NiZina grapes - a great option for an amateur variety for beginners
Over the 20 years of its existence, NiZin grapes have become a classic hybrid form grown in many gardens of almost all climatic zones of our and neighboring countries. The variety, bred at the end of the last millennium, fell in love with winegrowers both for the excellent taste and marketability of berries, as well as for their unpretentious care and adaptability to various conditions.
The history of the cultivation of grape variety Lowland
NiZin grapes - the first grape variety, developed by amateur enthusiast V.N. Kraynov, who lived in the city of Novocherkassk. Viktor Nikolaevich was called a “private” breeder. Indeed, he did not work in any serious laboratories, but created new grape forms in his personal garden. As the breeder himself said, he was engaged in viticulture from the age of 15, his father taught him this, also not an agronomist, but a retired officer. Since the summer cottage of V. N. Krainov was located on the banks of the Tuzla River and was characterized by not very favorable climatic conditions, he tried to create varieties resistant to frost, morning dew and fog. In total, 45 varieties were created by the breeder, and almost all still find their application.
The grape berries that are given by plants from the collection of V. N. Krainov are characterized by epithets “solid, impressive, gigantic, gigantic”.
And the first variety to receive a “ticket to life” was precisely the NiZin variety. That's right, with the capital letter "Z" in the middle of the word. The enthusiast himself, telling about the beginning of his work on November 30, 2009, said that he carried out crosses of only a few varieties using various options, for example: Talisman + Tomaysky, Talisman + Autumn Black and Talisman + raisins Radiant. He wrote: “Already in 1998, some hybrid seedlings threw out inflorescences and bloomed, in August-September the first crop of new grapes was obtained, among which the NiZin hybrid form, already almost legendary, was isolated.”
NiZina quickly became a classic: they equated him, improved him, but the variety is now “in service”
At first NiZina was grown in the south of Russia. Then it began to cultivate gardeners in the middle lane and more northern regions. In 1999, the varieties Nina, Tuzlovsky giant, Pervozvanny were bred, and then the list of hybrids received by Kraynov grew avalanche-like.
On the Internet you can find several different judgments about which varieties were the "parents" of this hybrid.
In this case, of course, you should get to the source, and even during the life of V. N. Krainov, a website dedicated to his work functioned. There, it seems, it is clearly said that NiZina is the result of hybridization of the varieties Kesha-1 and Radish. Where does the network go about many opinions on this subject? Yes, simply proceeding from the fact that on the basis of this pair, Kraynov deduced several varieties sequentially! But it is not difficult to draw a small parallel. The same parents have children, both bright and dark. The comparison, of course, is exaggerated, but something like that in the plant world: different ways of crossing, you can achieve different results. Moreover, another breeder, V.V. Zagorulko from the city of Zaporozhye, as a result of selection on the basis of the same pair, the variety Lily of the valley was radically different from NiZina.
Lily of the valley descended from the same parents, but how different these varieties are from each other!
The grape growers did not have time to figure out which variety of V. N. Krainov was better - Nizina or Nina who followed him, as a breeder even more confused them, releasing a hybrid form called Nizina 2. Moreover, from the description given on his website, it followed that even in appearance, Nizin 2 is very different from the Nizin variety: even the color of the berries is different, not to mention some other characteristics. Yes, later Nizin 2 received the name Ninel, but this fact added confusion.
So, back to the variety with which the history of V.N.Krainov grapes began, NiZin grapes. Or, rather, as the author himself wrote, "a complex interspecific hybrid of a medium-late maturity."
Description of NiZina grape variety
The grape bushes of the Nisina variety grow above average growth, and growth occurs quickly, and among its shoots, most are fruitful. Their number refers to the total number as 60 - 80%. Strong branching of shoots is noted, and since one or two brushes of berries can be tied on each, the yield of the variety is characterized as very high. The bush withstands the total load of up to 24 shoots, stable fruiting. The minimum mass of the crop from one bush with almost complete absence of care is 6 kg.
NiZina brushes grow so that they do not interfere with each other, and the yields of this grape variety are characterized as stable
The bush can grow both on its own roots (that is, grown from cuttings of NiZin grapes) and in the grafted culture: the percentage of successful vaccinations in skilled hands is close to 100, the variety has high compatibility with most rootstocks. Shoots during the growing season ripen sufficiently. Leaves of the usual form. Nizina begins to produce crops in the second or third year after planting; depending on climatic conditions, the period from the beginning of the growing season to the full ripening of berries is from 4 to 4.5 months. Thus, the variety is not early, rather, it should be considered medium-late: harvesting in the south begins at the end of August, and in the middle zone and to the north - closer to mid-September.
Nizin is characterized as a frost-resistant variety: withstands temperatures up to -23 ° C. True, now you will not surprise anyone with this indicator: there are more record numbers. But the fact that in most regions it requires only light shelter for the winter is an undoubted advantage.
Resistance to grape diseases and most pests in the variety is described by many as unique: it is reported that spraying is only preventive in nature, and diseases with oidium, gray rot or mildew are extremely rare on NiZin. However, professionals give a rating of resistance to fungal diseases of 3.5.
For some reason the hornets, wasps and bees do not like the variety. There are not so many varieties that are not affected by these insects, which is another undoubted advantage over many other varieties.
Grapes bloom at normal times: around mid-June. The flowers are bisexual, so the setting of berries is high. The clusters are beautiful and large. And if their average weight is 0.7 kg, cases of their growth up to 2 kg are described, and in individual instances up to 3 kg. The density of the bunch is medium, the shape is from cylindrical in the main part to the regular cone below. As a rule, clusters are tied in such a way that they do not interfere with each other's growth, in each cluster up to 40 berries. The bunches have a good presentation, are transportable and, if properly stored, may lie until the New Year. When stored, the taste improves slightly.
Berries from large to very large: average size 30 x 22 mm, average weight 11 g. The shape is from round to regular oval.
The variety is also distinguished by the fact that the berries turn red long before the onset of consumer ripeness: approximately two weeks before harvesting, they already seem ready. But then the color slowly changes, becoming reddish-violet, up to purely violet, high intensity.
In the bright sun, the berries appear almost transparent. Characterized as fleshy, very juicy. The peel is edible. The sugar content is 17–19%. Resistant to cracking. Acidity is 8–9 g / l. The number of seeds is from 0 to 3.
Characteristics of the grape variety NiZina
Having become acquainted with NiZin grapes, we will try to give it a generalizing characteristic. Of course, there are no grapes without flaws, but he has much more advantages. Here are the main ones:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- adaptability to various climatic conditions;
- high growth rate and a large percentage of fruiting shoots;
- resistance to fungal diseases and phylloxera;
- frost resistance;
- early maturity;
- bisexual flowers;
- stability and high yield;
- lack of damage to berries by flying insects;
- high presentation and transportability of bunches;
- lack of "peas" in bunches;
- good taste and pleasant aroma of berries.
Relative disadvantages of the variety:
- the need for a large space for landing;
- the need for rationing the crop: without cutting the extra shoots and removing the brushes, the berries are much smaller;
- oidium affliction in hot summers;
- “Cherry” flavor and light purple color of berries - “for everybody.”
In general, the fact that NiZin grapes are popular is evidence that this is a very successful hybrid.
Features of planting and growing grape variety NiZina
From the point of view of planting and cultivation, NiZina is an ordinary classic covering grape, so its agricultural technology does not have any significant features. Nizin is well propagated by cuttings, so you can independently grow its seedling at home. If you already have a frost-resistant young bush of another variety, the Lowland can be grafted with a handle in this bush: the grafting technique is not very different from grafting fruit trees.
Like all grape varieties, NiZina prefers to grow in sunny places, sheltered from the action of the northerly winds. Therefore, when choosing a place to land, you should choose where there is any obstacle to the wind: the wall of the house or a blank fence. High shrubs (lilac, jasmine, honeysuckle) also protect against the wind, but still the side facing the southern sun should be open.
Nizina loves light soil, responds well to chernozems, but is able to grow in any place except very swampy. It does not require frequent and plentiful watering, of course, except for the period of active growth of berries. He does not like waterlogging: the groundwater level should be farther than 2.5 m from the soil surface.
The best landing date in most regions is the end of April. In the south, grapes can also be planted in October, but young plantings for the winter should be well covered. The planting technique is no different from other varieties, but great growth force should be taken into account, so the distance to neighboring bushes or other plantings should be at least 3 meters.
Since the autumn, for spring planting, it is necessary to dig the entire area around the future bush with fertilizers (the nutrition area should be at least 5 m2 in the end) in order to fill the soil with nutrients for the next few years. Landing pit for spring planting delves too in the fall. A pit for this variety is dug with dimensions of at least 70–80 cm in all dimensions. 20 cm of drainage is necessarily placed at the bottom, especially in the case of clay soils: gravel, pebbles, pieces of brick. A layer of soil mixed with fertilizers (several buckets of compost or manure, half a bucket of wood ash, a pound of nitroammophoska) is poured onto the drainage, and above is a layer that will directly contact young roots: clean, fertile soil, without fertilizers. They plant Nizin deeply, leaving only 2 kidneys above the ground.
In arid areas, a vertical pipe should be placed in the planting pit to water the seedling directly into the root zone for the first 2-3 years. When planting, you should well spread the roots, cover the soil, compact well and water. Mulching the soil around the seedling is necessary: it prevents the soil from drying out and prevents weeds from growing.
In the landing pit, not only drainage is desirable, but also a pipe for subsequent irrigation
In the process of growing, it is necessary to periodically water and feed the grapes. After 2-3 years each year, in early spring, grooves made along the periphery of the bush should be filled with 1-2 buckets of compost, and in early June, 1-2 liter cans of ash should be poured, lightly planted in the soil. Before the beginning of flowering and immediately after the end, foliar top dressing with solutions of complex fertilizers is effective (by spraying on leaves). During the loading of berries, top dressing should contain only phosphorus and potassium.
If severe frosts are expected in spring, you can delay the swelling of the kidneys for 1-2 weeks by spraying grapes with a solution of iron sulfate, which will help in the fight against pests and diseases.
Grapes require annual formative pruning, aimed at removing dried shoots, as well as extra branches that thicken the bush. In spring, pruning is cosmetic, and the main pruning should be done before sheltering the bushes for the winter. In addition, throughout the entire growing season, still weak, but clearly superfluous young shoots should be broken. This operation helps to ensure that by autumn only the necessary vines will remain on the bush. In total, Nizina can leave up to 22-25 shoots. Unfortunately, extra clusters often have to be cut off, even as they appear. Strong supports are required.
The variety is quite resistant to diseases, but for their prevention it is advisable to carry out several sprayings per season with fungicide solutions. In October - early November, bushes must be covered for the winter. The variety is quite frost-resistant, it is not necessary to bury the vines even in the northern regions. It will be enough, having removed the grapes from the trellis, cover it with the spruce of coniferous trees.
Even in Siberia, the Lowland grows in open ground, but the truth is not every year ripens well without shelter. In 2012 and in 2015, it matured well before the fall shelter. Tasty, large berry.Nadezhda NV
This year I liked the Nisina even more because of its endurance, the bush has 4 years of fruiting, provided that this year in April there were frosts and all the main shoots froze and the whole vineyard beat off shoots from replacing buds, all June it rains, neither one treatment until July, until the whole vineyard was sick, Ridomil Gold sprayed somewhere on July 5, watering under the bush, never fertilized, left 15-17 clusters on each bush, pulled everything out, against the background of Viva Aiki and Blagovest load he wins."Serg74"
Today they ate the last brush of the Lowland. Acid and sugar are in perfect balance when, as a couple of weeks ago, they were acidic (mowed down under cherries) while they were completely salable. The family appreciated the taste and look, but not very much in terms. Nevertheless, the verdict is to be on my collection. In a commodity landing quite a bit, five bushes."Sanserg"
Video: NiZin grapes on the bushes
The NiZina variety is intended for cultivation in vineyards in most of our country. Possessing high winter hardiness and low susceptibility to diseases, it gives stable yields of very tasty berries. Caring for this grape is uncomplicated, which allows recommending it to beginner gardeners.