Maria is a wonderful late-ripening dessert pear
The fruits of most late varieties of pears are famous for sweet juicy pulp, in their taste a full bouquet appears, ripening during the summer period. They contain more nutrients and vitamins than early varieties. One of the late winter is the dessert variety Maria, whose large fruits are distinguished by a long shelf life and a very good taste.
Maria is a late pear variety of Ukrainian (at the time of its appearance) origin, included in the State Register of Selection Achievements of the Russian Federation only in 2014. Approved for use in the North Caucasus region. On the Internet there are a huge number of articles that confuse the popular name of Mary. Sometimes Maria is confused with Maria or Santa Maria, but especially often with an autumn pear of Belarusian origin. Just Maria. When buying seedlings or cuttings in connection with this misunderstanding, you need to be especially careful: these two varieties are radically different from each other.
Winter pear varieties are not very popular in country gardens: harvesting occurs in late autumn, when the body is already full of vitamins, and good conditions are needed for proper storage of late winter pears. Fruits just taken from a tree are usually completely inedible. However, after a short storage, they acquire a rich taste and aroma, any preparations can be made from them, and the trees of winter varieties themselves, as a rule, have high frost resistance.
All this fully applies to the pear variety Maria, known since 1962. The variety was obtained at the Crimean experimental station based on the varieties Dr. Til and Dekanka Winter. One of the authors of Mary is the breeder R. D. Babin, the creator of such widely known varieties as Dessert, Crimean honey, Starokrymskaya and others. Mary is widely distributed in Ukraine and the southern regions of our country; in the northern regions, the tree feels rather well, but the fruits do not have time to ripen. The critical border runs approximately at the latitude of Kiev or Voronezh: it makes no sense to plant this variety to the north.
Winter pear Dekanka - one of Mary's parents
Maria belongs to late winter varieties: harvesting even in the south occurs in early October, the fruits are well preserved in the cellar or refrigerator at a temperature of + 2 ° C almost until the summer. The full harmonious taste of pears is manifested by the end of November. Due to its good keeping quality and excellent presentation, it is included in the list of so-called market varieties and is in high demand in the winter. Fruits perfectly tolerate transportation.
The pear tree Maria is low, barely reaches three meters, the crown is wide-pyramidal, its thickening is at an average level. At the age of 8–10 years, the maximum diameter of the crown does not exceed 2.5 meters. Due to the compactness of the crown in large farm gardens, a tight landing is possible. First-order branches extend almost horizontally from the trunk; their color is yellowish. The leaves are shiny, large.
The frost resistance of the tree is very high (at -30 ° C no damage is observed), good and resistance to most diseases, as well as thermal and bacterial burns of leaves. Due to late flowering, it almost never gets frozen, as a result of which it bears fruit annually and abundantly, being a champion among the late varieties per unit area of the garden. Easily tolerates dry periods. It comes into bearing very early: on quince stocks (and these are very often used stocks for Mary) it gives its first fruits at the age of three. Productivity is growing rapidly from year to year.
In order for Mary to show all her positive qualities, she must be grown on highly fertile soils, it is desirable to have nearby pollinators such as Grand Champion, Yakimovskaya, Dessert, Zhanna D'Ark.
The fruits are large, mostly weighing about 220–250 g, specimens up to 400–450 g are found, they are located on a curved stalk of medium size. The fruits are smooth, regular pear-shaped. First painted yellowish-green, and as it ripens into golden yellow, but there is also an integumentary pink color, which occupies a significant part of the pear. Across the surface, numerous subcutaneous gray-green dots are visible.
The fruits of the pear Maria are large: not to say that they are beautiful, but cause a desire to try them
The pulp is soft, creamy, sweet and sour, of excellent spicy and dessert flavor, the aroma is not very obvious. Sugar content up to 13%, the amount of oily juice is very high. However, experts caution against the disappointment that a gardener may expect at the first harvest: the true, typical for the variety, taste of the fruit appears only in the third year of fruiting. In the first two seasons, the tree still does not have enough strength for the pears to fully ripen.
Planting Mary Pears
A pear is a tree that is quite resistant to the vagaries of the weather, and Maria is one of the leaders in this regard. But in order for it to give full-fledged crops, it is necessary to observe the basic rules both when planting, and with further care for it. The pear generally loves summer warmth and sunny lighting, and Mary, as a representative of the group of late winter varieties, needs to increase the amount of active positive temperatures during the growing season by any available properties. Even landing on the south side of a tall house can contribute to this. He does not like a pear and cold northern winds. The best soils are fertile loams that retain moisture well.
It is better to plant Mary pear in spring, but autumn planting is not contraindicated. Most likely, the purchased seedling will be one- or two-year-old with an open root system, so the roots should be examined especially carefully: usually in the first years of the pear they are rather weak, and each additional root can play a significant role in the survival of the seedling. That is why pear trees in the first 1-2 years after planting almost do not grow: they first build up the root system.
If you have some experience, you can get Maria cuttings and plant them on a wild pear or quince.
Planting a pear of this variety is no different from planting other varieties and is not too complicated. The best time to plant is early April, when the buds are still sleeping, and the seedlings take root easily. One-year plants, representing twigs without branches or only with primordia of lateral branches, take root remarkably. But the trunk of a good one-year-old should be thick, with a diameter of at least 1 cm. It is worth planting a two-year-old only if they have a branched system of living elastic roots.
If the site is characterized by a close occurrence of groundwater, it is better to plant Mary on a small mound. Of course, a pit for spring planting is being prepared in the fall: it is very difficult to dig it in early April in wet soil after winter, and even once. But before preparing the pit, it is necessary to dig a plot of at least 3 x 3 m in size with fertilizers: after a few years, the roots of the pear will grow and will require a large area of nutrition. As always, when digging onto a bayonet, shovels add humus, a liter can of ash and up to 50 g of any complex mineral fertilizer per 1 m2. And already high doses of fertilizers are introduced into the pit, carefully mixing the excavated soil with 2 buckets of humus, 150-200 g of azofoska and two liter cans of wood ash. During the winter, biological equilibrium will be established in such a pit, and in the spring, pear planting will take place without any problems.
So, the main steps for planting Mary pear are as follows:
- In summer, they dig up a site with the usual doses of organic and mineral fertilizers.
When digging a site, all large stones and perennial weeds are removed
- In the fall, a landing pit is prepared with a depth and diameter of at least 50-60 cm. The fertile soil is folded nearby, the lower layers are scattered along the garden paths.
Digging a landing hole, try not to lose the top fertile layer
- In the upper part of the soil make 2-3 buckets of compost or well-decomposed manure and a liter of two wood ash, mix thoroughly. Azofosku, up to 200 g, - optional.
Manure should be used only rotted, without fresh inclusions
- A 10-cm layer of drainage is placed at the bottom of the pit: pebbles, broken bricks, gravel, etc.
Drainage at the bottom of the pit prevents root decay in case of excess moisture
- Pour half of the soil mixture with fertilizers into the pit, drive a strong meter stake, and fill the second half of the mixture. Autumn work is completed.
Having poured a hole in the soil and driving a stake, you can wait for spring
- In the spring, the pear seedling Maria is placed with the roots in the water for at least a few hours so that the roots are saturated with moisture, and then dipped in a mash of clay and cow manure for several minutes.
Chatterbox-treated roots allow seedlings to take root better
- A hole is made in the landing pit so that the roots can fit freely. Put a seedling in a hole, straighten the roots, cover them with the removed nutrient mixture, periodically shaking it. It is necessary to make sure that the root neck is 3-5 cm higher than the soil surface. When instilling, from time to time trample the soil with your hand, and then with your foot.
Be sure to control the position of the root neck, in no case not letting it go underground
- They tie the pear to the stake with a soft rope or braid, using the G8 method.
The G8 holds a sapling firmly and does not fall off
- Water the seedling well, spending 2-3 buckets of water.
It is necessary to soak the soil in the landing pit very well with water
- Mulch the soil around the seedling with peat, compost or grass, leaving a few centimeters of free space around the trunk (to exclude ripening).
When mulching, do not fall asleep
After a few days, the earth will settle a little, and the root neck will be near the soil level. The garter in the first year must be monitored so that it does not sag, but does not crash into the trunk, and does not cause him injury.
When planting several trees, the gaps between them leave relatively small: Maria is a compact pear, it is often used in compacted plantings. But, of course, this does not apply to suburban areas: more than one Mary tree does not need to be planted. But the pollinators mentioned above are required by her, and they should be at such a distance that the crowns of adult trees do not close. So, between the landing pits should be maintained at a distance of 3.5-4 meters. In the early years, between the trees you can place any vegetables, flowers and even plant strawberries.
Subtleties of caring for a late pear
Pear Maria is unpretentious to conditions, but the most usual leaving is necessary, as well as for any fruit tree. These are periodic watering, top dressing, forming pruning and preventive spraying. Maria comes into fruition very early, and already in the year of planting can throw several flowers. They are better off: anyway, nothing good in the first year or two of them will fail. The tree should throw all its strength into building up the root system, then the crown, and only then begin to bear fruit.
Abundant watering is required only in the first few years of the tree . If it began to grow rapidly, this means that the roots have reached such a length that they themselves can get moisture, and the frequency of watering can be gradually reduced. Adult trees should be helped with water at the very beginning of summer, when young shoots grow intensively, and in August, when the fruits are poured. In these months, it may take up to 15–20 buckets of water per tree; the soil needs to be wetted well. The rest of the time there is usually enough rainfall, and watering is required only in the event of prolonged dry weather. Around young trees, the soil after watering must be loosened, and even remove weeds. Mature trees rarely keep under black steam, much more often the soil, on the contrary, is sod, sowing any low grass.
In the first two or three years, the fertilizer that was introduced into the planting pit is enough for pear, and then it needs to be fed . In the early spring, even before the thawing of the soil, any nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, urea, etc.) are scattered around the trees, about 40-50 g per tree. When the ice melts, they themselves will go into the soil, but if the application is carried out after thawing, they should be slightly covered with a hoe. In the autumn, immediately after harvesting, small holes are dug around the tree, where 30–40 g of superphosphate, a bucket of rotted manure and a liter jar of wood ash are placed.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Manure can be replaced with bird droppings, but very carefully: it is better not to pour it dry, but let it wander (a handful of droppings on a bucket of water), then dilute it several more times and pour the prepared solution into the soil around the tree.
It is better to carry out such a procedure in the spring, since the litter contains a large amount of nitrogen, in the form of infusion it is converted into a rapidly digestible form, and in the autumn nitrogen is pear completely useless. If an adult pear began to behave strangely (growth slows down, leaves turn pale, and there are no obvious signs of disease), most likely, it lacks some nutrients, and top dressing should be added.
Form a crown should begin in the second year after planting. It is better to carry out pruning in early spring, before the buds swell, covering all large sections with garden varieties.
The conductor should always be higher than the side branches, no matter how powerful they grow: they must be timely and properly cut.
Pruning Maria variety is not difficult, there is no any strict scheme . It is important to remove broken, diseased, dead and highly thickening crown branches.
Whatever the cropping pattern, it is necessary, first of all, to brighten the crown
Mary’s yield is very high, and branches, even skeletal ones, are often broken under the weight of the fruit. And the main branches leave the trunk almost at an angle of 90 °. Therefore, in any case, one should not regret obviously unnecessary branches. In addition to timely pruning, the use of various supports for knots helps to preserve the crown, which must be built in time using any durable hornets: substitute them as the branches bend to the ground due to the growing load on them .
Variety Maria is characterized by increased frost resistance, therefore, it does not require special preparation for winter. But young seedlings must be protected from the cold. They must be whitewashed with lime or special compounds in late autumn, and the trunks are wrapped with paper, non-woven materials or the old Russian way: nylon tights. Seedlings protect against rodents by tying spruce branches to the trunks. The trunk circle is necessarily mulched. Adult trees practically do not prepare for winter, but around the pear it is necessary to remove all plant debris, and it is advisable to whiten the trunk with a lime-clay mortar with the addition of copper sulfate .
Whitewashing is not only a cosmetic procedure, it protects trees from burns in the spring sun.
For the prevention of diseases, early spring spraying of trees with a solution of iron sulfate or Bordeaux liquid is used, and the main part of pests is destroyed by equipping fishing belts from corrugated cardboard or dense matter soaked in any insecticides for the summer.
Harvest pears Mary harvested slightly immature . In any case, immediately after harvesting, the fruits will seem almost inedible and will reach full maturity only by the beginning of winter, when stored in a low positive temperature. Before laying in the cellar they must be carefully inspected, removing all damaged items. After a while, they can be put on stewed fruit, jam and other preparations.
Pear Diseases and Pests
One of the many advantages of the old Maria pear variety is its very high resistance to the causative agents of most diseases and various pests. Prophylactic treatment with fungicides, when all other agricultural practices are carried out correctly, almost guarantee no diseases, and the installation of hunting belts reduces the risk of damage to the fruit by insects and caterpillars by more than half. In addition to such simple preparations as iron sulfate and Bordeaux mixture, improvised means such as nettle infusions, calendula, chamomile, etc. are widely used in the prevention of diseases. Timely cleaning of a tree of plant debris, mummified fruits and old dead skin is of great help in the destruction of pests. bark. Maria almost does not get sick with the scab that is common among pear trees, which distinguishes this variety from others.
Diseases and pests inherent only to the pear variety Maria do not exist. With poor care, she may suffer from the same problems as any other pear variety. The main hazards are as follows.
- Scab - the most dangerous disease of many fruit trees - rarely affects Mary. The disease begins with leaves, on which dark spots appear, which then pass on to the fruits. They become covered with spots of various shapes and sizes, harden and crack, deform and lose their presentation. Against this disease Bordeaux fluid helps well: on vulnerable varieties it is used three times a season, Mary only needs preventive spring treatment.
The scab spoils not only the appearance of the crop, but also does not allow it to be stored
- Fruit rot (moniliosis) begins with the appearance of spots on the fruits, which grow quite quickly, become moldy and make the fruits inedible. The disease spreads particularly quickly in warm, humid weather. Infected fruits must be collected and destroyed on time. If treatments are carried out for scab, the incidence of rot is minimal. If the disease catches up, such well-known chemicals as Chorus, Strobi and other fungicides help.
Rotten pears are disappointing; fortunately, they are not very common
- Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects leaves and shoots. It appears in the form of a white powdery coating, which then darkens, the leaves fall off, and the young shoots dry out. Dried branches must be removed and burned in a timely manner. In the case of a serious and far-reaching disease, Fundazol spraying is necessary, in the initial stages folk remedies help (for example, a solution of 50 g of soda and 10 g of soap in a bucket of water).
- Leaf rust can kill a pear tree. It manifests itself in the form of round yellow spots, which then swell, and the leaves fall off. Infected branches along with healthy wood must be cut and burned, and the tree should be sprayed with Bordeaux liquid. In advanced cases, Skor treatment is used, at the beginning of the disease, even spraying with strong infusion of wood ash can be effective.
- Black cancer is a dangerous disease, often leading to the death of a tree. It develops gradually, initially manifesting itself only as cracks in the cortex, which then grow and the trunk blackens along their edges. Such areas should be immediately cut, capturing and healthy tissue. The resulting wounds are treated with a strong solution of copper sulfate and dressings with a mixture of mullein and clay are applied.
Black cancer is a deadly disease, but at first it can be stopped
The most common pear tree pests are listed below.
- Gall tick is a small insect that makes itself felt by swelling on the leaves. Due to the fact that it sucks the juices from the leaves, the tree receives less nutrition. The leaves turn black and fall off. Careful cleaning of the trunk circle in autumn minimizes the danger. When ticks appear, any insecticides, for example, Vermitec, help.
- The pear moth is a butterfly that lays eggs already during flowering, and the larvae emerging from them penetrate the growing fruits and damage them. For late winter varieties, the moth is less dangerous: during the filling of their fruits, the caterpillars of the moth are already able to pupate. One of the most effective drugs against any moths is Kinmiks. The well-known Spark works well.
Moth is known to all, but on pears it is less common than on apple trees
- Green aphid affects young shoots, clinging to them and sucking juices, as a result of which the branches dry out. Aphids are carried by garden ants, so you have to fight with them at the same time. Aphids are well destroyed by infusions of plants such as dandelion or garlic with the addition of ordinary soap. With a massive invasion, you have to use Kinmix.
Aphids and ants coexist perfectly, and the pain with these insects should be carried out simultaneously
It is clear that any chemicals should be used strictly according to the instructions on the packaging, and when using them, use basic protective equipment.
Today they tasted Maria's first ripened signalization. Super! Taste, sugar, texture, appearance - all five. Angelis was also tasted (I could be wrong), she lost, her daughter said she was too sweet.
This year there were three signal pears on Mary. Filmed on October 7 before the New Year, slightly began to fade the noses, the color remained green. After three days in a warm room, they began to turn a little yellow, but it tasted rubbery. And only after lying about 10 days, the latter became juicy and quite tasty.
We, too, this year with pears, four years ago I bought what was under the name Mary. This year she gave us a super harvest - more than 50 kg.
Pear Maria has been known for more than half a century, but was recently placed in the Russian State Register. Apparently, its inclusion is not accidental: even the appearance of many new varieties did not lead to Mary being squeezed out of amateur and industrial gardens. This is one of the best late-winter varieties that enjoy well-deserved fame and are in demand in the food market.