Kale: the best varieties and crop care

In Russia, kale is not particularly popular with gardeners. But in the countries of Europe and America the situation is just the opposite. Most often it is used in landscape design, but breeders have also bred varieties suitable for eating. The culture is unpretentious, successfully adapts even to temperate climates.

How does kale look and what is useful

“Natural” kale is the ancestor of most of its “cultivated” varieties. She is also known by the nicknames "curly", "gruenkol", "braunkol". It differs from all the usual varieties of this culture in that it does not form a head. It is a fairly loose rosette of leaves. They are quite thin, but juicy.

Wild kale has been known to mankind for a long time, it was cultivated in ancient Greece and the countries of Asia Minor

In “wild” kale, they are smooth, plain and with a smooth edge. But breeders have also bred varieties that look very exotic. The edges of the leaves are highly corrugated or even resemble fringe. They themselves are painted in pink, reddish, purple, violet, white-yellow, bluish color, can be wrinkled, openwork, even as if "torn". Such kale is widely used in landscape design, especially in China and Japan, where many decorative varieties were bred. But in Asia, it is rarely consumed as food, unlike European states and the USA.

The leaves of this variety of cabbage look very unusual and decorative.

Achievements of breeders inherited from the wild kale unpretentiousness and resistance to adverse natural and climatic factors. Culture in Russia can be grown almost everywhere, with the exception of regions with an Arctic climate. It without much damage to itself suffers a temperature increase of up to 30 ° C and its decrease to -15 ° C. Moreover, the leaves that survived the effects of cold weather become even tastier and more aromatic.

Kale is planted not only on the beds, but also on the flower beds, the plant is beautiful and very useful.

Kale imposes special requirements only on the quality of the substrate. To get a good crop, the soil must be light, but nutritious. Mandatory presence of nitrogen in the soil, but not in excess.

The height of the outlet varies from 30–40 cm to 80–90 cm, the diameter is 50–100 cm. Although in nature, especially in tropical climates, there are real giants growing to 1.5–2 m. They are very similar to palm trees. Practice shows that low sockets have better frost resistance, and high ones have a higher yield. Along the stem, the leaves are evenly distributed, stand almost vertically, only "fall" by the fall. Another interesting observation by gardeners is that with slightly thickened plantings, the first crop ripens a little earlier. The bulk of the green mass is cut in June-August.

Early planting helps form something resembling a palm tree from a kale outlet

The culture is notable for “getting along, ” not “entering the struggle” for nutrients with other plants in the garden. Kale is much less likely than white, red and other varieties to suffer from keel and cabbage flies. It can be grown not only in the garden, but also at home. The dimensions of most outlets allow this. At home, it also benefits by moisturizing the air and purifying it from carbon dioxide and other impurities unhealthy.

The rosette of kale can be compact, and quite spreading

The leaves of this cabbage are edible. Moreover, they are very healthy. In terms of calcium content, the culture successfully competes with milk, vitamin C - with lemon. Moreover, this calcium is absorbed better and faster than from dairy products. It is also rich in the rare amino acid Omega-3, it is not able to independently produce its body. The stems are not eaten, they are too coarse. And it is better to pre-cut the veins.

Kale is simply indispensable for those who adhere to a healthy diet. This is a storehouse of vitamins and minerals. You can distinguish potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, vitamins A, P, PP, K, U, the entire group B. Its calorie content is low - only 50 kcal per 100 g. This feature makes the vegetable a very valuable addition to any diet, even vegetarian. Indeed, 200 g of leaves contains a daily norm of proteins and amino acids (thiamine, niacin, choline), the main source of which is meat.

Kale salad is a real storehouse of vitamins, you can add any other fresh vegetables and herbs to it

Cabbage, painted in all shades of red and pink, is rich in antioxidants. These substances inhibit the aging process, stimulate cell renewal, positively affect immunity. With the regular use of vegetables, the risk of developing diabetes mellitus, tumors, including malignant diseases, joint diseases is reduced, the condition of the skin, nails and hair improves, and the state of the gastrointestinal tract normalizes. If there are problems with the endocrine system, it is advisable to consult a nutritionist before introducing leaves into the diet.

This cabbage is a part of many national dishes of European and Asian cuisine. Soup is made from it in Turkey, in Japan - an interesting vegetable drink called "aojiru", in the Netherlands - a stumppot (mashed potatoes from different types of vegetables with sausages). In many eastern countries, leaf sockets are a traditional decoration of the New Year's table.

Aojiro is a very popular and healthy drink in Japan, one of the ingredients of which is kale

The taste of the leaves is slightly bitter, somewhat reminiscent of radishes, but this deficiency can be eliminated by freezing them or scalding with boiling water. Use this cabbage and fresh. Braised leaves go well with rice. Suitable spices and seasonings are curry, cumin, garlic, pepper. The only thing you should not do is fry it in butter or other animal fat. Leaves acquire an unpleasant sulfur flavor.

Video: a description of kale and its health benefits

The most common varieties

There are not so many varieties of kale bred by breeders. They differ mainly in appearance. All varieties and hybrids are not capricious in care, cold resistance. Only the ripening period of the greens varies slightly.

Most often planted kale:

  • Kale (also sometimes found under the name "cale"). There are two varieties of it, with red and green leaves, and in the first, the reddish-purple hue characteristic of the variety appears only after the first frosts. Prior to this, the leaves are painted in green-purple color. Harvest can be cut in 70–75 days after emergence. Both species are characterized by a high concentration in the tissues of vitamins (especially C and K), amino acids. Leaves with fringed edges resemble coiled lace. The height of the outlet is 60–80 cm.
  • Redbor F1. Dutch late-ripe hybrid, included in the State Register of the Russian Federation. The stalk is long, from afar the plant resembles a palm tree. Its height reaches 80 cm. The earlier the cabbage is planted, the longer the stem. The optimal time for the formation of the "palm" is the last decade of March. The outlet is semi-vertical. The color of the "curly" leaves can be bright scarlet, dark crimson, and ink violet - it depends on how much sunlight the plants got. The hybrid is not afraid of frost, fresh cabbage can be eaten even in winter, digging leaves out of the snow. They become softer and juicier. Cabbage is appreciated for its taste; characteristic bitterness is practically absent. It combines wonderfully as a side dish with meat and fish dishes, it is necessary to fry it in a small amount of oil. Productivity - 0.3-0.7 kg of greenery per plant.
  • Reflex F1. Mid-late hybrid included in the State Register of the Russian Federation. The height of the semi-vertical outlet is about 80 cm. Without prejudice to itself, it suffers a prolonged decrease in temperature to -18 ° C. When planting, it is imperative to follow the recommended pattern, leaving at least 60 cm between the plants. The leaves are highly corrugated, grayish-green. It is desirable to tear off only the upper ones, leaving the lower ones until the end of the growing season, otherwise the plant dies. The hybrid is one of the most popular among professional chefs. It has a good yield - from one plant during the season receive 0.3–1.4 kg of green mass.
  • Black Tuscany. The socket is low, spreading. The leaves are large, matte, dark green in color with a sizol-violet tint. The surface is tuberous, as if with “bubbles” underneath. They are a bit like savoy cabbage. The cutting period of greens stretches from early June to late November.
  • Tintoretto. Leaves "curly", lace. The socket is not high. Productivity is very good - 0.5–1 kg of greenery per plant. Can not boast of good germination. Harvest ripens in 100-110 days.
  • Siberian. Despite its name, the variety is in high demand in the countries of Northern Europe due to good frost resistance. Also, this cabbage is appreciated for its high “innate” immunity to diseases and pests typical of culture. The ripening period of greens in the Urals and Siberia is about 80 days when grown by seedlings. Leaves can be cut off until December-January, under the influence of low temperatures they become softer and sweeter.
  • Prime. Ultra-early variety. It is valued for its high content of trace elements - sodium, zinc, selenium, copper. It has excellent taste, is considered a delicacy. Leaves are bright green, with a lime border, strongly corrugated along the edge.
  • Scarlett. The leaves are large, very juicy, of a beautiful green-purple color. With the onset of cold weather, it changes to ink violet. Rosette about 50 cm high. The variety is rich in vitamins A and C.
  • Curly. The leaves are “curly”, very soft and thin, but at the same time crispy. Coloring purple-violet. The socket is low, spreading. Scientifically proven the benefits of this variety of kale as an antiseptic.

Photo gallery: kale varieties popular among gardeners

Kale red - one of the most common varieties of kale

Kale green cabbage differs from red only by a shade of leaves

Cabbage Redbor F1 can look like a "palm", and like a regular rosette of leaves

Cabbage Reflex F1 differs in the increased frost resistance

Black Tuscany cabbage looks very unusual and has a long period of “fruiting”

Tintoretto cabbage seeds have a fairly low germination, so planting material needs to be stocked in excess

Siberian cabbage is very popular in the countries of Northern Europe, especially in the Netherlands, despite the presence of its own breeding hybrids

Cabbage Prime is greatly appreciated by professional chefs

Scarlett Cabbage - A Valuable Source of Vitamins A and C

Curly cabbage looks very decorative, the palatability of the leaves is also on top

Growing seedlings

Most often, kale is grown seedlings. It is ready for planting in the ground 35–45 days after emergence, seed germinates within 5–7 days. A pick and other transplant for a culture is undesirable. The roots of plants are very fragile. It is advisable to sow several seeds at once in separate peat pots of small diameter.

Seedlings of kale appear quite quickly - a week after planting or even earlier

For growing kale, the usual universal soil for seedlings is also suitable, which can be bought at any store, but experienced gardeners prefer to prepare the soil mixture on their own. It should be nutritious, but at the same time let water and air through. Therefore, humus is mixed with fertile turf and any “baking powder” (river sand, perlite, vermiculite) in approximately equal proportions. To prevent the development of fungal diseases, add a tablespoon of crushed chalk or activated carbon for every 3 liters. Any substrate must be disinfected. The most common methods are steaming, roasting in an oven, freezing. You can also just spill the earth with a dark purple solution of potassium permanganate.

Kale is quite comfortable with ordinary purchased soil for seedlings

Seeds also need preliminary preparation for disinfection and improvement of germination. The fastest way is to dip them for 20 minutes in hot (40–45 ° C) water, then for 2-3 minutes - in cool. After that, the planting material is etched in a solution of any biofungicide, prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions, for about a quarter of an hour. Now the seeds are ready for planting, they only need to be washed in running water and dried to a state of flowability.

Kale seeds must undergo preplant planting

Another option is the so-called shock therapy. Seeds are mixed with peat or sand, slightly moisten the substrate. For 7–8 days in the afternoon they are kept on a heating battery or in another warm place, and put in the refrigerator for the night. During this time they should hatch.

A good effect is given by soaking in a solution of a biostimulant for 14–16 hours. This applies to store preparations (Epin, Emistim-M, potassium humate, Zircon), and folk remedies (succinic acid, aloe juice, honey diluted with water). Then they are etched in the same fungicide of biological origin or in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate. In the latter case, the processing time is increased from 15 minutes to 6-8 hours.

Soaking in a solution of any biostimulant, for example, Epin, increases the percentage of seed germination and positively affects the immunity of seedlings

Directly growing seedlings and caring for it is not difficult:

  1. Fill the pots with prepared soil. Humidify and smooth the substrate.
  2. Sow 2–4 seeds in each container, burrowing them no more than 1 cm. Tighten the pots with foil or cover with glass, remove to a dark, warm (at least 24 ° C) place until emergence. Every day open the "greenhouse" for ventilation, preventing condensation from accumulating.
  3. Emerging shoots open and rearrange the pots in the light. The optimal daylight hours for cabbage is a minimum of 12-14 hours. In most of Russia in the spring this is unrealistic, so you have to light up seedlings. You can use for this both ordinary (luminescent, LED), and special phytolamps. During the first week, the temperature of the content of seedlings is sharply reduced to 10–12 ° С; for the rest of the time, it is increased to 16 ° С. Humidify the substrate as the top soil layer dries, but soil cannot be turned into a swamp. Otherwise, the "black leg" develops very quickly. To further protect the plantings from this disease, seedlings are dusted with crushed wood ash, fine sand is added to the base of the stem.
  4. You need to feed the seedlings twice, in the phase of the second real leaf and after another 7-10 days. The first time they use mineral nitrogen-containing fertilizers (urea, ammonium sulfate), diluting 2-3 g of the drug in a liter of water, the second time - special complex means for seedlings (Rostock, Uniflor). Before the second top dressing, rejection is carried out, leaving only one seedling in each pot. The rest should be pinched or cut off above the soil itself.
  5. To make it easier for plants to adapt to new living conditions, seedlings are hardened. The procedure takes a week and a half. In the early days, they leave her in the open air for a couple of hours, no more, when the period is nearing the end, she already successfully “sleeps” on the street.

Kale seedlings ready for planting in the soil reach 12–14 cm in height and have 4–5 true leaves. The optimal distance between plants is 50-60 cm, the row spacing is 40-50 cm. To save space, you can plant them in a checkerboard pattern. Excessive thickening of plantings (like a thick shadow) contributes to the accumulation of harmful nitrates in the leaves.

It is not worth delaying the planting of kale seedlings for a permanent place - the “overgrown” specimens adapt less well to new conditions, develop more slowly

The depth of the hole depends on the quality of the substrate. In light sandy soil it is 14–16 cm, in heavy clay soil - 8–10 cm. A little humus, a tablespoon of wood ash and onion husk (to repel pests) are put on the bottom.

The smell of onion husks does not tolerate many pests dangerous for kale

Before landing, the wells are spilled abundantly with water, planting cabbage directly in the “dirt” at the bottom along with the tank. Bring seedlings to the first pair of leaves. Then the soil is again moistened well. When water is absorbed, plantings can be mulched.

The most suitable time for transferring seedlings to the ground is the first half of May. It is best to plant kale in cool cloudy weather. If the day is sunny, the seedlings must be covered with paper caps, spruce branches or a canopy over any garden bed made of any white breathable covering material. Remove the shelter when the seedlings start to grow.

Planting seedlings in the ground practically does not differ from a similar procedure for other, more familiar to gardeners, varieties of cabbage

Video: growing cabbage seedlings

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Planting seeds in the ground

In principle, kale seeds can germinate even at 5 ° C, although this temperature is far from optimal. Therefore, they can be planted directly in the ground from the first decade of April.

При выборе места нужно учитывать, что культура, как и любая капуста, любит тепло и солнечный свет. Даже полутень приводит к тому, что листья мельчают, грубеют, яркая окраска блёкнет. Растение выживет и в таких условиях, но урожайность заметно снизится.

Для выращивания листовой капусты подбирают открытый участок, хорошо прогреваемый солнцем и защищённый от северных ветров

Самый подходящий для культуры субстрат — достаточно лёгкий, но при этом питательный грунт с нейтральной кислотно-щелочной реакцией. В закисленную почву при перекопке обязательно вносят гашёную известь, доломитовую муку или измельчённую до состояния порошка яичную скорлупу (200–300 г на 1 п. м.). По той же причине нежелательно использовать в качестве мульчи торф и хвойные опилки, особенно свежие — они сильно закисляют грунт.

В процессе перекапывания грядки под листовую капусту обязательно избавляются от всего растительного мусора

Грядку нужно подготовить ещё с осени. Выбранный участок перекапывают, одновременно очищая от растительного мусора. Почву удобряют, внося перегной или перепревший компост (5–7 л на 1 п. м.), простой суперфосфат (20–25 г на 1 п. м.) и сульфат калия либо калимагнезию (10–15 г на 1 п. м.). Природная альтернатива минеральным удобрениям — просеянная древесная зола. Достаточно пол-литровой банки на 1 п. м. Примерно за неделю до высадки, уже весной, грядку хорошо рыхлят и вносят подкормки с содержанием азота (8–10 г на 1 п. м.).

Humus - a natural remedy to increase soil fertility

Нежелательно высаживать культуру там, где в прошлом году росли её «родственники» из семейства Крестоцветные или корнеплоды (свёкла, морковь). Помимо всех видов капусты к ним относятся редька, брюква, редис, дайкон. Хорошие предшественники — любые Паслёновые, Бобовые, Тыквенные, пряные травы и злаки.

Редис, как и другие Крестоцветные — очень нежелательный предшественник для листовой капусты

Высевают семена в открытый грунт в начале или в середине апреля. Обязательна описанная выше предпосадочная подготовка. На грядке с интервалом около 50 см формируют бороздки глубиной 3–4 см, которые нужно хорошо пролить. Сверху семена присыпают тонким слоем перегноя. По мере роста сеянцев посадки прореживают. Первый раз — в фазе второго настоящего листа, затем — четвёртого-пятого. В итоге между соседними растениями должен образоваться интервал около 40 см или немного больше.

Семена листовой капусты высевают в открытый грунт по возможности равномерно, затем всходы обязательно прореживают

До появления всходов грядку накрывают полиэтиленовой плёнкой. После этого, чтобы сеянцы развивались быстрее, желательно установить дуги и натянуть на них укрывной материал. Снять его можно примерно через месяц, когда всходы дорастут до габаритов взрослой рассады.

Некоторые садоводы практикуют высадку листовой капусты в сентябре, под зиму. В этом случае первый урожай зелени можно успеть получить ещё до заморозков. Существенный плюс такого способа в том, что растения гораздо меньше страдают от болезней и вредителей. На зиму розетку срезают, оставляя «пенёк» высотой около 5 см. Весной молодые листья можно будет есть уже в мае.

Further plant care

Ничего сложного в уходе за листовой капустой нет. Как и другие садовые культуры, она нуждается в регулярной прополке и рыхлении грядки. Последнее очень важно для правильной аэрации почвы, поэтому в идеале процедуру нужно проводить после каждого полива. Рыхлят грунт аккуратно, на глубину не более 6–8 см. Корневая система у листовой капусты поверхностная.

Сорта с высоким стеблем 2–3 раза в течение вегетативного сезона окучивают, подсыпая землю к его основанию. В первый раз это делают примерно через неделю после высадки рассады в грунт, затем с интервалом в две недели. Процедуру проводят после полива или дождя. Обязательно нужно следить за тем, чтобы не засыпать землёй центр розетки, где располагается точка роста.

Окучивание капусты стимулирует развитие большего числа придаточных корней

Как и любая другая капуста, листовая очень любит влагу. Но заливать грядку нельзя категорически. В почве, больше похожей на болото, загнивают корни, развиваются другие грибковые инфекции. Растрескивание кочанов при выращивании листовой капусты невозможно в принципе, но тем не менее грядки желательно поливать регулярно, а не чередуя длительную «засуху» с обильным увлажнением почвы.

Листовая капуста — влаголюбивая культура, но капли, попадающие на листья и стебли могут привести к солнечным ожогам, а также спровоцировать развитие гнили

Лучше всего организовать для листовой капусты капельный полив или лить воду в кольцевые канавки, расположенные на расстоянии 25–30 см от основания стебля. Если капли воды попадут на листья, они могут стать причиной солнечных ожогов. А при поливе под основание стебля корни оголяются и засыхают.

Когда температура на улице не превышает 25–27°С, достаточно одного полива в 2–3 дня. В сильную жару розетки поливают ежедневно, утром и вечером. Также полезно при длительной засухе опрыскивать листья после захода солнца.

Капельный полив подходит не только для листовой капусты, но и для многих других садовых культур

Если грядка была подготовлена правильно, с соблюдением всех рекомендаций, листовой капусте достаточно трёх подкормок за сезон (среднепоздним и поздним сортам и гибридам — четырёх). Очень положительно культура реагирует на натуральную органику.

Источником азота, необходимого культуре в течение первого месяца после высадки в грунт, является настой свежего коровьего навоза, птичьего помёта, одуванчиковых листьев, зелени крапивы. Сырье измельчают, держат в ёмкости с плотно закрытой крышкой в течение 3–4 дней, залив тёплой водой. После появления характерного запаха удобрение процеживают и разбавляют водой в пропорции 1:10 или 1:15, если оно сделано на основе помёта. Норма на одно растение — около литра раствора. Подкормку проводят через неделю-полторы после высадки рассады в грунт или через 5–6 недель после появления всходов из семян.

Настой крапивы — совершенно натуральное и абсолютно бесплатное удобрение

Затем растения больше нуждаются в фосфоре и калии. Достаточно одной подкормки в месяц. Природный источник этих макроэлементов — древесная зола. Её в сухом виде подсыпают к корням в процессе рыхления или готовят настой (0, 5 л на 3 л кипятка). Также можно использовать раствор минеральных удобрений (по 15–20 г простого суперфосфата и сульфата калия на 10 л воды) и комплексные препараты для капусты.

Древесная зола — природный источник фосфора и калия

Полезны и внекорневые подкормки. Культура негативно реагирует на дефицит в почве молибдена, бора и марганца. Листья раз в 4–5 недель полезно опрыскивать водой, добавив по 1–2 г молибденовокислого аммония, борной кислоты и перманганата калия на литр.

Видео: рекомендации по уходу за листовой капустой

Cut greens throughout the growing season starting from the moment when the outlet grows to 22–25 cm in height. Most useful is fresh leaves. They are added to salads, smoothies, smoothies, mashed potatoes for baby food. Those that have already outgrown are a little coarse, so it’s better to fry or stew them. In principle, kale can be replaced by the familiar white cabbage in the vast majority of recipes. It looks very beautiful in marinated form, fully preserving the brightness of the inherent shade of the leaves.

They cut them off a little, the entire outlet is removed only after the onset of cold weather. At room temperature, they are stored for no more than 2-3 days, and then wither. In the refrigerator - a little more, a maximum of a week. Leaves should be put in a container with water, like a bouquet, and covered with a plastic bag on top.

Unfortunately, it is impossible to keep the harvest of fresh kale fresh for a long time.

Freezing helps keep this cabbage for a long time. The leaves must first be washed and dried, laid out on paper or linen napkins. It is advisable to cut the stems and veins, leaving only the leaf plate directly. Then they are laid out on baking sheets or trays covered with napkins, and for 2–3 minutes they are sent to the freezer operating in the “shock” freezing mode. If it is not provided for by construction, the time is increased up to 3-4 hours. Finished leaves are packaged in small plastic bags with a tight clasp. The portion is determined based on how many cabbage will definitely go at a time. Defrosting and repeated freezing turns it into an unappetizing slimy mass, devoid of taste and all good. And so vitamins and minerals are stored for 4-6 months.

Frozen kale, without losing its benefits, can be stored for up to six months

Video: freezing kale

Immunity against diseases in kale is quite good, with proper care and compliance with the planting scheme, it rarely suffers from fungi, bacteria and viruses. But pests that do not mind eating delicate, juicy leaves, unfortunately, quite a lot. Among them are the rapeseed sawfly, the caterpillars of butterflies, whites and scoops, cruciferous flea, aphids, slugs. But the risk of infection can be minimized with simple preventative measures.

Photo gallery: pests dangerous for kale

Rapeseed sawfly - a very dangerous pest for cabbage

The main harm to cabbage is caused by scoop larvae, but this does not mean that adults can be ignored

Caterpillars of the butterfly of the white butterfly are able to eat all the greens in a matter of days, leaving only the stem and veins from the leaf outlet

Cruciferous flea very quickly turns cabbage leaves into a sieve

Aphids attack the cabbage en masse, settle on leaves in whole colonies

Slugs eat large holes in the cabbage leaves, leaving a sticky silver coating on the surface

Most pests do not like strong pungent odors. Therefore, it is useful to surround the bed with cabbage along the perimeter with marigolds, nasturtiums, calendula, lavender, any herbs. To save space, they are planted in the aisles. Most of these crops are also good honey carriers, attracting bees and other pollinating insects to the site.

Planting every 7-10 days, you can spray with infusions of the same herbs. Also used as raw materials are onion and garlic arrows, tops of tomatoes and potatoes, peel of lemon and orange, ground pepper, mustard powder. Suitable 1:10 diluted with water vinegar essence and ammonia, soda ash (25-30 ha per 10 l), foam household or green potash soap.

The soil in the garden is sprinkled with a mixture of wood ash with red hot pepper and tobacco chips or colloidal sulfur. The plants themselves are powdered with crushed chalk or activated carbon. Around the base of the stem, a “barrier” is constructed of needles, sand, ash, chopped walnut or egg shells.

Landings should be regularly examined for suspicious symptoms. If time has already been lost, any general-acting insecticides are applied - Inta-Vir, Tanrek, Mospilan, Iskra-Bio, Fury. Special preparations are used against slugs - Meta, Thunderstorm, Sludge Eater. To scare away butterflies and other flying insects, cabbage and soil in the garden are treated with Lepidocide, Entobacterin. A good effect in the fight against them is also given by homemade traps - containers filled with sugar syrup, jam, honey diluted with water, pieces of cardboard lubricated with petroleum jelly, glue, and also an adhesive tape for catching flies.

Growing kale on the site is not difficult even for a not too experienced gardener. The plant not only decorates the site, but is also very healthy. There are many varieties bred by breeders that differ mainly in the appearance of the leaves. All of them are rich in amino acids, calcium, vitamins. The plant is unpretentious in care, successfully adapts to the conditions of a temperate climate and stably brings a crop.


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