Kishmish grapes: oriental sweetness to the Russian table
Kishmish is an amazing grape that can be used both as a table variety and as a technical one. Extraordinarily sweet taste with musky notes for adults and children. But the main feature of the variety is the absence of seeds. A kishmish can be eaten by both cheeks without any fear of seeds. Although they are not harmful, they have an astringent taste that not many people like. And from the useful Kishmish they make well-known raisins.
The history of grapes Kishmish
The name of this variety has Persian roots, and sounds delicious, like some kind of oriental sweetness - Kishmish. Literally translated as “dried grapes”. Naturally, the homeland of this variety is Central Asia. Kishmish was first mentioned in 1212 in an Uzbek fairy tale.
Once upon a time, grapes with very small seeds or with their complete absence appeared on the territory of Central Asia. This happened by natural mutation. A natural experiment was noticed by humans and continued. The result of painstaking work was the birth of many varieties of grapes with white, pink or dark berries.
Kishmish - a unique creation of nature, which people enjoyed with pleasure
Description and characteristics of the variety
The name Kishmish unites a large group of varieties that have several characteristics.
- The main distinguishing feature is the lack of seeds in the berry. In some hybrid varieties, seeds are still present, but they are so small and undeveloped that they are practically not felt.
- The clusters of Kishmish are dense or loose with small berries. The color depends on the variety. But, regardless of the variety - the berry has a dense structure and has excellent preservation.
- The pulp has a high sugar content - from 17 to 25%. This makes Kishmish an ideal berry for making raisins.
High sugar content, lack of seeds and dense pulp make Kishmish an ideal variety for making raisins
- Kishmish is a universal grape, it can simultaneously be attributed to dessert and table varieties. Berries can be consumed raw, dried, made wine, boiled jam.
- All varieties are excellent pollinators.
- Kishmish is a very useful food product. The vitamins and microelements contained in it help to recover after a serious illness, support the heart muscle, and bring pressure back to normal.
On this, perhaps, the general similarities end. Varieties have different ripening and frost resistance.
Kishmish Radiant - video
Thanks to selection work, heat-loving varieties of Kishmish can now be grown not only in Central Russia, but also in colder regions. The most popular varieties differ not only in color and size of berries, but also in a set of characteristics.
- Hungarian Kishmish, or Kishmish 342 - a very popular variety. It is considered early, as it takes only 110 - 115 days to mature. The plant is vigorous. The berries are medium in size, light green. The mass of the brush is from 300 to 500 g. The pulp is tender, with a musky flavor. Resistant to fungal diseases. It withstands frosts from 22 to -26 ° C. Used as a dessert variety, suitable for drying.
Hungarian kishmish withstands severe frosts
- Kishmish Aksaysky is an early ripe variety, you can harvest the crop already in late July - early August. Bushes of medium vigor. The bunch is large, conical in shape, with an average weight of 500 - 600 g. The berries are large, oval. The pulp has a pleasant harmonious taste with a light nutmeg aroma, the sugar content is high. The berries are painted in light pink shades, but when fully ripened they turn dark pink. Resistant to mildew, oidium, relatively resistant to gray rot. Presentation and transportability are good.
Kishmish Aksaysky is resistant to many diseases
- Kishmish Century - a variety bred in the USA in 1966, is famous all over the world. The ripening period is average - on 120 - 125 days from the beginning of the growing season. The plant has a vigorous bush. Bunches of conical shape, medium in density, very large - 700 - 1200 g. Berries are yellow-green, oval in shape, with a thin but strong skin. The pulp is homogeneous, slightly crispy, sweet. The taste is balanced, with a nutmeg aroma, sugar content 13%, acidity - 6 g / l. The variety has high resistance to cracking, which provides a good presentation. But it is not very well stored - the berries quickly acquire a brown tint. Frost-resistant - withstands up to -25 ° C.
Kishmish Century - a popular variety from America
- Kishmish Radiant is the only variety included in the State Register. Regions of admission - Lower Volga and North Caucasus. Belongs to varieties with an average ripening period - 125 - 130 days. Vigorous bush with an average size of five-lobed strongly dissected leaves. The leaf plate is light green with a shiny surface. The flower is bisexual. The winged, friable brush, with an average weight of 413 g. According to some reports, it can gain weight up to 1 kg. Berries have an elongated ovoid shape, and average size. The pink skin is dense, the flesh tastes good, fleshy and juicy. The rating of tasters is very high - 9.1 points (on a 10-point scale). The average yield is 126c / ha. It is struck by mildew by 4 points, gray rot by 3 points (the indicator is much lower than the standard), by an oidium by 1 point.
Kishmish Radiant - the owner of great taste
- Kishmish Moldavsky is a medium-late variety; 155 days elapse from budding to the stage of technical ripeness. The bush is overgrown. The brushes are large, with an average weight of 600 g. The berries are round, sometimes oval, the skin is thin and strong, light purple with a slight wax coating. The pulp is fleshy, crispy. The taste is harmonious, sweet. The variety is resistant to mildew and phylloxera. If there is no damage to the leaf grater, then the berries are resistant to gray rot. Withstands frosts down to -18 ° С. It shows excellent transportability and is stored for a long time.
Kishmish Moldavsky - a variety that is not afraid of transportation and storage
Successful cultivation of Kishmish grapes begins with a correctly selected variety that, according to its characteristics, is suitable for your region. In addition, some rules should be observed.
Site selection and soil preparation
Choosing the right place for any grape is a crucial moment in the planting process. For example, Kishmish will not grow in dense shade. It’s not worth planting next to trees because of competition for water and nutrients. Also exclude areas with constant drafts - grapes love comfort. For planting this variety you need to take the warmest and most sunny area, open to the south or south-west. The place should be flat or have a slight slope.
Sunlight - a unique element that gives Kishmish an incredible sweetness
Slight shading is permissible only in the first years of development. Since Kishmish has tall bushes, the crown of growing grapes can easily be brought to the zone of highest illumination.
A good option is to plant a plant near the stone wall of a technical structure - a barn, a garage that closes the grapes from the north side. This should not be done near the house, as abundant watering can lead to the upsetting of the foundation.
In principle, Kishmish can grow on any soil. But a stable crop will bring only in loose and nutritious soils, which warm up quickly enough and provide the root system with easy access to oxygen and moisture. Loamy and light loamy soils, chernozems on Cretaceous and calcareous rocks possess such characteristics. Sandstones can also be a good option, but you should consider their ability to quickly lose moisture and nutrients.
Unsuitable for a vineyard are soils with a root-impermeable subsoil (rock outlet located closer than 1 m to the surface), wetland and saline areas.
Prepare the soil in advance. If planting will be carried out in the spring, then start preparing the site in the fall.
- clean the area from vegetation and stones, level the surface, filling the holes;
- Dig the soil deeply (to a depth of at least 65 cm), while simultaneously applying rotted humus (3 - 4 kg per 1 m²) and 100 g of superphosphate. Large clods of land do not need to be broken, such bumps during the winter will help to catch more rain and will fall apart by spring;
- 1–1.5 kg of phosphorite flour is added to acidic soils;
- to improve the condition of heavy clay soil, add crushed stone, coarse sand and humus;
- loose sandy soil is associated with the introduction of peat, manure and chernozem;
- if it is difficult to dig a lot in the area, use a tape plantation.
Digging a selected site in the fall, do not break the clods of land, during the winter they will decay themselves
Kishmish planting can be done in spring and autumn. In places where the variety comes from, and in the southern regions, they plant in autumn. Seedlings are planted in October - November, depending on the weather.
On the example of the Crimea, I can say that autumn is the most convenient time for planting grapes, and not only it. Favorable weather, combining heat and precipitation, creates that unique microclimate when the root system manages to adapt to new conditions before the onset of the first frosts.
In cooler regions where autumn can bring surprises in the form of sudden frosts, planting is best done in spring. But you need to hurry in this case. The process will be successful if the grape seedling is planted before the sap flow begins, before the plant has woken up. The temperature of the soil should be within 10 ° C so that the roots do not freeze. As a rule, such conditions are typical for April - early May.
In addition, you should be aware that in the fall planting of seedlings is practiced, and for cuttings, the best time is spring.
Raisins are planted in spring and autumn
The further development of the plant, its productivity, depends on how correctly you select the planting material.
- The easiest transplant process is carried by young seedlings. Therefore, 1 to 2 year old plants are considered the most preferred.
- The roots There is one rule - the more roots, the better. See that they are not damaged, swollen, dangling ends. Ask the seller to cut a piece of the root, if the cut is light, then the seedling is alive.
- Stam. Smooth, without signs of infections and necrotic spots, thickening and sagging.
- Growth. It should be ripe, not thin, have several kidneys.
The grape seedling must have a good root system and have at least one annual growth
A grape pit is dug up with a reserve. Its depth is 70 - 80 cm, width - 1 m. Such volumes are due to the fact that the roots of a seedling are able to develop well only in loose soil, which provides the root system with necessary oxygen.
- The fertile layer, taken out during digging, is mixed with 2 - 3 buckets of rotted manure or humus, 200 - 300 g of superphosphate, 100 - 200 g of potassium salt.
- The support is driven into the solid bottom of the pit and the drainage is laid - broken brick or large gravel.
- Pour the soil mixture and fill it with water so that the soil settles.
- When it is time to land, dig a hole in the pit. Its depth should be such that only 2 eyes are visible after planting above the soil surface.
- Sapling roots should be directed strictly down.
- After planting, the seedling is watered with warm water, after absorbing moisture, the soil is mulched.
A proven way to plant grapes - video
When planting seedlings, it is important to adhere to the scheme. Between plants in a row should be 2, 5 - 3 m. The same distance should be maintained in the aisles.
The depth of grape planting directly depends on the climatic region and soil composition. In the southern regions, seedlings are planted so that the heel is at a level of 50 - 55 cm from the soil surface. In cold areas and on sandy soils - 60 - 65 cm.
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Watering and feeding
Kishmish likes watering. But too frequent and insufficient in volume will not bring any benefits. In addition, soil quality should be taken into account, for example, sandy ones require more moisture than chernozem.
Seedlings require increased attention. They are watered every 4 days, especially if the weather is hot. 3 to 4 buckets of water should be poured under the young plant. To absorb moisture evenly, divide this amount into 2 doses - morning and evening.
The most important periods for fruiting grapes irrigation:
- beginning of vegetation;
- a week before flowering;
- immediately after flowering;
- berry filling period.
2 weeks before harvesting, watering is reduced by 2 times.
There are many acceptable methods of watering for grapes, one of them is drip.
Feeding should be moderate. Mixed dressing is considered favorable for Kishmish, alternating with organic matter and complex fertilizers.
|Early spring||In order for the grapes to start growing faster, a nitrogen-containing solution is used. For watering one|
bush in 10 l of water is dissolved:
Mineral top dressing can be successfully replaced by organic, for example, manure solution.
|One week before|
|Prepare a solution of 65 g of nitrophosphate and 5 g of boric acid (dilute in 10 l of water). Can be used|
and organic matter - 2 kg of manure per bucket of water.
|Mid summer||The introduction of nitrogen is stopped so that the vines have time to mature before the onset of cold weather. Therefore before|
the beginning of ripening grape berries use superphosphate and potash fertilizers - 20 g per
10 liters of water.
|Mid autumn||A plant that has lost fruiting needs to regain strength before the onset of winter.|
To do this, autumn top dressing should consist of potassium and phosphorus, taken 25 g per bucket of water.
Once every 3 years in the fall, you can make manure or compost for digging.
For Kishmish it is recommended to combine organics and mineral fertilizers
Foliar treatment to improve crop quality
During the flowering period of Kishmish grapes, the drug Gibberellin is used, which reduces the fall of the ovary, as a result of which the yield is increased. In addition, it increases the mass and sugar content of berries. For the same purpose, you can use the drug Ovary.
Each grape seedling in the first 3 to 4 years of development must be shaped. Without this important technique, the plant will not be able to produce high-quality crops and it will be problematic to take care of it.
Kishmish begin to cut in the spring, regardless of the timing of planting. As a rule, a cordon form is used with one, sometimes with two sleeves, which, most often, are directed in one direction.
According to this scheme, a single-shoulder cordon is formed
In order not to overload the bush, an average of 10 to 12 vines is allowed per 1 m of plant height. Since the variety is vigorous, long pruning is practiced for it - from 8 to 12 eyes. Practice shows that in Asian varieties, to which Kishmish belongs, the first 4 - 5 buds are infertile, therefore it is advisable to apply long pruning to them. After the start of shoot growth, be sure to normalize by removing infertile buds and excess inflorescences, leaving 2 brushes on each shoot.
How many eyes cut grapes - video
In the southern regions there is no need to shelter grapes. But if you grow sunny berry in Central Russia and to the north, then this care technique must be carried out.
- In the autumn, weed row spacing, as over the summer the soil is compacted there and the moisture reserves in it decrease. Loosened soil better captures and retains moisture.
- At the same time, destroy the weeds, pests are arranged in them for the winter.
- Spend fertilizing with potassium phosphate fertilizers and pre-winter watering on time.
Young grape bushes harbor earlier than fruiting. The vines are untied, laid on the ground and pinned with iron or wooden staples. Top cover with non-woven material and cover with earth. You can build boxes of plywood.
The vines removed from the support are pinned to the soil and then covered with non-woven material.
Diseases and Pests
Only healthy grapes can bear fruit abundantly and show high quality fruits. Therefore, the prevention and protection of plants from diseases and pests must be approached responsibly.
- White rot. Initially, the crest and stalks of the grapes are affected. Then the fungus spreads to individual berries, and then covers the entire brush. Berries become lethargic, turn red and fall off. Sick vines are covered with round spots, bordered on the edges with a black rim. In the affected areas, the bark is soaked. In wet weather, you can see the pathogen spores - dots of off-white color. They form on the affected berries and areas of the vine. The problem most often manifests itself after a sunburn, hail, mildew. The disease is treatable, spraying with a 4% solution of Bordeaux liquid, a 5% solution of Kaptan or a 1% suspension of TMTD are measures to combat it. Prevention:
- fulfillment of agricultural conditions;
- it is especially strictly necessary to observe the pruning regime so that the bushes are well ventilated and illuminated by the sun.
White rot is the result of sunburn or hailstones.
- Gray rot. The disease can occur on berries at the very beginning of their formation. But the grapes that started to pour or already ripened are most affected. The berries are covered with brown spots, the skin is cracked on them, a gray fluffy coating appears - sporulation of the fungus. If autumn is dry, then the fungus causes ripening of berries, the so-called noble rot. Brushes affected by gray rot are not suitable for transportation and storage. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment for the fungus. Therefore, all efforts should be directed to preventive measures:
- timely breaking off and tying up shoots;
- thinning the leaf mass so that the berries have greater access to the sun;
- at the first sign of defeat, the entire crop should be urgently removed.
Gray rot causes ripe berries
- Rubella. First of all, the disease affects the leaves. Light spots appear on them at the end of April - beginning of May, which then spread out between the veins. On varieties with light berries, they acquire a brown color with a narrow waxy yellow border. On dark varieties, the color of the spots is bright burgundy with a yellow-green border. Affected leaves dry and fall prematurely. Rubella can result in inhibition of the growth of shoots, inflorescences and ovaries. The taste of grapes can change for the worse. If rubella appeared last season, then in spring, as soon as the leaves begin to appear, spray 2 - 3 sprays with 1.5 - 2% Bordeaux liquid or 0.5% Tsineba solution. The interval between procedures is 5 to 10 days. Further processing is the same as against mildew - 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid. Timely top dressing and proper soil care will help reduce the risk of a disease.
Rubella-affected grape leaf
- Leafloader. The leaf caterpillar damages buds, ovaries and berries. One caterpillar can destroy up to 50 buds. If the berries are damaged, then harmful microorganisms develop on them, leading to the decay of the first individual fruits, and then the entire brush. For butterflies, baits are made in the form of containers hung among bushes at a height of 70 cm from the soil surface. Wine dreg diluted with water 1/3 is poured into the trap. Against caterpillars, treatment with Wofatox (2.5 - 3 g of the preparation per 1 m²) or Methylethylthiophos (15 g per 10 l of water) is used. For the purpose of prevention, immediately after removing the winter shelter, clean off the old bark in which pupae hibernate and burn it.
Caterpillars can cause great damage to the crop
- Wasps. These insects, attracted by the sweet taste of berries, spoil their skin, as a result of which the grapes are not able to be stored. In addition, damaged berries undergo a process of decay, which goes on to whole fruits. There are many ways to deal with wasps. This is the use of pesticides, special traps and poisoned baits, the destruction of nests. But if you consider the wasps to be useful insects, then measures to combat them may not be so radical. You can, for example, plant plants around vineyards that smell like wasps that are not to their liking - mint, lemon balm, basil. And in addition to this, put special protective bags sewn from tulle on the special brush of grapes.
If you put special bags on the sleeping grapes, then no wasps are scary
Reviews about Kishmish grapes
I got the impression over the years-it is necessary to increase the number of Luchshy kishishm. not for nothing that he is among the ten leaders in the world. for me it’s strange. that he can’t grow crops, BUT I have a cottage from my brother on the banks of the Volgograd reservoir (there is humidity exceeds the humidity in the city many times and there the ray is constantly sick.) so that the radiant raisins love space and the wind even with a lack of moisture.PETER
From kishmish I saw and tried Kishmish radiant, Kishmish 342, Rusbol and Kishmish Zaporizhzhya. These raisins are growing with me. Since I try to grow only resistant and frost-resistant varieties, I will not have a special assortment. Therefore, Perlette and Dream, because of their soreness and poor frost resistance, are not listed with me. Radiant raisins are also, of course, unstable and not hardy, for two years I did not dare to plant it. But this is a masterpiece among sultanas, and when I saw a bunch of 75 (seventy-five!) Centimeters long with a magnificent berry, I decided to make an exception for it. Kishmish 342 and Rusball are quite unpretentious and tasty, grades 1–2 of seedlessness, that is, practically without rudiments. The Zaporizhzhya kishmish is even more stable and frost-resistant, but with a violent character: all summer long strives at every stepson to throw out the inflorescence and try to mature, which overloads itself to the detriment of development. Поэтому его приходится постоянно сдерживать, обламывая соцветия. Класс бессемянности у него 4-й — рудименты могут быть весьма ощутимые (хотя в 2008 году рудиментов практически не было). Из достоинств следует отметить хорошее вызревание лозы, огромные соцветия с тучей пыльцы. У меня вокруг него высажены «женщины» (Деметра, Виктория, Подарок Запорожью) – опыляются прекрасно.Владимир Каркошкин
Перепробовал уже много кишмишей. Больше всех нравятся Велес, Лучистый и Столетие. Увеличил количество кустов. Для нашего рынка особо удачен Велес: очень раннее созревание, прекрасный вид и изысканный вкус. Последние два года был практически без рудиментов. Если не перегружать и срезать на соцветии нижнюю треть и верхнее крыло, то получаются аккуратные ярко-малиновые грозди около 1–1, 5 кг, с равномерно окрашенными ягодами.Владимир Каркошкин
Для деток, да и многих взрослых, плеваться косточками неохота, поэтому кишмишные сорта винограда всегда востребованы. С некоторыми из моей коллекции хочу всех познакомить. Очень порадовал в этом году кишмиш Афродита. Я уже о нем писал. Ко всем положительным качествам добавлю еще и огромное трудолюбие сорта. Такую нагрузку как Афродита у меня тащили немногие сорта. На кусту было около 40 кг на второй год плодоношения.Sergiy
Посадила прошлой весной двулетки кишмиш Лучистый и 342. В этом году на 342 уже соберем небольшой урожай, а вот Лучистый всё прошлое лето еле-еле рос и в итоге весной не проснулся. Оставила его в надежде что может летом одумается, но похоже уже точно надо его убирать.Scratte
Кишмиш, имеющий множество разновидностей, совершенно неприхотлив в выращивании. Кроме того, селекционеры создали такие виды этого винограда, которые не боятся низких температур и дают полноценные урожаи даже в регионах с холодным климатом. Кишмиш можно выращивать не только для собственного стола, но и на продажу, если подобрать сорта с отличными показателями лёжкости и транспортировки.