Natural and artificial stone: everything about manufacturing and laying rules
Natural stone at all times has rightfully been considered the most popular building material. Granite, marble, sandstone, dolomite, limestone serve as a reliable and unusually beautiful foundation for the construction of foundations and houses, the arrangement of ponds and paving paths, the creation of architectural elements and the refinement of buildings. In recent years, artificial analogues of natural stone have the same popularity, which have the same aesthetic appearance, but differ in higher quality characteristics. Laying a decorative stone is a simple procedure, which any person with at least the slightest idea of finishing work can handle.
Features of “wet” and “dry” laying methods
The technology for laying artificial and natural stones that have the correct geometric shape is based on the already familiar principles of bricklaying. But to work with "wild" stones, known for their imperfect forms, you still need to additionally possess knowledge and skills.
Stone laying can be done both on the basis of a binder and cementing mortar, and without its use. Based on this, in construction, there are “wet” and “dry” masonry methods.
A characteristic feature of the "dry" masonry is a thorough selection of the most matching stones and meticulous fitting them together
“Dry” technology is especially difficult when working with natural “torn” stones, each of which has its own thickness, height and width. To increase the durability and reliability of the masonry, all the cracks between the stones are filled with earth or cementing mortar. This method is often used in the construction of low fences and fences, as well as in the laying of curbs. Here is an example of dry masonry:
“Wet” masonry is used in the construction of tall buildings, which are solid monolithic structures. This method of masonry is simpler in execution, since it does not provide for a careful adjustment of neighboring elements.
Mortar filling the gaps and voids between the stones ensures the hardness and stability of any building
Natural stones for the most part have an irregular "ragged" shape. When selecting stones, it is important to consider the load. Stone tiles, the thickness of which does not exceed 1-2 cm, are used for facing vertical planes and facades. When arranging sites with high traffic it is enough to use stones with a thickness of about 2 cm as a coating. And for zones where heavy structures and equipment are supposed to be placed, you need to take stones more than 4 cm thick.
Natural stone masonry
The length of rubble stones varies, as a rule, in the range of 150-500 mm. Rigid and durable stones are well suited for arranging foundations, retaining walls, hydraulic structures and other buildings. The rubble stone is thoroughly cleaned before being laid. Large cobblestones are split and crushed into small pieces.
Unhandled large pieces of rocks are suitable for rubble laying of wild stone with their own hands: shell rock, granite, dolomite, tuff, sandstone, limestone
To work with natural stone you will need: a - a sledgehammer, b - a small hammer, c - a metal rammer, d - a wooden rammer
In the process of skirting, boulders are crushed using 5 kg of a sledgehammer and chipping of the pointed corners of small stones with a hammer weighing 2.3 kg. Something like this is done:
In the construction of vertical structures, the largest and most stable stones are installed as the base in the bottom row. They are also used for arranging corners and crossing walls. Laying subsequent rows, it is necessary to ensure that the seams are slightly offset relative to each other. This will increase the strength and reliability of the construction.
The solution is laid out on stones with a slight excess. During the laying process, the stones are recessed into the cement mortar with a hammer-cam. After tamping, the excess flows along the vertical seams between the stones. The gaps between the boulders are filled with rubble and fine stone. Seams are most accurately looked at, the width of which along their row length is not more than 10-15 mm.
Tip. If the solution got on the front of the stone, do not immediately wipe it with a wet rag - this will only lead to the clogging of the pores of the rock. It is better to leave the solution for a while, so that it freezes, and then remove it with a spatula and wipe the surface of the stone with a dry rag.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Since the dressing of the seams of buta and boulders of irregular shape is very difficult to perform, during the laying of natural stone, it is necessary to place rows of bonded and spoon stones in turn.
This dressing is based on the principle of chain dressing, which is often used for brickwork. Thanks to this technology, the design is more durable and durable.
At the final stage, it is necessary to grout the seams with a spatula and, if necessary, rinse the coating with running water.
An example of this “wet” technology is the following fragment of work:
Production and rules for laying artificial stone
As an example of making artificial stone with our own hands, we want to offer you this video instruction from 2 parts:
Now you can talk about the installation rules. In the process of laying artificial stone, you can apply the method "with jointing" or without them.
In the first embodiment, when laying stones, a distance between them of 1-2 cm is maintained, in the second - the stones are rammed close to each other
Artificial stones are mostly rectangular in shape. Therefore, to work with them, you can apply the technology of laying bricks. Laying in “spoons” is a way of laying a brick, in which it is placed with a long edge to the outside of the structure, and laying “poke” - when the stone is located in a narrow edge.
About the construction of structures made of artificial stone, the classic method is most often used, in which in the process of "spoon" laying, each subsequent row is placed with some offset of the bricks relative to the previous one.
With this method of dressing, the vertical seams of the adjacent rows do not match, thereby strengthening the strength of the building
Among the most popular decorative methods of stone laying can also be distinguished: Flemish, English and American.
Decorative stones are used not so much for the construction of buildings and the creation of landscape design elements, but rather for their design. The basis for their production is: porcelain, agglomerate or cement mortar.
The outer surface of facing artificial stones can repeat the features of any natural stone: marble, limestone, slate ...
In order for the lined surface to maintain an aesthetic appearance for a long time, when laying a decorative stone, it is necessary to be guided by a number of recommendations:
- Think in advance the "drawing" of masonry . The alternation of shapes and sizes of stones, made in light and dark shades, will give the surface a natural and at the same time more attractive appearance.
- Strictly adhere to the masonry technology. Unlike stones used for construction, decorative stones should be laid out in rows, starting from the top and going down. This will prevent the glue from entering the outer surface of the stone, which is difficult to clean.
- Apply adhesive specified by the manufacturer of the facing stone. The adhesive solution is applied with a spatula both on the base and on the reverse side of the stone.
Masonry is performed on a flat, degreased surface. For better grip, the base should be moistened with water. The adhesive coated tile must be pressed firmly against the surface of the base with vibrating movements and fixed for a couple of seconds. During installation, vertical long seams should be avoided.
After completion of laying, so that the decorative stone lasts as long as possible, it is advisable to cover it with protective soil or water repellent.