Jupiter - how to grow American black raisin in a temperate climate
Grape lovers are constantly trying to plant new varieties. In temperate climates, high frost resistance of grapes is required. Such quality is possessed by the American variety Jupiter, withstanding frosts up to -27 degrees.
History of Jupiter grape growing
Jupiter seedless grapes were obtained by American breeder D. Clark from the University of Arkansas in 1998. The author received a patent for this variety, but did not find his brainchild successful enough for distribution in other countries of the world. According to the recommendations of the author, Jupiter is intended for cultivation only in the United States. However, in the early 2000s, Jupiter was brought to Russia and Ukraine and gained some popularity among winegrowers due to its taste, unpretentiousness and resistance to disease and frost.
Brief description of Jupiter grapes - video
Jupiter raisins belong to the early grape varieties (berries ripen fully in 115–125 days from the beginning of the growing season). For ripening, grapes require a total thermal intensity of 2400-2600 ° C. Bushes reach medium sizes. The vines have a good ability to ripen (by the autumn they ripen by 90–95%).
Jupiter grape flowers are self-pollinating, bisexual.
Jupiter's flowers are bisexual and do not need other pollinators
Of the total number of shoots, fruitful are about 75%. Of the replacement buds, fruitful shoots are most often formed. Shoots from replacing buds are mostly fruitful. The leaves are not very large, bright green, with a smooth surface (without pubescence).
Leaves are not large, have a smooth glossy surface
On each fruitful shoot, 1-2 clusters are formed, having a short stalk and medium size (weight 200–250 g).
By early June, the ovaries of Jupiter begin to fill
Cylindroconic brushes have a loose structure, formed from large (4-5 g) oval berries. The color of the berries changes during ripening from reddish to dark blue. In very hot weather, staining of berries can occur before the flesh ripens.
When the berries ripen, the skin color turns Reddish blue
A thin but strong peel covers a very juicy fleshy flesh with a pleasant taste and a light aroma of nutmeg. Muscat tones become brighter if you overdo the berries on the bush. Despite the high seedlessness of the variety, small soft rudiments of seeds can be found in the berries. The sweetness of taste is explained by a high sugar content (about 2.1 g per 100 g) and a not very high concentration of acids (5–7 g / l).
Growing grapes Jupiter in the Poltava region - video
The popularity of Jupiter among winegrowers is due to such advantages of this variety as:
- high productivity (5-6 kg from 1 bush);
- increased indicators of frost resistance (-25 ... -27 ° C);
- good resistance to fungal diseases and pests;
- resistance of berries to cracking at high humidity;
- the bunches are kept on vines for a long time without spoilage and loss of taste (when ripening in the first half of August, you can leave the crop on the bush until the end of September).
A drawback is some winegrowers consider the average height of the bushes.
Rules of landing and care
To obtain high-quality harvests of Jupiter grapes, you must follow the rules of planting and cultivation.
Since Jupiter does not grow too large, when planting it is recommended to observe the distance between adjacent bushes of 1.5 m, and the row spacing of 3 m.
For the cultivation of this variety, grafting with cuttings and planting seedlings are well suited. It is better to perform these operations in the spring in order to give the seedling or grafted plant time to get stronger before the cold.
Cuttings should be grafted into a split on the Berlandieri x Riparia stock. According to the experience of some lovers, it was found that Jupiter is perfectly taking root on the stock of the complex-stable variety Rapture. Jupiter grafted on this grape gives high yields and is very resistant to diseases.
For better safety of cuttings, their sections need to be dipped in paraffin
For successful vaccination, it is necessary to prepare high-quality cuttings. They are cut in the fall from the middle of a ripened vine and leaves and the upper part of the shoot are removed. On the handle should remain 2-3 eyes. For the winter, the cuttings are stored in a cellar or refrigerator, after paraffinizing the slices and wrapping the bundles of the cuttings with a plastic bag. In the spring, before grafting, the cuttings are soaked in water for about a day (you can add a growth stimulator to the water), wedge-shaped cut the lower end and insert into a split stock. The vaccination site should be tightly tied with a cloth and covered with clay.
Vaccination of grapes in shtamb - video
Seedlings for planting can be bought or grown independently. For this, the cuttings should be slightly longer than for grafting (4–5 eyes). The cuttings are placed in a jar of water or in moist soil mixed with sand. This is done in the second half of February, so that by the time of planting (late April - early May), the seedling had a sufficiently developed root system.
Grape cuttings form roots well in small containers with moist soil
A place for planting grapes you need to choose a sunny place, sheltered from the cold wind. However, grapes should not be planted too close to fences or trees.
Remember - grapes love loose fertile soil and tolerate stagnant moisture very poorly.
The pit should be dug at least 2 weeks before planting and seasoned with a nutrient mixture (soil with compost and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers) at about half the depth. At an initial pit depth of 80 cm after refueling, its depth should be 40–45 cm.
When planting a seedling, it is necessary to fill the pit with nutrients and provide the plant with support
The seedling is placed in the pit carefully so as not to damage the brittle white roots. The root system is sprinkled with earth, which is compacted, watered and mulched with straw.
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The basic rules of growing
After planting grapes, you need to think about its formation. The recommendations regarding the best form for the Jupiter quiche are ambiguous: some experts believe that the two-shoulder cordon is the optimal form of the bush, and the others are the four-arm fan.
Two-shouldered cordon formation - video
A two-armed cordon is formed of two long main lashes, which are fixed in opposite directions on a horizontal trellis.
For the fan-shaped form, the main branches are formed first, shortly cutting off two well-developed shoots, on which two “sleeves” are then left. Shoots appearing on the sleeves are distributed in the same plane on the trellises.
The formation of the fan is carried out in several stages
The selected shape of the bush is maintained by regular pruning. It is recommended to leave 5-8 buds on the fruit shoots, and break out the sterile shoots.
Watering the grapes too often should not be. Enough 2-3 waterings per season (in very dry weather - more often). The periods of greatest water demand for grapes are budding, the time of ovary pouring, and time after harvesting. Waterlogging of the soil should not be allowed.
How to feed grapes - video
Top dressing is very beneficial for the quality and quantity of the crop. Organic fertilizers (rotted manure, compost) are most easily applied in the form of a mulching layer (3-4 cm). It will not only saturate the plant with nutrients, but also retain moisture in the soil. In addition to organic chemistry, it is necessary to feed the bush 2-3 times a summer with phosphorus-potash fertilizers, which are applied together with irrigation water. Do not exceed recommended dosages so as not to cause harm instead of benefit.
Covered with straw grapes need to be pressed on top with some kind of cargo, for example, sheets of ondulin
With high frost resistance, varieties in cold areas are better still to play it safe and lower the vines to the ground for the winter and cover them with insulation material. Suitable straw, reeds, oilcloth or agrofabric (at least in one layer).
Jupiter practically does not need protection against diseases, since it has good resistance to defeat by mildew and oidium. For prevention, 1-2 grapes can be treated with colloidal sulfur or other fungicidal preparations.
You need to be more afraid of wasps and birds. You can protect the crop from them with mesh bags that are worn on each brush.
Harvesting and Harvesting
The harvest of Jupiter is usually suitable for harvest in the first half of August.
To harvest grapes, be sure to use a secateurs, do not try to break off the brush.
If it is not possible to immediately collect the entire crop or have nowhere to store it - it does not matter. You can leave some of the clusters on the bush, they will perfectly retain the taste and other qualities until the last decade of September.
Most often, Jupiter is consumed fresh, but you can cook compote, juice, jam, wine, and excellent raisins from it. If the crop is too large, you can make a tasty and healthy concentrate - backmes. It is a grape juice filtered and stripped to 50–70% without added sugar. This product is part of various diets, useful for improving digestion and stabilizing metabolism.
Beckmes is called grape honey for its excellent taste and aroma.
JESTER KISMISH (USA) - seedless grape variety, early ripening. Bushes are medium-sized. Bunches of medium weighing 200-250 grams. Large berries weighing 4-5 grams, color from red to blue-red when fully ripened. The pulp is fleshy-juicy, of good taste there is a taste of labrusca. The skin is thin, durable. Seedlessness is high, sometimes small rudiments are found. Sugar accumulation up to 21%. Productivity is high, 200–250 kg / ha. Berries are resistant to cracking. The Jupiter grape variety is medium resistant to fungal diseases. Frost resistance is increased, not lower than -25–27 ° С. In our region, I overwintered well, we have not grafted, 100% bud blooming. On each shoot 2-3 inflorescences. One of the first bloomed.Evdokimov Victor Irina, Crimea
Jupiter acquired in Ukraine in 2010. In 2012, part of the bush (for testing) wintered without shelter, two nights had a temperature of -30.31. there were enough kidneys for the formation. Currently planted 60 bushes. It’s good for everyone, the only minus is medium-tall. I will vaccinate (in Moldova). The taste is amazing.Stepan Petrovich, Belgorod Region
Today, Jupiter surprises me in a good way, a one-year-old sapling overwintered without winter shelter at -30, though it was covered with snow, many other varieties could not stand it. And what is most interesting today has completely open buds with leaves that all other varieties lag behind at least a week.Pavel Dorensky
One-year-old Jupiter I wintered at -24 degrees without shelter, no matter how cold it was, two inflorescences on each shoot. I survived a spring frost of -3.5 degrees without damage, but for example, in Venus, most of the buds froze.bred_ik
Guys, calm down you with this Jupiter! I also fired up to buy it and tried to order directly in America, what would it be with a guarantee of the purity of the variety. And it turned out that a series of seedless varieties was bred and Jupiter succeeded in C grade. Not very stable, small, and taste does not stand out. It is not very common in America, but in Europe no one has asked to sell it. But he didn’t allow it because no one asked, because permission to sell was obtained for more worthy varieties from the D. Clark series, which were brought to Europe. Venus for example. And more stable, and tastier, and larger than Jupiter. Here is what Clark himself answered: Irina: Your message was forwarded to me. I work in grape breeding and released Jupiter in 1999 for the University of Arkansas fruit breeding program. Unfortunately Jupiter is not available for shipment to Europe. The varieties are protected by the University and only is licensed for propagation and sale within the US. I do not know of a solution for this issue. But thanks for your interest. John R. Clark, University Professor Dept. of Horticulture 316 Plant Science University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701Irina, Stuttgart (Germany)
Jupiter grapes have a pleasant taste and good yield. But its main advantage many winegrowers consider unpretentiousness. This variety is even called "grapes for the lazy." It not only does not require complex care, but even almost does not need treatments against diseases.