Kishmish 342 (Hungarian) - description, characteristics and care of the variety: soil preparation, planting, top dressing, pruning, shelter.
At the moment, Kishmish 342 is one of the most popular varieties among winegrowers. It is known for its lack of seeds, plentiful harvest, and sweet berries. To grow this variety, it is enough to familiarize yourself with the features of its cultivation and follow the rules of care, which even a beginner gardener can handle.
The history of cultivation and description of the grape variety Kishmish 342
Grapes Kishmish 342, which is also known as GF 342 or Kishmish Hungarian, is a relatively young variety. At the same time, he earned the trust of gardeners. The variety was bred by Hungarian breeders as a result of crossing Villar Blanc and Perlet Sidlis.
GF 342 grapes are characterized by an early ripening period: about 110–115 days elapse from the moment the buds open to technical maturity .
The technical maturity of grapes is determined by the suitability of the crop for fresh consumption or for the preparation of a particular product.
Bunches are distinguished by the ability to be amazed directly on the bush. To do this, they must be twisted. Kishmish 342 is endowed with high productivity, up to 20–25 kg from one bush, as well as stable fruiting. This grape is notable for its great growth power and good ripening of the vine. To cover the shrub for the winter, you have to work hard, because the vine of this variety of culture is quite elastic. Frost resistance of GF 342 reaches -26˚С.
Hungarian kishmish is distinguished by plentiful harvests and tasty berries.
Characteristics of the grape variety Kishmish 342
Grapes form clusters weighing 0.5-0.6 kg, but if desired, you can get larger ones (up to 1.5 kg) by resorting to the appropriate molding. Berries are characterized by an egg-shaped form and a golden green color. The size of the fruit reaches 15–18 mm and weight in 2-3 g. Kishmish Hungarian is classified as the third class of seedless: in the berries there are practically no rudiments.
All rape grape varieties according to the size of rudiments (underdeveloped seeds) are classified into 4 groups according to the seedless class.
The flesh of this variety is juicy and fleshy, with a pleasant harmonious taste and light shades of muscat. Sugar content of berries is about 20%, and acidity is not more than 8 g per 1 liter.
In the sun, the skin of the berries becomes pink
Grade GF 342 has several advantages:
- resistant to fungal diseases;
- it can be grown in regions with adverse climate conditions;
- differs in good transportability and can be stored for up to a month;
- successfully used for the manufacture of baby food.
However, the variety also has some disadvantages:
- loses its presentation after prolonged stay on the bush;
- Needs shelter for the winter;
- the wrong approach to the formation of the bush affects the quality of the crop; small berries are formed with seeds and rudiments.
Video: Kishmish grape review 342
Features of planting and growing varieties Kishmish 342
For planting grapes choose a spacious and well-lit area located on the east or west side of the house. A distance of at least 1 m is left between the plants and the support, and 3 m between the seedlings.
Soil preparation and grape planting
Culture loves nutritious land, therefore, before embarking on its planting, it is necessary to prepare the soil mixture. To do this, you need 2 buckets of humus and 0.5 kg of wood ash and superphosphate. A fertile layer of earth, which is formed when digging a hole, is also used. Before introducing all the components into the pit, they are thoroughly mixed.
GF 342 grapes can be planted both in autumn, before frost, and in spring. The process consists of the following actions:
- Dig a landing hole.
Planting pit for grapes should be 1 m deep and 0.5 m wide
- A layer of crushed stone or expanded clay is poured at the bottom with a thickness of 10 cm.
Expanded clay or crushed stone is poured into the landing pit as drainage
- The pit is filled with prepared fertile soil.
- Insert a support peg and a plastic pipe for irrigation.
A pipe is inserted into the planting hole, which will be used to water the bush
- The seedling is placed in a pit, evenly distributing the root system, sprinkled with earth, rammed and watered.
- After planting, the soil is mulched and the crop trimmed.
After planting, the soil around the grapes is mulched and the plant is cut into 2 eyes
Mulching inhibits weed growth and prevents the rapid evaporation of moisture. As mulch, you can use reeds, straw, manure, compost.
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How to care for the raisins
After planting GF 342 seedlings, care comes down to regular watering, loosening the soil, top dressing and treatment from pests and diseases.
In spring and in the first half of summer, the culture needs additional nutrition containing nitrogen fertilizers. You can also use organics, and not just mineral fertilizers. Before flowering, it is recommended to treat the bushes with an extra root method using the complex plantofol. In order for the fruits to form normally, in the second half of the summer period, feeding with phosphorus and potassium is required, and nitrogen nutrition is stopped. During the flowering period, grapes are processed according to the leaf, for example, with the preparation Zavyaz. Some winegrowers use gibberellin, which is a highly active biostimulant, to increase brush density and increase fruit.
In spring, grapes need top dressing before flowering and during it, as well as in summer for the normal formation of berries
Watering special attention must be paid in the summer. In hot weather, bushes are irrigated once every 3 days. The volume of water largely depends on the type of soil: on chernozem, the discharge should be 30% less than on sandy soils. Under one bush, it is necessary to pour about 15 liters of water. Before harvesting, watering is reduced to once a week.
Watering grapes is usually done through special pipes, but drip irrigation is considered the best way.
In the process of forming grape bushes of Kishmish 342, an average pruning is carried out for 6 buds or long for 10 buds. During the summer, stepsons and shoots thickening the bush must be removed, since the variety is prone to overgrowth. You should not leave more than 1-2 brushes on one shoot. Otherwise, the berries will be small.
Video: how to form a fruit link
Shelter for the winter
If grapes were planted in the fall, then a plastic bottle (5 l) with a cut bottom can be used to protect against winter cold. The seedling is watered, covered with a container and sawdust is poured through the neck. Then slightly screw the cork and spud the bottle. They carry out the procedure in dry and sunny weather, when the air temperature drops to + 3-4 ° C. Under this shelter, your seedlings will winter without any problems.
The next year, spruce or pine branches are used for shelter. They are lined around grapes, and the vine is bent on top, after pruning. The bush is also covered with branches and plastic film, slightly pressing it along the edges.
The bush is covered with branches when the temperature drops to 0 ° C
Warming of grapes is necessary to protect not from low temperatures, but from their differences, as well as icing of the root system. Shelter allows you to keep the bush in dry conditions.
Diseases and Pests
Despite the fact that Kishmish 342 is considered quite resistant to disease, many winegrowers still treat it with fungicides. This ensures 100% protection of the bushes. After pruning, you need to inspect the bushes for infection with diseases. In addition to this, plants need to be thinned regularly.
In spring, plants are treated with Bordeaux liquid, or with special biological products, such as Fitosporin, Trichodermin, Actofit
In addition to diseases, pests are often harmed by culture. The sweet berries of Hungarian Kishmish attract the attention of wasps. To protect against insects, clusters are placed in mesh bags or wrapped with gauze. The variety under consideration can also be damaged by leafworms, May beetle larvae, spider mites. Ticks lay eggs in the soil near the roots and entangle a grape bush with a web, which leads to the formation of deformity, and in the worst case, the death of the bush. If a parasite is detected, chemical treatment is carried out (BI -58, Actellik, Omayt, Fufanon).
You can detect a tick on grapes by the presence of dark spots on the back of the leaf.
The butterfly butterfly itself is not dangerous for grapes, but their caterpillars damage leaves, parts of the vine and berries. If you do not respond in time to the appearance of the pest, the loss of the vineyard is possible up to 75–90%. Prevention is carried out by Confidor, Decis, Fufanon. The chafer beetle does no harm, but its larvae damage the rhizome, feeding on tissues. The appearance of the pest can be judged by the disease of the bush for no reason. As control measures, they use soil treatment with insecticides Diazin, Grom-2, Bazudin to a depth of 5-7 cm.
Butterfly butterfly is harmless, but the caterpillar damages leaves, parts of the vine and berries
Kishmish 342 propagated:
The method with layering is used in spring and autumn. To do this, dig a trench near a bush up to 0.5 m deep, add nutrients as during planting, after which they bend an annual vine from the bottom of the plant, sprinkling it with soil. At the end of the procedure, abundant watering is carried out. If the shoots sprout, then in the future they can be planted as separate bushes.
Above the ground, you need to leave only a few tops of shoots with leaves and growth points
The vaccination propagation method is the engraftment of the cuttings to the old vine. It is recommended to choose a maternal bush resistant to disease. The grafted seedling is inserted into the cleft on the mother trunk, after which it is wrapped in plastic wrap. The success of the event depends on the quality of the stock, that is, the bush on which the vaccination is carried out.
Grape propagation by vaccination is carried out by placing the scion in a split on the mother trunk (rootstock)
If cuttings are preferred, then the material is harvested from the fall. Cuttings are cut at an angle of 45 ˚ , after which they are processed in a solution of iron sulfate, and rooting is carried out in February - March. Planting material must be of good quality: green cut and eyes, brown bark. After selection of the cuttings, they are soaked in potassium permanganate, and then in water with honey.
In spring, Kishmish cuttings 342 are planted in pre-prepared containers, for example, in plastic bottles
Then the material is planted in containers of suitable size, providing the necessary care: periodic watering, loosening the soil, pinching and removing inflorescences. Before planting in open ground, the seedlings are quenched, for which they are taken out to fresh air.
Video: layering of grapes
Kishmish 342 was planted by a rooted cuttings in 2006, did not notice a landing on a permanent place and continued to grow. Like all southern varieties, he reacted very strongly to my peat and nearby groundwater - his shoot in the first summer grew by 3.5 meters and was very thick. I cut it off before shelter, leaving 1.5 meters. In the spring, it turned out that the vine overwintered by 1 meter, that is, last summer the vine ripened by 1 meter. During the summer of 2007, I tried to form a cordon and left 3 buds on this vine: 1st at a distance of 60 cm from the base, 2nd at 30 cm from the first and 3rd at the end of the vine to lengthen it. These three young shoots were even larger, they waved about 5 meters, although I try not to feed the grapes with nitrogen. This year the first crop was waiting, but spring frosts completely destroyed the shoots with inflorescences, despite the shelter with Lutrasil-60. Therefore, I tried the first berries of my kishmish already on the shoots that grew from the second kidneys. The bunch was only one, small, but the berries are quite large, sweet and without rudiments. I grow Kishmish 342 at a distance of about 5 meters from the garden house, on the south side, in the open ground. In the spring I open early, as soon as the snow melts in this place. I set the arcs and transfer lutrasil-60 through them, under which I keep until the end of May. I shelter at the end of October: I cut the vines, lay black lutrasil on the ground, I lay the bound vine on it. I sprinkle Lutrasil-60 on top in two layers and cover it with greenhouse film on top. In order for it to be dry under the shelter, leaving the film at the ends not pressed to the ground. I sprinkle branches on top of the film from pruning bushes and trees, because sometimes there are very strong winds that tear off any shelters, no matter how carefully they are made.Marina
Several raisins were planted on the plot, but ksh. 342 is the earliest. Always very productive, decent clusters. The berry is small but sweet. But if you take it as the earliest, it is better for us not yet.little girl
... G-342 kishmish is problem-free in personal vineyards: it always easily extends the proposed load, the vine ripens early and along the entire length, has good resistance to diseases, more precisely, it does not have time to pick them up due to a very early ripening period. That's just the berries are small, but in them the sugar already rolls over. This raisin is good for itself, but it’s risky to plant it over large areas: the berry is not very corrupt in large quantities.Fursa Irina Ivanovna
If you decide to plant grapes with excellent taste on your plot, then you can safely give preference to Hungarian Kishmish. This variety is quite unpretentious, and you only need to choose the best place for the bush and provide minimal care. Getting tasty and sweet fruits is not difficult.