Kaluzhnitsa in landscape design - growing and care
Kaluzhnitsa is one of the brightest primrose plants, marking the beginning of the long-awaited spring. Due to the simplicity of care and resistance to frost, squat bushes with bright "sunny" flowers will become a decoration of any artificial pond.
Kaluzhnitsa in nature
Bright flowers usually grow along the banks of ponds
Kaluzhnitsa is a perennial herbaceous plant from the ranunculaceae family. Most species have an erect, fleshy stem and cord-like roots, gathered in a bundle, but there are plants with a recumbent leafy stem. The leaves of the kaluzhnitsa are of a saturated green tint, whole and shiny, can be kidney-shaped or heart-shaped, with town-like edges. The flowers are predominantly yellow shades of different saturations, reaching a diameter of 4 to 8 cm. In the fruit, the many-leafed, there are up to ten seeds randomly crumbling in early summer.
Kaluzhnitsa prefers well-moistened soil, so the places of its most widespread distribution are the banks of reservoirs, moist meadows and swamps. It was this feature that laid the foundation for the name of the plant, derived from the old Russian word "Kaluga" (puddle, swamp). It is found in the European part of Russia, the Far East, Siberia and certain regions of Central Asia.
Useful properties and contraindications
Due to its rich chemical composition, kaluga has various properties:
- wound healing;
For medicinal purposes, the leaves of the plant and its juice are used, and medicines are also produced on their basis. At the same time, it is considered a poisonous plant, and self-medication can lead to a number of negative consequences (abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, irritation of the mucous membranes). That is why using it as a means of traditional medicine without consulting a doctor is strictly contraindicated.
As used in landscape design: ideas and photos
Due to the fairly early flowering (in April-May) and lush foliage that preserves decorative qualities throughout the summer period, landscape designers often use kaluzhnitsa to decorate park areas, gardens, flower beds and borders. But the most suitable place for this plant is the banks of artificial reservoirs: mini-ponds, streams, fountains, pools and decorative swamps.
- Some varieties, such as terry swamp, are so beautiful that they can compete with plants in flower beds
- Will be a good addition to the contour of the pond.
- Looks great in combination with snags and sedge
- If the bushes are not cut in time, the entire pond will turn up duckweed
Originally and very beautifully, kaluga will be planted in baskets for water lilies that float freely along the water surface. In order not to clog the water, geotextiles should be placed at the bottom of the baskets, and then filled with soil. For wintering, plants are taken out and dug in the garden.
To make it look perfect in the role of decorating the banks of a pond, it is important to observe several rules:
- place the calendula so that during flowering it is not obscured or blocked by other plants;
- flowers can be planted in front of the kaluzhnitsa, which will continue the “baton” of flowering after it;
- so that neighboring plants look beautiful and complement each other, it is important to select specimens taking into account the similarity of characteristics and approximate flowering times.
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Photo of Kaluga: plant species with a description
In total, there are about forty varieties of cowberry in the world, but the five most common are the most common.
- Marsh marigold
The most popular species, growing both in nature and in household plots in the form of a small bush, reaching a height of up to 45 cm. It has medium (up to 4.5 cm in diameter) flowers of golden yellow color.
Swamp Kalugnica - common name for most varieties of Kaluga
Varieties of marsh marigold, which differ in shades and appearance of flowers, are:
- Terry, with large yellow flowers (up to 6 cm in diameter)
Terry kaluzhnitsa looks very impressive
- "Bartier" dotted with brownish-tinted flowers;
Kaluzhnitsa Bartier is the only variety with such a bright color
- "Alba" - a bush with white flowers.
Kaluzhnitsa Alba will look good in a company with a host and a frankincense
- Duodenum Kaluga is a forest species with thickened, powerful hollow stems, reaching 30 cm at the beginning of flowering, and up to 120 cm by the end of seed maturation. After slightly loose yellow buds have faded, the leaves are significantly enlarged, becoming the size of a plate.
Duoden Kaluga does not withstand a complete lack of drainage
- The kaluzhnitsa is multi-petal. Grows in the form of a compact bush, which grows quite quickly, reaching up to 30 cm in height. Flowers of a saturated yellow hue can reach a diameter of 8 cm.
Multi-petal cannabis with constant watering can grow in dry places.
- Kaluzhnitsa is webbed. It differs in thin leaves attached to a long (up to 30 cm) petiole. Blooms profusely, releasing not very large golden yellow buds.
Webbed flowers are used in Tibetan medicine recipes
- The kaluzhnitsa is floating. An aquatic plant whose rounded whole leaves float on the surface of the water. It blooms in small (up to 4 cm) whitish flowers.
The floating kaluzhnitsa is well suited for small artificial ponds
How to plant a flower for ponds in your area
Before embarking on the planting of cowberry, it is necessary to choose the best place for it - a site with fertile and sufficiently moist soil, well-lit or with a slight partial shade. The plant tolerates the winter period well even without shelter.
Kaluzhnitsa can be planted in early spring (in March) or in autumn (in September), in one of the ways:
- Division of the bush . The rhizome of the dug plant is divided into parts and planted in the ground at the same distance (about 30 cm). Then the soil is watered, and the plant is darkened from the south side until it has taken root, after which the shelter is removed. As a rule, marigold tolerates transplantation well. If the plant was planted in early spring, by April buds already blooming in May already appear. Planted in the fall, it manages to grow stronger before the onset of cold weather and winters well.
- Seeds Before sowing, seeds must be kept first at a temperature of 10 ° С (1 month), and then - 18–20 ° С (2 months). In this case, flowering begins only in the second or third year after planting;
- Cuttings . In spring, the plant stem must be bent to the ground and fixed with a hook, slightly digging the shoot. Then the soil is watered and constantly maintained well moistened. A new plant with its own roots is formed by autumn, and next spring it can already be planted in a permanent place.
It is best to carry out planting of cedarwood in the evening, when there is no longer any active sun, and better - in cloudy weather.
In fact, being next to the pond, the kaluga itself will consume the necessary amount of moisture
Kaluzhnitsa needs constantly moistened soil, especially during the period of active growth. Therefore, you need to water it every time, as soon as the soil under the bush begins to dry out. In the summer, watering, as a rule, becomes more frequent. This will ensure the enlargement and juiciness of the leaves of the plant, which even after flowering does not lose its decorative effect.
Kaluga is fertilized using organic dressing in one of the following ways:
- in early spring, applying fertilizer to the surface with a shallow incorporation;
- on the eve of winter, mulching the soil around the bush so that spring melt water “delivered” all useful substances to the rhizome.
Care before and after flowering
For abundant flowering, bushes need to be thinned and divided in time
This plant is so unpretentious that it requires virtually no care. Key activities include the following:
- Before and during flowering, make sure that the soil is constantly moist. This is necessary so that the plant grows actively, and the flowers are bright and "juicy";
- With the beginning of flowering, fertilize the plant with a mineral agent to stimulate the active formation and splendor of buds;
- Immediately after flowering, trim the inflorescences to ensure active growth and beauty of green leaves;
- Divide and transplant overgrown bushes.
Growing problems and their solution
Most often, gardeners face two main problems:
- White or red coating on the leaves, appearing in case of powdery mildew or rust. Often this happens due to too high temperatures in the summer. The treatment of leaves with Bordeaux liquid (a solution of copper sulfate in milk of lime) will help to cope with the problem.
- Weak flowering or lack thereof, which may be caused by drought. In this case, the plant should be transplanted to the dampest place, and if this is not possible, often and abundantly water it until it regains strength and begins to grow and bloom. Another reason for the lack of flowering may be a lack of light, which also requires a plant transplant.
Due to the fact that kaluga is an incredibly beautiful, unpretentious and frost-resistant plant, it has become a real favorite among gardeners. Properly combining and placing a variety of species, you can effortlessly decorate not only flowerbeds and borders, but also the banks of even small artificial reservoirs.