Julian grapes: characteristics, planting and cultivation features
Today, grapes are one of the most popular plants in our garden plots. The world list of varieties today includes more than 20 thousand varieties of this beautiful plant, of which 3 thousand are grown in the CIS. One of the breeding activities is the cultivation of grape varieties with early ripening. The result of such scientific studies was the emergence of an early ripe variety Julian.
The history of the cultivation of grape varieties Julian
Variety Julian was bred in the Rostov region by domestic breeder V.U. Kaplyushny by crossing two popular varieties Kesha and Rizamat. It was from Kesha that he got his main advantage - the early ripening of berries. And from Rizamat he inherited the sweet taste and shape of a bunch.
Description of Julian grape variety
Julian is a table grape variety, characterized by an extremely early ripening period. From flowering to harvesting, only 95 days pass. The bisexual flower does not require artificial pollination. One berry weighs about 20 g, a bunch of 800–1000 g, and under favorable conditions until 2000. Finger-shaped fruits are painted pink with a yellowish tinge. With intense heat in the sun, the color of the berries becomes lighter. The skin is thin. The taste is sweet harmonious with a light musky finish. The berries of Julian for a long time do not lose their presentation and perfectly tolerate transportation. Julian begins to bear fruit in the third year of life, and under favorable conditions already in the second.
Video - Julian variety: description, crop
The leaves are medium sized, heart-shaped. The bush withstands frosts down to –24 ° С, but nevertheless, this variety feels best in regions with a warm or temperate climate. It should not be forgotten that Julian, despite her frost resistance, requires shelter for the winter.
Appearance of Julian fruits: photo gallery
- The fruits of Julian are distinguished by a pleasant harmonious taste.
- The weight of one bunch often exceeds 1 kg
- The weight of one berry reaches 20 g
- In bushes planted in the shade, the berries have a paler color
Julian is slightly susceptible to peeling. Resistance to fungal diseases, including oidium and mildew is medium.
Features of planting and cultivating Julian grape varieties
First of all, it is worth seriously approaching the choice of seedlings. High-quality planting material guarantees not only a good survival rate, but also a lower susceptibility to various diseases. Julian is propagated with the help of annual seedlings or with the help of cuttings of an annual vine. But, if you have a choice, then it is better to give preference to an annual seedling.
When choosing planting material, first of all pay attention to the root system of the seedling. The more roots, the easier the grapes will tolerate the planting. Check if the roots are alive: ask the seller to cut one root. At the cut, it should be white. Gray or brown brittle roots are a sign of a dead plant.
On the trunk of the seedling should not be any traces of any physical damage. Make a small scratch on the bark with your fingernail, green living fibers should be visible under it, as at the roots, this indicates that the seedling is alive and ready for planting in open ground.
Now let's move on to examining the kidneys. The eyes should be resilient to the touch. Scales should not be exfoliated, much less fall off.
Today, grape seedlings are often found in stores, which are coated with a special protective wax. It reduces transpiration, which allows better preservation of planting material. Also, such a wax has a protective antiseptic effect. No need to try to remove it before or after planting, it does not interfere with the graft survival.
If you have a choice, buy seedlings with a closed root system. They are not injured during the autumn digging and a priori have a higher survival rate. This applies not only to grapes, but also to any crop that is propagated by planting material.
Preparing for the landing
Grape seedlings are planted in open ground in the fall before the first frost or in the spring before the sap flow.
First of all, dig holes of 25 cm in diameter and about 45 cm deep. Mix the ground from the hole with sand and humus in a 2: 1: 1 ratio.
Sapling roots should not be bent when planting. If they are too long, then it is better to cut them to the required size. Do not worry, this procedure will not harm the grapes, but an attempt to make the roots of the grapes grow up significantly reduces the survival rate.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Algorithm for planting grape seedlings
- First of all, you need to take care of good drainage. Grapes do not tolerate excessive moisture. To do this, pour 10-15 cm of expanded clay, broken brick or gravel on the bottom of the hole.
- Sprinkle drainage on top of the previously prepared soil mixture to form a small mound on it.
- Set the seedling in the hole. Gently spread the roots along the slopes of the knoll. It is very important that the vaccination site is 1–1.5 cm above the ground.
- We fill the hole with earth, spill it with one bucket of water and ram. Now the root hairs are in close contact with particles of soil.
- After all the moisture has been absorbed, it is necessary to add more soil and additionally compact the soil.
- Now, the remaining part of the seedling remaining above the ground is also covered with loose earth from above, forming a small mound.
Video: planting grapes in spring
Features of care for Julian
Julian grapes cannot be called moody. It winters well and has an average resistance to diseases. Nevertheless, when growing it is necessary to carry out classic agricultural activities. Care for young Julian consists in regular (once a week) watering, weeding and mulching. It is also recommended that the soil be loosened in a near-stem circle to increase aeration of the root system. Fertilize with the following frequency:
- In the spring, even before you take away the winter shelter, spill the bushes with the following nutrient solution. Add 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of ammonium nitrate and 5 g of potassium salt to one bucket of water. Watering is carried out at the rate of 10 liters of solution per bush.
- Next time, feed the plant with this mixture before flowering.
- But before fruiting it is necessary to exclude ammonium nitrate from top dressing, so that all the forces of the grapes are directed to fruiting, rather than building green mass.
- After the crop is harvested, the grapes need to be fed with potassium. This will help the grapes survive the winter.
- Once every three years you need to fertilize the soil with manure. The procedure is carried out in the spring. Spread manure in a uniform layer and dig the soil on the bayonet of a shovel.
Diseases, methods of treatment and prevention
Most of the diseases that Julian is sick of are of fungal origin, that is, their causative agents are microscopic parasitic fungi.
The most common diseases of Julian: table
|Title||Pathogen||External signs||Conditions of occurrence|
|Mildew (False mealydew dew)||Mushroom Plasmopara viticola||An oily stain appears on the upper side of the leaf, then in wet weather a powdery mildew appears on the lower side, resembling mold. Gradually, tissue necrosis begins on the infected area of the leaf and becomes brown. Heavily damaged leaves fall off. During flowering, the disease spreads to clusters. This leads to the loss of part of the crop.||Wet and warm weather. The optimum temperature is about 25 ° C.|
|Oidium (powdery mildew)||Mushroom Uncinula necator||Infected leaves are covered with gray ash-like shroud. In the future, this "dust" covers flowers and berries. As a result, the inflorescences die, and the berries crack and dry.||Damp, calm weather. Favorable temperature 25–35 ° С.|
|Gray rot||Mushroom Botrytis cinerea||Leaves, flowers and clusters are covered with a grayish coating, which dusts when touched. If the summer turned out to be hot, then the disease will stop by itself, but in wet weather the damage will spread to the berries and significantly reduce the yield.||It affects primarily injured areas of the plant. Actively develops when there is wet and warm weather.|
|Anthracnose||Mushroom Gloeosporium ampelophagum||Leaves cover brown spots surrounded by a whitish border. Gradually, the spots merge, and the tissue in them dies. Similar ulcers appear on shoots, petioles and berries.||Heavy spring rainfall.|
During the autumn harvest in the garden, it is imperative to collect all the litter from under the grapes and burn it, preferably outside the garden area. The ripe foliage is the perfect cradle for fungal diseases.
The most common grape diseases in the photo
- Oidium grape cluster
- Berries affected by gray rot
- The first signs of the defeat of grapes mildu
- Anthracnose shoots
Drugs that allow you to fight diseases of a fungal nature are called fungicides. Today, a large assortment of such drugs is presented in stores. However, from such a variety of preparations it is not always possible to choose the most effective and safe option that is suitable specifically for your garden. For this reason, copper sulfate, tested by generations of gardeners, remains the most common fungicide today.
Video: processing of grapes with copper sulphate
The first processing of grapes with copper sulphate is carried out in the spring before the buds open. For young plants, you need a 0.5% solution: 50 g per 10 liters of water. Adult grapes will need 1% solution. In autumn, after the leaves have fallen from the grapes, it is re-processed: young grapes - 3% solution, adult plants - 5%.
First-hand grade reviews
There are 4 root shrubs in the planting. The growth strength of all on our soil and in our conditions is higher than average, but no more. Resistant to mildew and tick. During flowering, ovary shedding was observed, but mainly on large peduncles. I think it makes sense to pinch flower stalks, you need to experiment. But even what is left promises to be spectacular and large.Elena Petrovna
Planting a root cuttings on May 19, 2010 today is a long growth of 1 m. Traces of exposure to mildew, oidium was not observed.Syretsky
Last season, Julian’s buds were grafted onto the original bush. This year the first fruiting. As for disease resistance, there are no questions about this form, everything is normal. The shoots are very strong, each had 2-3 inflorescences, I had to normalize. The berries in a bunch everything is even now, without peas, but something has stopped at the moment in development. I mean, it clearly does not meet the declared maturity of 95-100 days. With the same maturity Super-extra, but it is already quite edible and the lower clusters almost matured. And Julian, I did not even dare to breakdown vat and the berry just started to soften ...
And now, what else seemed interesting to me: I constantly removed stepchildren, but it so happened that I skipped this procedure in the vineyard for one week. So Julian grew decent stepsons in an instant and they also have 2-3 inflorescences, left a few for the experiment ( two for each shoot) - nothing, one pollinated, the other bloom, the third are collected. But even the stepsons themselves do not stop growing, but continue to grow actively, some by the meter, I tie them already. The shoot growth power allows, on average, 4 m. It looks like that this form will be with a continuous cycle flat reports to frosts.Fursa Irina Ivanovna
Julian grafted onto Arcadia. The difference from the Transfiguration and the UN is still to the taste, Julian is weaker on July 26Sergey Dandyk
The main advantage of the Julian grape variety is its early ripening period. You will harvest in 95 days. Also, this variety compares favorably with its resistance to diseases and the excellent taste of fruits.