Mountain ash ordinary: planting and care
Rowan attracts the eye at any time of the year, standing out for its unusually beautiful leaves, fragrant flowers and bright clusters of berries. Growing a tree on your plot is easy. In addition to aesthetic pleasure, mountain ash will bring medicinal benefits to all households.
Types and varieties of mountain ash
Mountain ash is a low woody plant from the Pink family. The leaves are large, pinnate, with oblong leaflets (their number ranges from 10 to 23). The flowers are white, numerous, collected in dense inflorescences, have a strong odor. The fruits are bright (scarlet, orange, red), small, with a characteristic bitterness.
Mountain ash, familiar from childhood, grows almost throughout Russia
In addition to red-fruited mountain ash (Sorbus), there is also aronia (Aronia) - a plant belonging to another genus. They are very distant relatives. The name arose due to the similarity of the fruits.
There are many types of mountain ash, the most famous of them is the mountain ash. It is found in nature in the temperate climate of Eurasia. Fruits are orange or scarlet, leaves are unpaired. It is divided into two types: Moravian and Nevezhinsky. Almost all modern varieties originated from them.
The cloak is characterized by compactness of crown and short stature. The maximum height of the tree is 3 m. The plant begins to bear fruit quickly, gardeners can already harvest the first berry crop by the 2nd or 3rd year. One tree can bring 35-40 kg of fruit. Usually medium, rarely large berries with a red-brown hue have a dense pulp with a sweet and sour taste. Berries last up to 4 months.
Mountain ash Burka begins to bear fruit in the 2nd – 3rd year
A distinctive feature of the Michurinsky dessert mountain ash is early ripening (in the last decade of July - the first decade of August), which is two weeks earlier than usual. The tree bears fruit annually, the harvest is plentiful. Large berries from dark red to brown shades are similar to medlar. Sweet and sour taste is characterized by spicy tartness of mountain ash. The sugar content is considerable - up to 11%. This sweet-fruited mountain ash needs quick cleaning, even with a little over-ripening, the fruits lose their attractiveness and presentation. The best storage method is drying. Berries become like sweet raisins. Michurinskaya dessert mountain ash is not susceptible to pests and copes well with diseases.
The berries of the mountain ash of the Michurinskaya dessert ripen in the last decade of July - the first decade of August
Pomegranate mountain ash is the result of crossing a mountain ash with hawthorn. The tree reaches a height of 4 m, is distinguished by an openwork crown. Fruiting usually begins in the 3rd year. From one plant you can collect up to 50 kg of delicious fruits. Medium-sized berries have a peculiar faceted shape. When ripening, dark red fruits are covered with a bluish coating. Sugar in berries is not enough, only 5-8%, so the taste is sweet and sour, mountain ash. This variety is good for making jam and making wine. Many prefer ripe berries to freeze. The variety is resistant to many diseases and pests.
Pomegranate mountain ash - the result of crossing the mountain ash with hawthorn
A hybrid of mountain ash with chokeberry gave birth to a mountain ash Liqueur. A feature of the variety is its frost resistance. The tree is medium-sized (up to 5 m), gives the first crop for 3-4 years. Berries ripen in almost black color. Their sugar content is quite high, about 9.6%. The berries have a sweet and sour taste, they are most often used fresh, although they are also suitable for processing.
The fruits of mountain ash Liqueur can be eaten fresh
Scarlet large mountain ash was named for the color of the fruit and their size (more than 2 g). The tree reaches a height of 6 m. The mountain ash crown is spreading, with a wide pyramidal shape. The leaves are large, complex, pinnate. In summer, they are shiny, dark green in color. The hybrid is frost-resistant, tolerates winters with a temperature of -50 ° C without loss.
Rowan Alaya large tolerates severe frosts
The tree of this winter-hardy variety grows up to 4 m in height. Its homeland is the Himalayas, the variety has established itself in the Leningrad region. White berries combined in large heavy clusters. The diameter of one berry reaches 10–12 mm. Green, pinnate leaves in the fall become yellow-orange.
Mountain ash Kashmir gives unusual white berries
Variety Titan is created from mountain ash in combination with a red-leafed apple and pear. This hybrid has established itself among Russian gardeners, as it has shown high resistance to adverse environmental conditions. Fruiting occurs already in the second season after planting. The berries are quite large, reaching 2 g. When ripe, the fruits of dark cherry color are covered with a bluish coating. The flesh of the berries is bright yellow with a sweet and sour taste. After drying, the berries become similar to the usual raisins.
Mountain ash of the Titan variety is resistant to adverse environmental conditions
Variety Beauty was the result of crossing pears with mountain ash. The tree is medium-sized (up to 5 m), with a pyramidal slender crown. On Beauty, large yellow berries ripen (more than 10 mm in diameter). Fruits have a pleasant sweet-sour taste, therefore they are suitable for fresh consumption as well as for storage. The hybrid is frost-resistant and undemanding to soil.
Rowan berries Beauty - fairly large, yellow
Mountain ash is crossed with plants of other species. As a result, we obtained hybrids of Sorbania (mountain ash and chokeberry), Sorbapirus (mountain ash and pear), Amelosorbus (mountain ash and shrimp), Krategosorbuz (mountain ash and hawthorn), Malosorbus (mountain ash and apple tree).
Many varieties of mountain ash tolerate transplantation and quickly take root in a new place. To get this result, you need to follow a few simple rules.
- September is ideal for planting and transplanting mountain ash seedlings.
- A tree needs a pit not less than 60x60 cm in size.
- To fill the pit using a mixture of rotted manure with peat compost and topsoil. You can add 100-200 g of ash and superphosphate.
- Before planting, it is better to dip the roots in a clay mash, then place on a mound made in the middle of the pit and straighten them. The root neck of the plant should be located at ground level.
- The plant must be carefully watered (2-3 buckets per well). It is necessary to water each layer of soil, then voids do not form under the roots of the seedling.
- The planted tree should be tied to a stake, and ideally - to three connected sticks, inclined to the tree. This will create a protective frame for the seedling.
It is wrong to trample the soil with your feet after planting. This leads to a strong compaction of the soil and impairs the functioning of microorganisms.
Mountain ash is a tall tree, so it is worth considering that it does not obscure other plantings. To obtain a higher yield of berries, several varieties of mountain ash should be planted on the site. The trees are located 5-6 meters from each other.
Mountain ash transplant to a new place
It is possible to transplant a mountain ash according to the scheme of its landing. The only thing to consider is a deep dig of the root system. If you have the ability to plant plants, it is quite possible to dig a wild mountain ash in the forest and transfer it to the garden. After complete rooting (usually next year), several cuttings of different varieties should be grafted onto the wild.
For the cultivation of mountain ash, it is customary to use two methods: vegetative and seed. Species mountain ash is usually propagated by seed. Preparation of seeds for sowing occurs in the fall.
- The ripe berries are selected, the seeds are dried out of them, thoroughly washed from the pulp and dried.
Rowan seeds need to be peeled and dried
- Then the seeds are sown in soil to a depth of 10 cm and mulched with fallen leaves. You can sow seeds in the spring. It is important not to forget to start preparing them for sowing in advance.
- The preparation procedure is as follows: rowan seeds are mixed with coarse sand in a ratio of 1: 3.
- The resulting mixture was incubated for 6-8 weeks at room temperature.
- For the next 2–4 months, seeds with sand are stored in the refrigerator, placed in a vegetable box.
- Sowing is carried out after snow melts. You can sow seeds in a greenhouse or special boxes. Until autumn, seedlings remain in one place, they are watered, periodically weed, loosen the soil. In autumn, seedlings are transplanted into a mini-garden (the so-called school).
- Seedlings obtained from seeds begin to produce crops for the 4th – 5th year.
Valuable varieties of mountain ash are usually propagated vegetatively. For this, vaccination, shoots or layering, green or lignified cuttings are used. Traditional rootstocks for grafting can become a tree of ordinary mountain ash. Crowning (vaccination) is carried out in April, when the sap flow begins. If the spring deadlines are missed, then you can spend the budding in late July - early August. The dressing is removed from the site of vaccination after 20-25 days.
For the cultivation of mountain ash in the garden, it is necessary to perform operations that are usual when caring for fruit trees.
Watering the mountain ash is necessary immediately after planting in a permanent place, as well as at the beginning of the growing season or during a period of prolonged absence of rainfall. Additional hydration is desirable 10-15 days before harvesting, as well as 10-15 days after harvesting. Each tree requires up to 3 buckets of water.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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You need to water in the grooves around the trunk circle, and not directly under the root.
Loosening of the soil around the mountain ash is carried out several times during the spring-summer season. The first time you need to loosen the soil in early spring. In summer, loosening is carried out 2-3 times. It is best done on the second day after rain or watering. After the soil around the trunk is mulched with organic matter.
In the 3rd year of life, a rowan tree needs the first top dressing, which is carried out in early spring. 5-7 kg of humus or compost and 50 g of ammonium nitrate (per tree) are needed. The best time for the next feeding is the beginning of June. Rowan is watered with mullein solution (in a ratio of 1: 5), you can use bird droppings (in a ratio of 1:10). 10 l of solution per tree will be enough. Instead of organics, you can use Agrolife fertilizer. In August and early September, the last top dressing is performed. This will require 2 tbsp. wood ash and 0.5 tbsp. superphosphate.
In the 2nd year of life, the tree needs to undergo the first pruning to avoid thickening the crown and create a strong skeleton. When forming a pyramidal crown, it is important to consider that shoots growing at right angles to the main trunk are initially removed. Next - branches growing at an acute angle, as they are devoid of strength. Therefore, the gardener should try to preserve those that grow at an obtuse angle with skeletal branches.
Too get involved in pruning is not worth it, it can do harm, not benefit. If the trunk bark and the main skeletal branches are cut too often, they can become so bare that there is a risk of sunburn.
Tree pruning is divided into three types:
- sanitary pruning (as necessary, when you need to remove broken, dried or diseased branches);
- anti-aging pruning is required to restore the strength of the tree. The need for it appears if the growth of the plant does not exceed 10-12 cm per year, but the yield is still high. It is carried out in two stages: in the first year, 50% of the branches are trimmed, and the same amount will remain the next year. Strong anti-aging pruning is needed when there is no growth or it is not more than 5 cm per year, and yield is also reduced. It consists in the rejuvenation of skeletal (semi-skeletal) branches on wood every 6-7 years. At the same time, mineral top dressing of the tree is necessary;
- pruning to limit growth is needed to coordinate the height of the tree. It is carried out on the 8-10th year of the mountain ash, is especially relevant for the varieties of the so-called "folk" selection. As a result of pruning, the central sprout is removed, replacing it with a branch from the upper tier.
Rowan tree needs annual pruning
Rowan pruning in spring
It is best to trim the rowan tree until the buds are swollen, that is, in early spring. Each wound exceeding 3 cm in diameter should be treated with garden var. Wound dressing will protect the mountain ash from becoming infected with diseases, prevent drying out and accelerate the formation of callus.
Pruning in the early spring of an adult tree consists in thinning out the middle of the tree's crown, as well as the direction of the central conductor to the side branch. In addition, damaged and dry branches must be removed.
A young tree should not be pruned heavily, because this leads to the development of shoots and, consequently, to a decrease in yield.
Video: rowan pruning
Rowan Diseases and Pests
Despite the fact that mountain ash is susceptible to almost all diseases and pests of fruit trees, it shows enviable stability. They can greatly harm the ripened crop of mountain ash.
Experienced gardeners argue that on a healthy seedling with proper care, no sores will appear. Diseases appear only in weakened plants.
There are some types of diseases that cannot be cured: any kind of necrosis, some types of mosaics. It is better to prevent them with preventive measures. Prevention of fatal diseases for mountain ash consists in a thorough examination of the seedlings, proper planting of the tree and proper care for it. Occurring from time to time, insect carriers of viruses should be ruthlessly destroyed.
Table: rowan pest control drugs
|Rowan pest||The drug for its destruction|
|Bark beetles||Actar, Confidor, Lepidocide|
|Moths||Chlorophos, Cyanix, Karbafos|
|Gall Rowan Mites||Colloidal sulfur|
|Mountain ash moth||Chlorophos|
|Aphid green apple||Actellik, Decis|
Preventive treatment from pests is used. In early spring, it’s good to bring Nitrafen into the soil under the mountain ash, as well as treat the tree itself. You can spray the rowan tree with a solution of copper sulfate (100 g per 10 l of water) before sap flow begins.
Well-proven way to protect the leaves of mountain ash infusion of white mustard. To do this, 10 g of mustard powder should be poured into 1 liter of water and insisted for 24 hours. For the finished solution, you need to dilute the resulting mixture with water in a ratio of 1: 5.
We grow mountain ash Alai and Delicatessen. Scarlet has a good sweet and sour taste, without bitterness, the berries are juicy, beautiful color. I really like this tree. The delicate one has a dark color, a little lighter than that of a chokeberry, and the taste, it seems to me, is inferior to Scarlet.Naka
I don’t want to persuade, but ... IMHO: sweet-fruited mountain ash was bred as a cultivated plant for the cold northern regions, where other fruit ones simply do not grow, and its taste is not outstanding at all. The same can be said about chokeberries: dry astringent berries of a very mediocre tart taste. Again IMHO: in the middle lane you can find trees, shrubs and vines (both beautiful and healthy!) With much tastier fruits than any mountain ash.Conservative
The real Pomegranate is delicious, the taste of its berries has practically no "mountain ash" notes, and the berries themselves are very far from the usual red ones. They are larger and purplish-violet. I tried it - and settled the same in my garden, although I am not a fan of mountain ash. My young one so far, only berries will be.Olga
My mom loves red mountain ash, and I love black. We make jam from red mountain ash - the taste is simply unforgettable! True, this is for those who like tart jam, with a light spicy bitterness. And grind the black with sugar and store in the cellar, in small jars. This is, firstly, a storehouse of vitamins, and besides, I have problems with the vessels, so the black mountain ash just helps strengthen the walls of the vessels, not to mention the fact that it reduces pressure. The tree itself is small, productivity is not necessary at times, but a lot of it is not needed. And the red near our house is growing - in the fall - just a sight for sore eyes! By the way, there are special varieties, the same liquor. But she, it seems to me, does not look like a mountain ash either.Elen fionko
Mountain ash will not only decorate your garden, but also serve as a source of vitamins for the winter. This tree is resistant to diseases and pests, unpretentious in care. Breeders have bred varieties whose fruits are sweet and devoid of the usual mountain ash.