Malvina honeysuckle - a fruitful variety with delicate fruits
More recently, honeysuckle could be found only in the forest. But recently, this culture has gained extraordinary popularity among gardeners. She is loved for the early (already at the beginning of June) term for ripening berries, resistance to return frosts, and the ability to easily tolerate severe Russian winters. One of the best varieties of this berry culture is Malvina with fragrant sweet and sour fruits without bitterness. It is no coincidence that this honeysuckle has such a romantic name - in translation from the ancient German Malvina it means "tender".
History of Malvina
The distribution area of the northern honeysuckle is Kamchatka, the Kuril Islands and the Primorsky Territory. Among the varieties of this culture stands out a group of blue honeysuckles, the fruits of which are edible. From time immemorial, local sweet berries with small sour berries were collected by local residents in the forests and not only made jam from it, but also prepared it as medicinal raw materials.
The first description of honeysuckle appeared in the XVII century thanks to the researcher of Kamchatka V. Atlasov. In the 19th century, the gardener T.D. Maurits began cultivating this plant. Later varieties appeared in I.V. Michurina. Breeders seriously set about breeding new species of honeysuckle. Now the Russian school for horticultural garden berry selection from the family Honeysuckle is the best in the world. Many promising garden views of this culture were created at the Pavlovsk Experimental Station named after N.I. Vavilova, St. Petersburg. Malvina variety obtained here by MN belongs to the elite. Plekhanova and A.V. Kondrikova from crossing form No. 21–5 from the Primorsky Territory with the Leningrad giant. In 2002, it was introduced into the State Register for all 12 areas of cultivation of crops.
Malvina honeysuckle variety - the result of the work of Russian breeders
Malvina is a medium-ripening variety. It is appreciated for delicious fruits in which bitterness is not felt at all. It has excellent frost resistance: shoots withstand extreme subzero temperatures (up to -50 ° C), the roots do not freeze at -40 ° C, flowers and ovaries are not damaged at -8 ° C. Resistance to low temperatures allows you to grow crops in regions with cold climates. Malvina practically does not get sick, it is rarely exposed to pest attacks.
In the Malvina variety, the fruits are shaped like a pear
This is a medium-sized deciduous shrub with an oval crown. Straight shoots are thin, have pubescence. At a young age, the branches are light green in color. Over time, the bark acquires a brownish tint and cracks, exposing reddish wood. The leaves are large, in the form of an elongated oval. The leaf plate is dark green in color, straight, up to 6 cm long, 3 cm wide. The honeysuckle blooms with bell-shaped pale yellow flowers.
Honeysuckle Malvina - a perennial shrub with a round crown and straight shoots
Berries of a bluish-blue hue have an elongated pear-shaped shape, average weight - a little more than 1 g. The skin is dense, without pubescence, with a bluish waxy coating. Delicate aromatic flesh, sweet and sour taste, received a rating of 4.4 points.
This is one of the most productive varieties of honeysuckle, in industrial plantings they get 48.9 c / ha, from the bush - 1.6 kg, with good care up to 3 kg. It is characterized by early maturity - already in the 3rd year berries appear, the bush maintains good productivity for 25-30 years.
Malvina is self-infertile, additional pollinators are required for harvesting - honeysuckle of other varieties: Blue spindle, Morena, Blue bird.
Malvina - one of the most productive varieties of honeysuckle
Video: honeysuckle varieties
Rules for planting honeysuckle in the garden
In order for the bush to feel comfortable and bear fruit well, it is necessary to choose the right place.
Where to plant
The site should be well lit. With a thickened planting or when planting next to tall trees shading the bushes, fruiting will be weak. Malvina does not need protection from cold winds, it can be planted in the open. The culture will grow on any soil, but the appearance will be brighter, and more berries if you plant it on well-fertilized loam with a low level of acidity.
The acidic environment negatively affects the plant: the leaves become pale, the bush grows weak. Hollows, places with low groundwater flow should be avoided: moisture stagnation is harmful to the roots.
In the honeysuckle garden, a spacious area well lit by the sun should be reserved.
For honeysuckle you need to choose a good company, because it is a cross-pollinated culture. Nearby should plant 3-4 bushes of other varieties with the same flowering period. At least 1.5 m should be left between the plants so that the wide-spread bushes do not touch each other: the branches of the honeysuckle are very fragile, with a strong bend they can break off.
Berry bushes can be arranged in a group in a corner of the garden or planted in a row at the border of the plot, forming a hedge from them. Honeysuckle coexists well next to blackcurrant.
Honeysuckle bushes can be planted in a row, indicating the boundary of the site
The optimal planting dates are from August to November. By the end of the second summer month, growth processes are completed in honeysuckle, and a dormant period begins. It is undesirable to plant a crop in the spring due to the early onset of vegetation - already at the end of March the buds open. Even during transshipment with a large earthen lump, plants react painfully to changes in living conditions and adapt for a long time.
It is advisable to purchase container seedlings in nurseries, where there is a large selection of varieties adapted to local conditions. Here you can pick up pollinating plants. 2-year-old bushes up to 40 cm in height, with 2-3 branching, are better taken root. They should have a good root system, without mold; branches are flexible, with buds.
When choosing seedlings, preference should be given to biennial plants in a container
2 weeks before planting, a 40x40 cm pit is made in a dug out and cleared of weeds site. Drainage is laid on the bottom, part of the fertile land tucked with 2 buckets of humus, 2 tbsp. l superphosphate and 500 g of ash. An additional 10 kg of compost is added to the sandy areas. It is possible to improve the composition of the soil with the help of vermicompost: 1.5 kg of dry vermicompost or 3 l of its solution is mixed with the soil, and the soil is well shed. Such organic fertilizer is much more effective than mineral mixtures.
For better survival, the seedlings are kept in solution with Kornevin, Heteroauxin for several hours before planting.
Landing pits are prepared in advance so that the earth has time to settle
- In the center of the pit form an earthen mound.
- Dip a bush on it, spread the roots well in different directions. Container plants are planted with an earthen lump.
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- Fall asleep seedling. The root neck should be buried 5 cm into the ground.
- They make a hole around the bush, pour a bucket of water into it.
- They cover the soil with hay, a straw layer of 10 cm.
Important! Honeysuckle bushes after planting are not pruned, as is done with other berry crops - shortening delays their growth and fruiting.
Video: honeysuckle landing
Agricultural technology of honeysuckle cultivation
The first two seasons you only need to water, loosen and mulch the soil. Young plants do not need top dressing and pruning.
Watering and loosening
Honeysuckle feels good in regions with high humidity, needs regular watering, especially in dry summers. Moisturize the bushes 5-6 times per season, spending an average of 15 liters per plant. It is better to use water protected, heated in the sun. With a lack of moisture, the taste of berries deteriorates. Abundant watering is especially necessary in late May - early June - it contributes to a yield increase and an increase in berry mass by 15%. When fruit is poured in dry weather, the volume of water is increased to 3 buckets per bush.
Water is introduced into the irrigation grooves made around the shrub, or using a spray hose. However, during flowering, sprinkling is not carried out so as not to wash off pollen from the flowers.
Honeysuckle - a water-loving plant that needs regular watering
After irrigation or rain, moist soil is loosened loosely, being careful not to damage the roots that come close to the surface. To reduce the evaporation of moisture and stop the growth of weeds, you can use mulching with hay, straw, compost.
In the third year in the spring, the berry is fed with nitrogen fertilizers (30 g of urea / 10 l). Honeysuckle does not like mineral supplements too much, so it’s better to use organics. After the snow melts under the bush, 10 kg of humus are scattered. Ash (1 l / 10 l) is added to the phase of bud extension and ovary formation. At the end of the season, restoring the strength of the shrub and increasing its winter hardiness will help fertilizing with compost (5 kg) and ash (100 g) with the addition of superphosphate (40 g / m2). Every 3 years in the fall, it is recommended to feed the honeysuckle with potash fertilizers (15 g / m2), which increase the resistance of plants to diseases.
Honeysuckle prefers organic fertilizers over mineral fertilizers, which are scattered under a bush or applied as a solution
Tip. In autumn, it is useful to fertilize with HB 101 natural fertilizer (1 ml / 20 l / m2) by leaf method or root watering. This drug is a natural substance that contains silicon dioxide, the juice of long-lived trees - cypress and Japanese cedar.
The first 2 years, pruning is not carried out, from the third year they begin to form a sparse bush. Honeysuckle is prone to thickening, so thin out the crown, leaving 5 healthy strong branches, cut basal shoots, small twigs, tops. Since the buds are located on the top of the shoots, they can not be cut off from fruiting shrubs. Thinning pruning is done after leaf fall.
Regulating pruning is necessary to form a sparse bush, evenly lit by the sun and well ventilated
In subsequent seasons in the fall, sanitary pruning is carried out: dry, diseased and broken branches are removed. After 5–7 years, the yield falls, the plant needs a rejuvenating pruning. 2 old branches are cut under the root, replacing them with 3 young shoots. As a result of such annual pruning, the bush is gradually rejuvenated.
Honeysuckle is a cold-resistant culture that tolerates even severe northern winters without loss. Spring cooling is not afraid of her either - until late frosts, the culture already has time to bloom.
The northern berry is not afraid of frost and does not require shelter for the winter
In the autumn, on the eve of lowering the temperature, the bushes are watered (30 l / plant), a layer of compost is laid. In frosts above -40 ° C, slight damage to the tops of shoots, which are cut off in early spring, is possible.
There are several ways to reproduce honeysuckle.
- Culture easily propagates vegetatively. Green cuttings 12 cm long are cut at the end of flowering, planted in containers with fertile soil, moisturized well, put under a film. 25 ° С - optimal temperature for rooting. The greenhouse must be opened for ventilation, to prevent drying of the soil. Next fall, grown plants are planted in the garden. Such cuttings have the highest survival rate.
- Material for propagation by lignified cuttings is prepared at the end of leaf fall. Annual shoots are divided into parts of 20 cm and stored in sand or sawdust. In the spring they are planted in a greenhouse at an angle of 45 °, regularly watered and ajar for airing. Transplantation to the site is carried out in the fall.
- The easiest way to propagate honeysuckle - using layering. In June, the top of the shoot is bent to the ground, sprinkled with soil with a layer of 5 cm, pinned and watered. Separate it from the mother plant and plant it should be next year in the fall.
- Honeysuckle reproduces very easily by dividing shrubs. A bush no older than 5 years old is dug up and divided into several parts with roots and each bush is planted separately.
- The seed method is rarely used due to the complexity of the process.
Protection against diseases and pests
Malvina practically does not get sick, in rare years, harmful fungi can appear on plants under the influence of weather and climate factors. Honeysuckle and parasite insects are not particularly favored, but preventative measures are necessary.
Table: Honeysuckle Disease
|Disease||Signs of infection||Prevention||Treatment|
|Powdery mildew||A fungal disease attacks honeysuckle in a drought. Whitish spots first appear on the foliage, then on the shoots. The development of the disease contributes to landing in a shaded place.|
|Sooty mushroom||A dark coating forms on the foliage. Fungal spores develop on sticky aphid secretions.||In the green cone phase, treat with 1% Bordeaux mixture, 1% Fundazole, Tsineba (8 g / 10 l). Repeat in a week.|
|Tuberculosis||Redish swellings appear on the affected shoots. Wilted foliage, shoots dry up.||Thin out bushes regularly.|
Photo gallery: external signs of disease
- Powdery mildew - a fungal disease that attacks honeysuckle when the plant does not receive enough moisture
- The growth of colonies of soot fungus leads to the death of foliage
- Tuberculosis (or drying out of shoots) is a fungal disease of honeysuckle, causing many problems to gardeners
The most annoying honeysuckle pests are birds, especially sparrows and mountain thrushes, which eat up most of the ripe fruits. In order not to lose crop, berries should be picked immediately, as soon as they ripen. Another option for preserving the fruit is to cover the bushes with a net.
You can save the honeysuckle crop from birds by covering the bushes with a special net
Table: pests of bushes with blue berries
|Pests||Manifestations||Preventative measures||How to help|
|Leaflet||Leafworm caterpillars eat leaves, fruits, buds, shoots.|
|Shield||Small pests stick to the bark. The bush dries and dies.|
|Honeysuckle tick||The parasite settles in shaded and thickened landings. Eating leaf juice, it causes them to wrinkle and fall.||Do not thicken the landing.|
|Aphid||Aphids suck out juices from leaves and shoots. Plants weaken, resistance to viral infections decreases.|
Photo Gallery: Honeysuckle Threatening Insects
- A leaf wrench can be seen on sheets folded into a tube with large holes and bitten edges.
- Scaffolds stick to the shoots, covering them with a dense shield
- Ticks live where moisture is in excess
Gardeners reviews about the variety Malvina
I grow 2 large bushes of honeysuckle and one small - Malvina. On Sunday, I collected 10 liters of a bucket of berries from two bushes.Elena. P.
I bought Malvina 2 years ago ... It grows with me, it gave the first small crop last spring. The berries are large, but they tasted more acidic than Nymph (of my 12 varieties, it is the sweetest) and than the Chosen One. Maybe the first berries are not an indicator, but so far I have not found anything outstanding in Malvina.Ilona
Malvina is about nothing. Small, sour, thick skin. The branches are clung to her like sea buckthorn. It can hang on a bush for a long time, it does not crumble at all.Roza
Malvina’s honeysuckle is an unpretentious crop, valued for early maturation - berries can be picked up already in the 3rd year after planting on the site. High winter hardiness allows you to grow a variety in regions with a harsh climate. The decorative appearance of Malvina’s honeysuckle bush allows it to be used in garden design: with this plant you can decorate any corner of the garden or create a fruiting green fence.