June cabbage - a time-tested variety
Many gardeners, choosing cabbage for cultivation on their sites, prefer early varieties. This is not surprising, because such a choice makes it possible to quickly get a crop and enjoy the fruits of their labors. Among the huge variety of early varieties, June cabbage stands in a special place. Despite its venerable age - the variety was bred in 1967 - the June one successfully competes with new varieties in yield, nutritional and taste qualities, and unpretentious care.
Description of June variety and its main characteristics
The June cabbage variety was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Approved for Use in the Russian Federation in 1971 with a recommendation of use in all regions of Russia. This is one of the most common early varieties. It perfectly combines taste, nutrition, quick and friendly ripening and presentable appearance.
June cabbage is recommended for fresh use in the early summer
Table: main characteristics of June cabbage
|Ripening time||Early ripe. The time from germination to harvesting - 90-110 days|
|Leaf socket||Raised, compact (40 to 50 cm)|
|Leaves||Medium-sized, have a slight waviness along the edge, light green with a slight waxy coating|
|Head out||Homogeneous, medium density, rounded or flat round. The outer color is light green, in the section - white-yellow|
|Weight of head of cabbage||from 0.9 to 2.5 kg|
|Productivity||3-7 kg with 1 square. meter|
|Using||Recommended for fresh consumption in summer.|
|Taste qualities||Good ones|
|Disease and pest resistance|
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Speaking of June cabbage, one can distinguish the main features, because of which this variety is chosen by vegetable growers:
- early ripening;
- high productivity;
- friendship ripening;
- resistance to cracking;
- juiciness and delicate taste of forks;
- high content of healthy vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin C;
- cold resistance. Cabbage seedlings can withstand frosts of -3 degrees, which makes it possible to grow this variety everywhere;
- resistance to the main pest of cabbage - cabbage fly;
- good commercial quality.
Let us dwell on some of the disadvantages of the variety:
- low keeping quality. This disadvantage is typical for all varieties of cabbage with early ripening;
- the variety is not suitable for fermentation and other preparations;
- susceptibility to keel.
Features of planting and growing cabbage June
June cabbage is a cold-resistant, moisture- and photophilous plant, demanding on soil fertility. It develops well at a temperature of + 13-18 degrees. Young plants can suffer short-term frosts (no more than -3 degrees). At a temperature of +30 degrees and above, the plant is inhibited, may not form heading. At the beginning of the growing season, the variety does not have high requirements for soil moisture, but as the head grows, its need for moisture increases.
Important! It is not recommended to plant June in rows between fruit trees, to thicken plantings. The variety is photophilous, poorly tolerates shading.
During the entire period of growth, cabbage needs a sufficient amount of nutrients. For the active development of seedlings, all nutrients must be present in the soil. In the stage of leaf growth, the plant consumes nitrogen especially actively, and during the setting and growth of the head of cabbage - potassium and phosphorus. All these features should be considered when growing varieties. Their observance and proper care are a guarantee of a good and high-quality crop.
Video: June cabbage
Seedling method of growing
To obtain an early crop of a vegetable, it is recommended to grow it through seedlings. In preparation for sowing, it is necessary to pay special attention to planting material, soil, to observe all stages of the planting process.
Stage 1: soil preparation
The soil for planting is light and fertile. Peat or a coconut substrate, in which humus and sand are added in equal proportions, are excellent as a base.
Due to the sufficient amount of air and a large structure, the composition does not cake, giving young roots the opportunity to develop favorably
It is recommended to add wood ash to the soil mixture - 1 tbsp. spoon for every kilogram of soil. Ash will act as a good source of micro and macro elements, as well as perform a disinfecting function, in particular, it will prevent the spread of a dangerous disease of cabbage seedlings - the black leg.
Stage 2: seed preparation
Presowing seed treatment is recommended to protect against unwanted infections. Such processing can be carried out in various ways:
- Seeds for 20 minutes are poured with slightly salted water, then washed in running water and dried.
- Planting material is dipped for 2-3 minutes in hot (+ 45-50 degrees) water, then for the same time - in cold. After this, the seeds need to be dried.
Note! Peeled and specially processed seeds of cabbage, bought in specialized stores, do not require pre-treatment.
The composition of the shell enveloping the seeds includes nutrients, trace elements, growth regulators
Stage 3: determine the timing of landing
It is easy to calculate the optimal date for sowing June cabbage for seedlings:
- For the reference point, we take the date of the possible planting of seedlings in the ground. This is the beginning of May, for example, 3 numbers.
- Subtract 50 days from this date (seedling age recommended for planting). We get March 15th.
- The maximum time required for seed germination is 8 days. Subtract them from the resulting date and determine the planting date for the June variety - March 7th.
Experienced gardeners are advised to plant this variety in several stages with an interval of 10 days. In this way, a gradual ripening of the crop can be achieved.
Note! Since June cabbage is not stored for a long time, when planting plants in stages, you will have the opportunity to use fresh heads of early cabbage for a long time.
Stage 4: landing process
The landing process itself is completely standard:
- Capacity (wooden box, plastic tray) is filled with prepared soil mixture.
- Any suitable device (you can use an ordinary student's ruler) push grooves about 1 cm deep.
Fill the boxes with soil, level it, with a ruler or other object, press the grooves of the desired depth
- Seeds are placed in grooves at a distance of 3 cm from each other.
- The seeds are sprinkled with earth.
- Landing containers are closed with a film or glass and placed in a warm (+ 20–25 degrees) room.
Crops are covered with transparent material and sent to the brightest place in the apartment.
Stage 5: care of seedlings before planting in the ground
After emergence, the transparent covering material is removed and the temperature of the content is reduced to + 14-17 degrees. If necessary, the crops are thinned out by plucking the extra plants. Watering is carried out in a moderate and only as necessary.
Important! Excessive moisture in the soil can lead to black-footed seedlings.
2 weeks after emergence, seedlings are dived. For this, it is advisable to use individual containers, in particular, peat pots, from which when planting in the soil you do not need to get a seedling. This will prevent damage to the root system, will contribute to the rapid adaptation of seedlings and their active growth. For diving, you can use the same soil mixture as for planting seedlings. When transplanting seedlings, it is recommended to deepen to cotyledonous leaves.
After planting and watering, add so much soil mixture to the pots so that it reaches the cotyledon leaves
Important! After a dive, the temperature of the content is recommended to be increased to +21 degrees, and after 5–7 days, again reduced to the above parameters.
One of the conditions for growing healthy and strong seedlings is its lighting for 15 hours a day. This longitude of the day is set only by the end of April. Given this factor, as well as possible cloudy weather, it is worth thinking about additional lighting devices, which fluorescent lamps are perfect for.
Conventional incandescent lamps are not suitable for the illumination of plants, since they have an insufficient emission spectrum and are very hot
During the cultivation of seedlings, it is recommended to carry out two dressings:
- In the phase of two true leaves, foliar top dressing is carried out with any complex fertilizers with microelements (0.5 teaspoons per 1 liter of water).
- At the beginning of hardening, a second foliar top dressing is recommended. Urea + potassium sulfate is used for it (1 tbsp.spoon per 10 l of water).
A week before planting the seedlings, it is recommended to start hardening. For this, containers with seedlings are taken out into the open air. First, for several hours, then the residence time is increased. You can place the boxes with seedlings in the greenhouse, providing them with additional shelter for the night.
Important! Seedlings of June cabbage are ready for planting if it has formed a good root system and has 4–5 true leaves.
Strong seedlings of about 50 days old are selected for planting in the ground.
Stage 6: planting seedlings in the ground
A few days before planting, the seedlings stop watering, and immediately before planting, they are watered abundantly and thoroughly. The transplant process is as follows:
- Wells are prepared in the prepared area. They should be located not less than 30 cm from each other. The hole itself should be slightly larger than the peat pot in which the seedling is located, or a coma of earth with roots taken out of the cassette.
- In each well, it is recommended to add a couple of handfuls of humus, 0.5 teaspoon of nitrophoska, half a glass of ash. Fertilizer is mixed with soil, well watered abundantly.
Wells are best prepared a few hours before transplanting
- An earthen lump with the roots of a seedling or a peat pot is lowered into a liquefied soil and buried to the first true leaves.
Usually cabbage is planted on a flat surface, but if the site is in a low or damp place, then cabbage is planted on ridges or ridges
- Sprinkle the seedling with moist soil, lightly ramming it around the plant.
- Top mulch dry soil.
Important tips! For better survival of seedlings, it is necessary to pour it with warm water every evening for a week, as well as darken for 2-3 days from direct sunlight with newspapers or non-woven material.
Planting seeds in the ground
Planting a variety of June cabbage seeds immediately in the ground, you will not get an early harvest. Such sowing is used to extend the fruiting term of the variety, since the collection of cabbage planted on the beds in April will occur around the second half of August. Sowing seeds in the soil is as follows:
- To do this, choose an open area with fertile soil having a neutral or slightly acid reaction. During the autumn digging, it is lime and seasoned with humus (at least 1 bucket per 1 sq. Meter).
- Prepare holes similar to the scheme of planting seedlings in the ground.
After refueling with fertilizers, each well is watered so that the soil is moistened to a depth of 20 cm
- They are seasoned with fertilizers and several seeds are buried (not more than 2-3 cm) in each well.
- Sprinkle with earth and watered.
Planting seeds in open ground can be approximately in mid-April. June cabbage is enough +3 degrees in order for shoots to appear that can tolerate small frosts. But in order not to injure the plants, it is better to close the plantings with a film or other covering material until the time when the comfortable temperature for the June temperature is + 14–18 degrees outside.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Note! As the seedlings grow, a leading plant will appear in the hole. It is left for further cultivation, and weaker seedlings are nipped off or, if necessary, transplanted, like seedlings, to another place.
You need to carefully monitor the cleanliness of plantings, timely remove weeds that can quickly drown out small cabbage seedlings.
Further care for cabbage
Care for planting cabbage consists of standard procedures, including watering, loosening, weeding and top dressing. Priority should be given to the correct regime of watering the vegetable. June cabbage is water-loving, watering is extremely important for her, especially during the setting of heads of cabbage. It is advisable to carry it out in the evening, using standing water heated in the sun.
Important! After transplanting, in the period of fruit formation, as well as in hot weather, plants are watered every 2-3 days, using at least 7-8 liters of water per 1 sq. M. meter landing. The rest of the time you can water the plants less often: once a week.
A weak increase in green mass indicates a lack of moisture for the plant
Note! In order to preserve moisture in the soil for longer, as well as additionally nourish the plants, it is recommended to mulch the beds with peat.
After each watering or rain, planting cabbage must be loosened. The depth of cultivation should be 5-8 cm. In addition to loosening, cabbage is advised to spud. The first hilling is carried out 20 days after transplanting. The second - after 10 days. This procedure contributes to the formation of additional lateral roots on the plant. Hilling will bring greater effect if it is carried out, like loosening, after rain or heavy watering.
In the initial phase of active leaf formation, it is recommended to feed cabbage with ammonium nitrate: dissolve 10 g of fertilizer in 10 l of water. The consumption rate is 2 liters per plant. At the very beginning of the formation of the head on insufficiently nutrient soils, a second top dressing can be carried out. Urea (4 g), double superphosphate (5 g) and potassium sulfate (8 g) are taken for it. These fertilizers are dissolved in 10 liters of water and 2 liters of solution are poured onto the plant.
Important! Later it is not recommended to feed June cabbage so that nitrites harmful to the human body do not accumulate in it.
Video: fertilizing cabbage with nitrogen
June Pest Treatment
Early cabbage is a favorite vegetable of many pests. Aphids, caterpillars, cruciferous fleas, larvae of the May beetle, scoops, cabbage flies prefer cabbage to other garden plants. Pesticides help to effectively control pests, but in the case of cabbage, gardeners use them cautiously, so as not to poison a valuable vegetable. Therefore, it is better to use preventive measures to prevent the appearance of numerous pests, as well as folk remedies, which, if applied timely, will be effective and safe for the vegetable itself.
The following can be mentioned as preventative measures:
- crop rotation compliance;
- prevention of freezing and injury of seedlings;
- weed control. Pests settle on plants related to cabbage (colza, shepherd’s bag, etc.), and then move to beds with vegetables;
- weekly loosen the soil and podokuchit plants;
- cover the plantings with a spanbond, which will protect the crops from the cruciferous flea and prevent the butterfly butterflies from laying eggs;
- observe the regime of watering the vegetable.
Note! An excellent preventive measure is to dust young plants with a mixture of ash and tobacco dust. In this case, slugs, fleas will bypass your plants.
Planting cabbage next to spicy plants is one of the preventive pest control measures:
- cabbage fly scare away the pungent smell of garlic;
- cabbage scoop will not come close to plantings if sage is planted nearby;
- dill and tomatoes prevent the appearance of cabbage aphids;
- the aroma of cucumber grass (borago) does not like slugs;
- the scum of wormwood discourages the cabbage fly and the butterfly. Many gardeners pluck this plant and lay directly on top of the emerging heads of cabbage.
Plants, such as marigolds, mint, rosemary, basil, cilantro, will also be cabbage protectors.
Photo Gallery: June cabbage pests
- If white butterflies appear on the site, carefully examine the leaves and destroy the egg clutches
- Against a cruciferous flea, you can use a spray of vinegar: a glass of 9% vinegar in 10 liters of water
- They fight cabbage with the help of hilling, dusting with ash and tobacco, spraying with a decoction of wormwood
- With the mass distribution of the pest, chemical contact preparations are used - Fufanon, Karbofos
- At the first signs of slugs, the soil around the cabbage should be sprinkled with mustard powder, and traps should be set up near the site (add shallow dishes with kvass, beer or sweet water with yeast)
In the characteristics of June cabbage, its weak resistance to such a disease as keel is noted. This is a common cabbage disease in which numerous growths and swellings form on the roots of the plant. She can get to the site along with infected purchased seedlings, which is extremely difficult to diagnose with the disease.
Kila is dangerous because the root system of the affected vegetable does not function well: it does not absorb enough water and nutrients. As a result, cabbage leaves wither, turn yellow, heads may not exist at all, or they will be small and underdeveloped.
The infection persists in the soil, on weeds, on post-harvest residues, is carried on beds with infected seedlings
Pathogenic bacteria persist for a long time in the soil and quickly spread throughout the site through garden tools, plant debris, earthworms, slugs and other soil organisms. In the event of the appearance of this disease, it must be understood that the affected plant cannot be cured. It is necessary to disinfect the soil by adding freshly slaked lime or spilling it with a 0.1% solution of funzazid Fundazol.
I plant seeds of June in a greenhouse, in March. Seedlings are strong and healthy. I land in a permanent place in May. I get cabbage at the end of July. From July to September I prepare salads and first courses. Do not leave for storage. I do not recommend fermenting this cabbage. There is a drawback that this cabbage may crack when ripe. The leaves of this cabbage are tender. При хорошем уходе можно получить 2, 5кг. Хватает самим кушать и угощать друзей.
Мой неизменный выбор в течение долгих лет — капуста белокочанная «Июньская». Пробую регулярно и семена различных новых сортов, в том числе и с пометкой F1. Пока лучше старого и проверенного сорта не обнаружила. Я часть семян в конце апреля сею на рассаду дома (теплицы нет), чтобы получить самый ранний урожай. Остальные сразу в открытый грунт, когда прогреется земля. Этот сорт может выдерживать холода, потому возвратные заморозки ему не страшны. В конце июня — начале июля созревают небольшие, до двух килограмм, кочаны. Единственный недостаток этого сорта — склонность к растрескиванию, поэтому нужно вовремя срезать капусту. Если при срезке оставить, не обламывая, два нижних листа, можем получить второй урожай из небольших кочанчиков.
Рассказываю свой опыт этого года. Кочаны пока не режу (маленькие), но считаю, что опыт удачен, т.к нет ни одного выпадения. Нет гусениц и капустной мухи.Рассаду покупала на рынке. Сорт Июнька. Земля у меня плодородная, поэтому навоза положила по минимуму. Посадила капусту, хорошо полила.Через 2 недели, когда капуста прижилась, хорошо полила, затем прорыхлила и надела воротнички из пленки. Далее поливать и подкармливать по пленке и между ней. Ничем не опрыскивала и до сих пор этого не делаю, ничем сверху не обсыпала. Когда стали закручиваться кочаны, сделала 1 подкормку 40 капель йода на ведро воды. Потом произвольно подкармливать 0, 5 ст. сахара на ведро воды. Воротнички лежат до сих пор. Земля под ними влажная и рыхлая. Своей капустой в этом году я очень довольна. Раньше тоже были проблемы. Скоро по этому методу буду сажать позднюю капусту.
Я ее люблю за сочно -зеленый цвет в супе).
Июньская капуста по достоинству занимает одно из первых мест по распространённости в личных подсобных хозяйствах. Конечно, ей, как и любому другому овощу, требуется внимание и ухода. Агротехника выращивания этого сорта не особо сложна, но требует соблюдения основных правил. Они достаточно стандартны, так что особых трудностей, даже у начинающих огородников вызвать не должны.