutral acidity index;
- since the plant often suffers from root rot, try to exclude the introduction of humus in the soil. It can cause fungal diseases.
Step-by-step transplantation of seedlings in the open ground
- Dig a hole that will be slightly larger than an earthen coma seedlings.
- At the bottom, lay a small layer of drainage (you can use small twigs after trimming healthy trees), cover the top with fertile soil mixture.
- Transplant using a transshipment method. After the earthen lump is placed in the hole, fill the voids with soil and condense.
- A properly planted gerbera should not be buried. The leaf outlet is located above the landing level at a height of 1 cm.
- Pour the planted plant under the root.
Gerbera in the open ground - video
Reproduction by dividing the bush
You already know about the seed method. It should be noted that it has both advantages and disadvantages. The plus is that with the help of seeds you can get a lot of new plants, they do not transmit diseases, and seedlings develop quickly. But there is one significant minus - plants obtained from seeds do not always support varietal affiliation.
As a rule, garden gerbera is propagated vegetatively - by dividing the bush. An adult plant that has reached the age of 3 years can safely be divided into several parts. To do this, they dig a bush, shorten the root system to 10 - 15 cm and divide it into parts with roots and 2 - 3 shoot points. To prevent decay, the cut points are treated with crushed activated carbon, and when planting new plants in the ground, they do not deepen the growth point. Also, the first time you should shade the bushes. The procedure should be carried out at the beginning of summer so that the dividers can recover at a temperature of 22 - 24 ° C. By the way, this takes a long time, almost a month.
Narrow-celled bushy varieties are very suitable for this method of propagation.
Garden gerbera easily propagated by dividing a bush
After landing care
The temperamental southern character of the gerbera requires special treatment for it in open ground conditions. But thanks for the efforts will be an incredibly beautiful sight - a flowering that lasts quite a while.
The soil in which the gerbera grows should be moderately moist. These flowers love the golden mean - they do not tolerate either drying out of the soil or its overmoistening. The average frequency of watering is 2 times a week, but atmospheric precipitation and air temperature should be taken into account. During active growth and bookmark buds are watered frequently and abundantly. At the moment when the buds begin to blossom, watering is reduced. After absorbing moisture, light loosening should be carried out so that the roots receive enough oxygen and do not suffer from overmoistening.
It is advisable to water under the root with water that has warmed up in the sun. The most favorable time of day for watering is early morning. If, during moistening, droplets of water fell on leaves or buds, then they would not cause harm to the plant - the moisture would evaporate before the heat started. An evening procedure is undesirable due to possible hypothermia of the roots.
So that water does not expose the roots when watering, water in a circle at a distance of 3 cm from the beginning of the growth of the outlet.
Water early in the morning so that water droplets that fall on the plant evaporate before the heat and do no harm
Put humus under the bushes and dung is not worth it, as they can provoke fungal diseases, from which the gerbera often suffers.
Only complex mineral fertilizers are suitable for flowering plants. During the growing period of green mass, preference should be given to nitrogen-containing compounds. But when the process of bud blooming begins, switch to fertilizers containing potassium and calcium. These macronutrients will support abundant flowering.
Top dressing is carried out often - once every 2 weeks, while the concentration of the solution is made weaker than the norm indicated on the package.
Gerbera in the open ground is often fed, but fertilizers must be non-concentrated
A flower bed with a gerbera must be weeded periodically. This procedure will save the plant from competitors - they will pick up the nutrients necessary for the flower and moisture. In addition, pests start in the weedy grass, which will gladly move to the succulent leaves of African chamomile.
To prolong the flowering of gerbera and stimulate the laying of new peduncles, faded inflorescences should be removed on time. But, as already mentioned above, they are not cut, but broken out at the base or twisted from a sheet funnel.
Care after flowering
After the gerbera has given all its energy to flowering, it should be prepared for winter.
How to winter in the south
Only mild winters can guarantee a normal wintering of gerbera in open ground. But this does not mean that the plant does not need shelter.
- After the gerberas have faded, remove all the flower stalks, reduce watering and completely stop fertilizing.
- The root zone at the end of September should be covered with a thick layer of fallen leaves or straw. But be careful, leaves need to be collected only from under healthy plants.
- A great way to preserve perennial plants will be a box of plywood or a box of very thick cardboard.
- With the advent of spring on sunny days, try to raise the boxes to gradually accustom the plant to natural conditions. With the onset of sustained heat (10 ° C), the shelter is removed.
By the way, there are new gerbera hybrids that can tolerate large frosts (more than -10 ° C), but again, they need shelter, even if the winter is warm.
In the southern regions, gerbera is one of the most popular plants for landscape design.
Wintering in central Russia
In this climate region, gerbera is cultivated as an annual plant. But you must admit, it’s a pity that it relates to a flower that can please you with beautiful flowering for more than one year. Therefore, for growing gerbera as a perennial, it is provided for its movement for the winter in suitable conditions. For this, the plant is dug together with an earthen lump and transferred to suitable containers. Storage conditions should be as follows:
- ventilated cellar with a stable temperature and low humidity;
- temperature 10 - 12 ° С, but not higher than 15 ° С;
- very rare watering and lack of top dressing.
You can also put a pot of gerbera in the greenhouse. If there is no basement or greenhouse, use the coolest corner of the apartment, where there is no bright light. In such conditions, the plant will be able to rest until spring, so that with the beginning of the new season it will please lush flowering.
If you do not want to transplant a gerbera from a flower garden into a wintering pot and back every year, use a container in which the flower will be comfortable throughout the seasons. From spring to autumn, the plant will delight you with flowers on the street, and for the winter you can clean it in a place suitable for relaxation.
In central Russia, gerbera can also be grown on the street, but in winter it will have to be provided with more comfortable conditions.
Diseases and pests that most often cause problems when grown outdoors
Among the challenges of growing gerbera in open ground is its vulnerability to diseases and pests. The greatest danger to the plant is all sorts of rot.
The disease causes decay of the leaf outlet, thinning and putrefactive phenomena in the roots. All this leads to wilting and drooping of the leaves, and then to the death of the plant. The cause of the problem lies in improper watering - excessive soil moisture and moisture in the leaf outlet, the use of cold water. For treatment use Fundazolum or Maxim. If the gerbera is no longer being treated, a bush is dug out of the ground along with the roots and destroyed to prevent further spread of the infection.
Root rot is a frequent companion to waterlogging the soil.
Peduncles, flowers, and leaf bases suffer. Parts of the plant affected by the fungus are covered with a gray fluffy coating and die off. A diseased plant, if left untreated, may die. To combat the disease, use a solution of Fundazole or Rovral. The method of application is indicated on the package. To prevent any kind of rot, you must follow the proper agricultural practices and plant only healthy plants. The disease, as in the case of root rot, leads to:
- waterlogging of the soil;
- high humidity;
- excess nitrogen;
- thickened planting;
- moisture penetration of the leaf outlet and other parts of the plant.
Gray rot appears as a gray fluffy coating on the leaves
With increasing temperature and humidity on the petioles of gerberas, especially in young plants, a white, flour-like coating appears. Over time, it becomes dirty white. If the disease is allowed to progress, then the spots will begin to capture the entire leaf plate, which will lead to its drying out. The final stage of the disease will be the defeat of peduncles, buds, flowers. Damage can result from a passion for mineral fertilizing or a lack of calcium in the soil. Measures against powdery mildew are treatment with Fundazole or Topaz. Disease prevention is as follows:
- observing the temperature regime;
- maintaining normal humidity;
- providing sufficient sunlight and normal ventilation;
- proper top dressing.
Powdery Mildew Leaf
This viral disease is transmitted by harmful insects, mostly sucking. Also, the disease can be activated at the end of the growing season, when the intensity of sunlight decreases, the air temperature decreases, but the humidity remains high. Gerbera leaves are covered with various shapes of spots with clear borders that have a yellow-green color. Subsequently, the leaf blade is deformed. Sometimes severe pigmentation of the tissue along the veins may occur. Possible necrosis. There is no cure against the virus, but preventive measures will help to avoid the problem:
- Be sure to treat the area against pests;
- Do not plant the plant in the area where representatives of the Pumpkin family grew before;
- follow the basic techniques of agricultural technology.
Compliance with the rules of planting and caring for gerbera will help to avoid mosaics.
Aphids are collected by colonies in places with the most delicate cover, that is, on the underside of the gerbera leaf, on young peduncles and buds. Piercing the thin tissue of a plant with a proboscis, it sucks out nutrients from it, thereby weakening the flower. In addition, aphids are carriers of many unpleasant diseases, including mosaics. Damaged leaves become deformed, turn yellow and dry. Peduncles, if they develop, the flower will be inferior. You can fight aphids with chemicals - Decis, Karate, Inta-Vir, Actellik or Fitoverm. You can use folk remedies, for example, pollinate plants with ash or tobacco dust. Prevention of the appearance of aphids:
- inspect plants for pest;
- fight weed;
- observe the watering regime.
Aphids are mosaic carriers that cannot be treated.
This small white butterfly often infects plants in greenhouses, but with increasing temperature and humidity, the pest can also be found in the garden. The insect feeds on the sap of the plant. This leads to yellowing and drying out of the leaves. The signs by which a pest can be detected are as follows:
- leaves are covered with a sticky shiny coating - these are traces of the life of a butterfly:
- translucent scales - larvae appear on the surface of the leaf plate;
- gerbera lags significantly in growth;
- a common whitefly companion is a sooty fungus.
Actara, Akarin, Confidor or Spark will help fight the pest. But it should be re-treated after 1.5 - 2 weeks, since toxic substances infect the butterflies, and the ovipositor remains. If you do not want to use toxic substances, then stock up on glue traps, for example, from the Feromon company. Good neighbors in the flower garden will be peppermint or nasturtium. The smell of these plants repels a white-winged pest.
Whitefly can damage plants in open ground
Garden Gerbera Growing Reviews
My sister has been living with gerbera for several years now - in summer in the ground, and in winter - on window sills. Moreover, she is also the gardener :( The window sill is rather cool in the kitchen. Gerbera, of course, does not run amok, but she lives. But in the summer she looks wonderful :)Nk
I plant in the summer at the cottage, and dig out for the winter. True, it is constantly blooming in my house. Just in the country, the flowers are stockier and larger.martina sister
My gerbera grew 3-4 years (until last year I forgot to pick up from the cottage). In winter - on a warm loggia at about +15. It lives normally, but does not like dry air and heat, and is very often affected by a spider mite. (if the leaves turn pale, gray, fade, become covered with yellowish dots closer to the veins of the leaf - do not go to the fortuneteller, this is a tick) In the summer I planted it in the garden. It was in the garden that the bush recovered, by the middle of summer it began to bloom, grew. In autumn - it blooms with a month, and that’s it.Lena K.
I have been living undersized gerbera for 4-5 years. A gift of a beloved husband - to throw out or to die a hand does not rise. In the summer in the garden, in winter, either on a cool windowsill, or now, when the opportunity arose, on a glazed loggia at +12 approximately. In winter, of course, it looks boring and is often struck by a tick, but since spring it blooms like a read one. In the garden, dry sunflower does not like, it is better partial shade, but more humid.Lena K.
it definitely freezes on the street, it’s an African heat-loving flower :) in the exhaust gas only as an annual. In winter, gerberas in the open ground in our climate are not able to survive, so they are dug up in the autumn and placed in a basement with an earthen lump.alon
Most gardeners consider a gerbera a moody flower. But do not rush to conclusions. After all, not many plants with southern genes can bloom in our cool conditions all summer. Gerbera is able to decorate the garden and delight with bright colors for a very long time, unlike tulips, hyacinths and daffodils, which quickly fade. To admire elegant flowers throughout the warm period, you just need to pay attention to the African daisy.