Myrtle tree - a symbol of peace and tranquility in your home

    For lovers of light and natural aromas, myrtle is best suited: it helps to improve indoor air, improve the atmosphere, and its leaves are used as a medicine. In addition, it is grown to create a bonsai tree. And among the variety of varieties you can choose suitable for both beginners and experienced gardeners: leaving is not difficult, but you should still remember some features.

    Myrtle - plant features

    The birthplace of myrtle is the Mediterranean, but it also grows in North Africa (in Europe it freezes after the first frosts). Depending on the variety, a heat-loving plant in the form of an evergreen shrub in these parts reaches a height of 3.5 m, due to which it is grown as a garden culture in tubs or in open ground. The bush is even trimmed to give the crown the desired shape.

    The leaves contain a fragrant substance: its smell is clearly audible if rubbed or cut in the place where the veins are located. The Latin myrtus “myrtle, a southern evergreen plant that contains essential oil in the leaves” came from the Greek μυρρα “myrrh, liquid incense”.

    A bright representative of the family is the common myrtle. It is a shrub up to 2 m high with dark green leathery leaves and small white or pink fragrant flowers. Fruits - edible black berries on which a cup of flower is attached.

    After flowering on the myrtle, dark fruits of a round or elliptical shape with seeds are formed

    There are many varieties of plants of the myrtle family. It is interesting that eucalyptus is also ranked among it. However, only a few varieties are suitable for the home. Caring for them is simple, but they need to create acceptable conditions, for example, increased humidity, airing and regular watering.

    Indoor varieties

    Despite the modest variety of suitable varieties, the choice of myrtle for the home is nevertheless even more limited due to the supply. The optimal solution is not to purchase in stores, but to grow cuttings from plants that have taken root with friends. If there is a choice, then it is better to pay attention to the varieties described below. They differ in the shape and size of leaves, flower, fruit, and are also considered the most unpretentious and compact varieties:

    1. Alhambra - dense, leathery leaves, white fruits and flowers.
    2. Microfilla is a dwarf tree with small leaves.
    3. Flora Pleno - different fluffy, double flowers.
    4. Tarentina is a fast-growing tree with small leaves and plentiful flowering (for example, Tarentina Granada, Tarentina Variegada and others).
    5. Boethics is a slow-growing tree, its trunk spins over time and has a rich shade of cinnamon.

    It is noteworthy that all of these varieties belong to the species of common myrtle.

    Photo Gallery: Myrtle Home Views

    Myrtle Alhambra is distinguished by abundant flowering and fragrant fruits.

    On sale, it is easiest to find a variety such as Microfilla

    Terry flowers - perhaps the only thing that distinguishes Flora Pleno from other varieties

    Myrtle Tarentina Variegada decorated with elegant leaves with a white border

    Myrtle Boethics has large leaves, larger than other species (6–7 cm, while the standard is 1–2 cm), with a pointed end

    According to experts, any sort of common myrtle is suitable for bonsai.

    Myrtle is amenable to shaping, so it is relatively easy to grow in a bonsai style

    But the most original trees will come from the Boethika variety and the dwarf Microfilla: it is convenient to form their crown and trunk because of the slow growth and suppleness of the shoots.

    Landing and transplanting

    An adult myrtle transplant is best done once every 3-4 years, and young plants are transplanted annually in the spring. When transplanting myrtle, you can not deepen the root neck of the plant: this can lead to various diseases or to damage by rot. At the bottom of the pot must lay out a good layer of drainage.

    General rules for myrtle transplantation:

    1. Plants under 3 years old are transplanted into a pot every year, 2-3 cm wider (enough to fit the root system) than the previous one, the roots are not cleaned from the ground, transplanted and a little fresh soil is added. And also the capacity for transplantation can be selected based on the size of the crown of the plant: the volume of the pot should be half that of the crown of the plant.
    2. Plants after 3 years are transplanted as they grow, when the roots completely entangle the land lump.
    3. A transplant is done in the spring, before flowering begins.
    4. Young myrtle can be transplanted after flowering.
    5. Every year, in adult plants, the top layer of soil is changed, which is not entangled in the roots, cutting it off gently with a knife and filling up a fresh portion. During this procedure, the root system is not processed and generally try not to affect.
    6. Myrtle has sensitive and delicate roots, so they can not be injured during transplantation.
    7. The pot is better to choose ceramic and light, so that the leaves do not get burns when heating its edges.

    If the above rules apply both for adults and for the younger generation, then only the tree older than 3 years is suitable below:

    1. Prepare the soil.
    2. Free the root system from part of the old earth, leaving a small lump to fill more than half of the new soil in the pot.
    3. Plant in a new pot. In order not to damage the roots, you can rinse them in warm water.
    4. The plant is not deepened, for this they make a mark of the old ground level on the trunk.
    5. Fill the voids with new soil.
    6. Leave the plant alone for several days.
    7. Watering is permissible in 7-15 days.
    8. Fertilize myrtle begin no earlier than 1 month after transplantation.

    Young myrtle trees are transplanted in a similar way, but leaving more land on the roots and choosing soil with a different composition: a mixture of peat and coarse sand

    For adult plants, a slightly acidic ready soil is acquired or mixed:

    • peat;
    • turf land;
    • coarse sand.

    Mirtu is recommended for slightly acidic Ph 6–6.5 soil; all universal purchased soils have such acidity. The main thing is that the soil is loose, it passes water well. Water should not stagnate. Be sure to bottom good drainage. Water for irrigation and spraying must be defended, if it is very hard, then it can be acidified.

    Tit

    Expanded clay is usually used as drainage, but perlite, which can be mixed into the ground, is considered more effective. Before use, the soil is sterilized and treated with fungicidal substances to avoid fungal infections.

    Myrtle Care

    Myrtle care differs little from the standard. It is important to remember that he loves heat during periods of activity, moisture and fresh air.

    Table: Myrtle conditions depending on the season

    SeasonAir temperatureHumidityWateringLightingFertilizers
    Winter6-12 degrees60–70%minimumstandardno
    Spring15–20 degrees70–90%abundantdirectintegrated
    Summer20–25 degrees70–90%abundantdirectnitrogen
    Fall15–20 degrees70–90%moderatedirectintegrated

    Watering and feeding

    When the myrtle grows, blossoms, then it is abundantly watered with settled water at room temperature. Chlorine is destructive for delicate roots, even a brief contact with it will lead to sad consequences. The frequency of watering depends on many factors, but determine its need for the state of the soil: it is not allowed to dry completely. However, excessive watering guarantees acidification of the soil, rotting of the roots: a tree will throw off leaves and stop in development.

    Spraying (or periodic shower) will help to cope with the drooping leaves, return them elasticity and bright color. And also these procedures are the prevention of many diseases and pests. Myrtle is sprayed during the period of activity every day or several times a day. To facilitate care and provide a suitable humidity, which should be high, put a humidifier in the room or put expanded clay in a tray from the pot and pour it with water. Spraying gives a short-term improvement in conditions: as soon as the moisture evaporates from the leaves, the myrtle will feel its lack.

    Humidity can be increased by placing a pot with a plant on a pallet with wet expanded clay, just make sure that the bottom of the pot does not touch the expanded clay - that is, put the pot on a saucer, and then put them on a pallet with wet expanded clay. Also, after transplantation, you should keep the plant under a transparent bag. It is necessary to make a hole in it for access to fresh air, and make sure that mold does not form.

    Ku!

    The room in which the myrtle grows is regularly ventilated, taking the plant itself to another room, where it will be protected from hypothermia.

    This plant needs fresh air, but it is afraid of drafts and severe cold.

    Myrtle grows in direct sunlight. However, in the midday heat in the warm season, they provide him with protection, especially when he is on the open balcony.

    Fertilizers help the tree grow, but they are used with caution. If a little humus is added to the soil when transplanting, then until the summer you can forget about the finished compounds. In other cases, myrtle is fed with complex fertilizers in the spring, and after the beginning of flowering and until its end with nitrogen. This plant also perceives top dressing of roots or leaves in the form of spraying.

    The period of flowering and the appearance of fruits

    Myrtle usually blooms in late spring or early summer. This period lasts about 2 months. With its beginning, increase the volume of watering and the frequency of spraying.

    In order for the fruits to appear, insects are needed, but at home pollination in this way is practically impossible. Therefore, this is done manually with a brush

    With active pruning and crown formation, the myrtle stump does not bloom. If the type of crown does not bother, then this process can be accelerated and strengthened: then pruning is stopped and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are used.

    Myrtle for intensive flowering is planted in a cramped pot so that it does not waste energy on growing shoots and developing the root system.

    Rest period

    Mirtu needs a period of rest in winter in order to gain strength for the next season of rapid growth and intensive flowering. If in summer and in warm spring it is the best place for him - a balcony, a loggia, an outdoor garden, then in winter an adult plant feels better at a temperature of 6-12 ° C and without additional lighting. If the myrtle is left to winter in a warm room with normal lighting, then it is regularly sprayed, but watering is still reduced.

    During the dormant period, which lasts from December to the end of February, watering is significantly reduced to 1-2 times a month and any feeding is excluded. The plant is prepared gradually for the rest period: they begin to lower the room temperature in advance and reduce the volume and frequency of watering.

    But these rules do not apply to plants that are less than 3 years old: in winter they are in a warm and lit room with additional illumination.

    The formation of the stem and crown

    To make the myrtle shape beautiful, it is periodically cut off. The procedure and methods for forming a stem or crown depend on the variety, but always do this in early spring or after flowering ends.

    In the summer, it is permissible to remove a little extra branches. If you do not trim the crown of the myrtle, then it acquires a pyramidal shape.

    Shoots can be bent and tied, wrapped in soft wire, but with caution

    Pinching is relevant in spring and in young plants during the period of activity. This will make the crown wider, so it is better to cut young branches short enough.

    Video: tree formation

    Bonsai at home

    Many are keen on this extraordinary task, and myrtle is perfect for forming a bonsai. It is advisable to choose slow-growing and dwarf varieties (for example, Boethics or Microfill). For the formation of the crown, pinching of the upper leaves is regularly carried out, unnecessary branches are cut off, preventing flowering. It is then that the crown will be magnificent and dense, and its shape will be compact and appropriate.

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    So, the boethics barrel can be directed in different directions: it is malleable, but it is not necessary to pinch it, because there will be creases

    The myrtle bonsai pot should be flat and wide, with low walls. To avoid drying out of the soil and to add decorativeness, moss is placed on the topsoil or mulched.

    Pot mismatch can create obstacles to the normal functioning of the root system, which will lead to the quick death of the tree

    And also, in the form of a tree you can grow a durant, read about it: rastenija / duranta-kak-vyrastit-nebesnyj-cvetok.html

    Mistakes in leaving

    When growing myrtle, various problems arise, often associated with improper plant maintenance. Below are the most common causes of the “unhealthy appearance” of your plant.

    Table: improper care: problems and solutions

    ProblemCauseDecision
    Twisted

    and the leaves are dry

    Excess sunMove to a shaded place.
    Leaves are falling
    1. In winter, the rest period is disturbed.
    2. Lack of moisture or fertilizer.
    1. Move to a cool, shaded area.
    2. Increase watering, provide regular spraying and fertilizing with complex fertilizers.
    Root rotExcess moisture
    1. Reduce watering by about 50%.
    2. Transplantation with a complete replacement of the soil, including the release of roots.
    3. Daily airing for 30 minutes.

    Often you have to resort to emergency resuscitation of a plant (in particular, dried):

    1. Gently pull out the plant.
    2. Immerse its roots in standing warm water for several hours.
    3. Put the myrtle in the pot.
    4. Cover with foil.
    5. Ventilate at least 1 time per day, preventing the soil from souring.
    6. Add complex fertilizers for deciduous plants.

    When the myrtle recovers, the film must be removed. Next, you should review the conditions of its detention.

    Diseases and pests, methods of treatment

    Myrtle also becomes vulnerable to pests in violation of the conditions of detention.

    Table: list of the main pests and diseases, measures to combat them

    Disease or pestSignsTreatment
    Fungal disease
    1. The plant withers.
    2. The base of the stem rots.
    Not treatable.
    Spider mite
    1. Leaves fall.
    2. A spider web forms.
    Acaricide treatment (Fitoverm, Actellik, Sunmight).
    Whitefly
    1. Leaves turn yellow.
    2. Stunted growth.
    1. Rinse off the pests with a jet of water.
    2. Hardening in cold air (removal to a balcony or loggia for 30 minutes at a temperature of 10-15 degrees, covering from the wind).
    ShieldSticky leaves.
    1. Wash off pests.
    2. Soap solution.
    Aphid
    1. Leaves curl up like stems.
    2. Light green or brownish insects appear, usually not exceeding 5–7 mm.
    1. Wash off the pest in the shower.
    2. Treat with insecticide (Dr. Foley, Aktara, Actellik).
    3. Trim damaged parts.

    Photo gallery: signs of affected plants

    When affected by a scab, sticky fluid (the so-called pad) serves as an excellent haven for the development of soot fungus

    Leaf aphid quickly weakens young plants by sucking out their cell sap

    One of the main signs of the presence of whiteflies is the presence of sticky plaque - honey dew

    With a fungal disease of the plant, the isolation of the affected plant or its destruction is most often the best way

    The presence of a spider mite is indicated by the presence of small white dots on the leaves (mainly from the lower side) and the presence of a thin spider web that braids the plants (or parts thereof)

    Myrtle breeding

    Myrtle is propagated mainly by cuttings; seed propagation is undesirable: plants lose their varietal characteristics (chopping leaves and flowers). In addition, cuttings are a more reliable way: the seeds lose their ability to germinate very quickly.

    Cuttings

    Propagation by cuttings should be carried out no more than twice a year: first in winter (in January-February), and then you should focus on spring or mid-summer (July). For fast rooting, you can use stimulants.

    To prevent evaporation of moisture, leaves are removed from the bottom of the stem, and the remaining ones are shortened.

    Stages of propagation by cuttings:

    1. Pruning cuttings. Their length should be about 5–8 cm. For propagation, take stronger semi-lignified cuttings.

      Cuttings should be taken from the middle of the tree

    2. Soil preparation: peat is mixed in half with sand or perlite (vermiculite).

      If the choice is between vermiculite and perlite, give preference to the first: it does not dust and has useful elements for plant nutrition

    3. Cuttings are planted in a small pot (plastic cups are also suitable) with prepared soil.

      Plant cuttings to a depth of 2.5-3 cm, not forgetting to compact the soil at the base

    4. A pot with cuttings is transferred to a room where there is a partial shade, and the air temperature is about 20 ° C. Do not forget to completely cover it with a film, making small holes in it so that there is air access.

      Also use cups for single landings instead of film

    5. The rooting of cuttings is expected within 1-2 months .
    6. When the shoots appear, they remove the film and transfer it to a room with standard conditions for myrtle.
    7. In spring, cuttings are planted in separate pots (diameter - 10 cm).

      Soil for rooted sprouts of myrtle is prepared from a mixture of peat (70%) with perlite or vermiculite (30%)

    8. Before the young myrtle begins to actively grow and start shoots, it is kept at a temperature of 15–20 ° C.

    As a rule, plants grown from cuttings bloom only in the second or third year.

    Video: recommendations for growing, breeding and pruning myrtle

    Seed propagation

    Myrtle tree, obtained from seeds, will delight you with flowers no earlier than after 4 years.

    In addition, it should be borne in mind that seeds have a tendency to decrease germination after one year of storage.

    Как вырастить мирт из семян:
    1. Подготовка почвы. Субстрат готовьте из дерновой почвы, торфа и песка (2:2:1).
    2. Мелкие семена сеют на поверхностном слое грунта, а крупные семена, предварительно стратифицированные, засыпают небольшим слоем грунта.

      У большинства сортов мирта семена мелкие, в одном плоде их может быть до 15 штук

    3. Ёмкость с почвой и семенами ставят на солнечное место и накрывают стеклом. Каждый день опрыскивайте грунт тёплой водой.
    4. Стекло 2 раза в день снимают на 20–30 минут для проветривания и протирания от конденсата.

      Примерно через 7–10 дней после посадки появляются первые всходы мирта

    5. При образовании двух настоящих листьев сеянцы рассаживают в горшки методом перевалки.

    Мирт, выращенный из семян, растёт медленно.

    Seed stratification

    Мало кто подвергает семена растений стратификации, хотя зачастую это и требуется. Так что же такое этот «зверь»?

    Стратификация представляет собой подготовку эмбриона растения к будущему прорастанию без потерь: выдерживание растения во влажной среде при пониженной температуре и дальнейшая высадка в относительно тёплый грунт. Без предварительного охлаждения семя может просто сгнить в земле.

    Обычно такую подготовку семян проводят следующим образом:

    1. Замачивают семена в тёплой воде в течение 24 часов.
    2. Подготавливают ёмкость с влажными ватными или бумажными тампонами, на которую и раскладывают семена.
    3. Семена в таком виде помещают в холодильник; температура должна быть в пределах 1–5оС.
    4. Выдерживают 1, 5–2 месяца в таком состоянии.

    Для увеличения эффективности в воду для первичного замачивания добавляют Циркон (1 капля на 300 мл воды). Этот раствор необходимо настоять не менее 16 часов. Он пригоден для использования только 3 суток при температуре воздуха 18–25оС.

    Перед замачиванием семян ёмкость с раствором Циркона взбалтывают.

    Возможные проблемы при проращивании

    Зачастую при выращивании растений из семян возникает ряд вопросов из разряда «что делать, если»:

    • не всходят семена;
    • обильный конденсат стал причиной образования плесени;
    • ростки вянут и др.

    Например, семена могут не прорастать по нескольким причинам: нежизнеспособный старый посевной материал, чрезмерно глубокий посев, холодная, перенасыщенная влагой почва и др. Если в первом случае вы абсолютно беспомощны, то второй и третий — дело ваших рук: учитывайте специфику посадки семян мирта и не забывайте о дренаже и проветривании теплицы.

    Если же под стеклом образовалась плесень, то немедленно примите меры:

    1. Уменьшите полив примерно на 30%.
    2. Мульчируйте почву минеральными веществами.
    3. Обработайте сеянцы, грунт и стекло фунгицидными веществами.

    Возможно, ситуацию усугубляет и закисленная почва. Тогда в почву добавляют мел в расчёте около 50 г на 1 кг земли (его можно также заменить древесной золой в тех же пропорциях).

    В любом случае старайтесь придерживаться рекомендаций по уходу, чтобы избежать проблемных «что делать» в дальнейшем.

    Вывезенный несколько столетий назад в Европу мирт хорошо прижился в домах и чувствует себя превосходно. Сегодня существует около ста видов миртового дерева, из которых для выращивания в домашних условиях подходит мирт обыкновенный и все его сорта. Чтобы прекрасные растения с такой удивительной и богатой историей радовали глаз, следует уделять им немного внимания: несложный уход с обильным поливом.

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