Juicy summer gifts: features of summer varieties of pears

Pear is a hypoallergenic fruit rich in microelements and vitamins that has long ago settled in areas of most gardeners with significant experience growing fruit. Unusually juicy and aromatic, melting in the mouth and crispy, oily and tart - it's all about her. Several hundred winter-hardy and early-growing summer pear varieties are grown in domestic nurseries in the southern regions, in the middle zone of Russia, in the Urals and Siberia, Ukraine and Belarus. The species diversity of the fruit culture allows you to choose a variety that will certainly take root in the garden area and will give excellent harvest every year.

What kind of fruit is a pear?

A tall-growing fruit tree with glossy leaves and amazingly shaped fruits that you can hardly confuse with another fruit - this is a pear. The ancestors of this plant are accustomed to living in a warm temperate continental climate, unpretentious and productive, in the wild they are found on plains, light forests and even in mountain ravines. The natural range of this fruit culture is concentrated in the East Asian and Eurasian regions. The latter covers Asia Minor, North Africa, Eastern and Southeastern Europe and modifies the pear from a dwarf into a medium-sized, powerful plant that stably tolerates a humid climate and freezing temperatures. The Asian distribution range of pears is China, Japan, where a pear tree has long turned from a wild game into a cultivated plant.

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Facts claim that the first pear orchards grew more than 3 thousand years ago BC in the Mediterranean. Pear - deciduous long-lived fruit tree, whose age can reach 300 years; fruiting - for 50–70 years. Wild pears have a rounded or pyramidal crown shape, pear hybrids bred by breeders are found in the form of bush plants, with pyramidal, pyramidal, elongated and round crowns. This plant belongs to the class dicotyledonous, flowering, rosaceae order, pink family (Rosaceae Juss.), Pear genus (lat. Pyrus).

There are 60 varieties of these fruit trees and about 3, 000 varieties in the world, which differ from each other in terms of ripening, quality indicators of fruits and agricultural technology. The height of the trunk reaches 25-30 meters, the diameter of the crown is 3.5-7 meters. Shrubs are found among the representatives of the genus Pyrus. The pear propagates vegetatively, by vaccination and seeds, is pollinated with the help of insects.

Despite the variety of varieties adapted to different cultivation conditions, the pear prefers fertile, loose soils. The pear tree blooms in late April - early May for 1.5 to 2 weeks. The fruiting period begins at 3-4 years of plant life.

The Serbs called the pear a chambermaid - from the word "high" - "higher, higher" and prayed under it to God, saying: "Grushenka is my church."

Table: Characteristics of horticultural crops

Fruit tree partsCharacteristic
Trunk and woodBarrel in diameter from 40 to 70 cm (depending on

tree age), covered with smooth bark, the color of which happens

different: from light gray to red brown,

covered with longitudinal cracks with age.

The wood is white, dense; young shoots slightly pubescent.

Root systemRod
LeavesOvoid, pointed, dark green with a glossy finish.

The edge of the leaf blade is notched or solid.

Leaves are arranged alternately.

Inflorescences and flowersScutellum, consisting of 5-12 flowers located

on a short peduncle singly or in groups. The flowers are bisexual, five-petalled.

Petals are white or with a pinkish tinge. Stamens no more than 50 pieces,

the pestle consists of 5 columns.

FruitDrupe obovate, pear-shaped or round, weighing from 80 to 300 g.

The pulp is juicy, hard, sometimes grainy, pronouncedly sweet or sour,

with rounded seeds of dark brown color.

The skin is dense, easy to eat, and when fully ripe, it tastes good. The skin color ranges from light green to yellow brown with a crimson blush.

Pear flowers are collected in a shield (left), the fruits have a light yellow, dense pulp (right)

Distinctive features

Summer varieties of pears are characterized by abundant fruiting and drought tolerance, but are demanding on top dressing, they can not do without regular preventive treatments to preserve the crop.

Among pear varieties ripening in summer, plants with long fruiting are distinguished, for example, the Children's variety. You can enjoy this pear from mid-July to the end of August. Many hybrids differ in size and shape of the fruit - the round-baked Bashkir summer and the pear with pink fruits Rudyanaya Kedrina. Pets among modern summer varieties - Cathedral and Lada - are resistant to scab and practically do not crumble.

It is worth noting that among the pears ripening in the summer, there are many medium-tall, low fruit trees (for example, Duchess summer, Bere Ardanpon, Morning freshness), early-growing - beginning to bear fruit in the 3-4th year .

Summer pear varieties have the following distinctive features:

  • depending on the territory of distribution, they are cultivated in the south, in temperate regions and in northern regions;
  • self-fertile, partially self-fertile and infertile;
  • in shape and taste of fruits (round and oval; sour, sweet and tart);
  • early and bearing fruit after 5 or more years;
  • by type of crown (pyramidal and rounded) and tree growth;

Advantages and disadvantages

Most summer varieties are precocious. The first fruits ripen before other stone fruits in the garden. Therefore, pears are the first fruit treat on the summer table grown in your garden. At the height of the summer season, you can please yourself and loved ones with the first ripe pears without waiting for autumn frosts (as happens with later varieties of this species).

The disadvantages of early ripe summer pears include a short shelf life of ripened fruits - the flesh of such pears quickly becomes loose, similar to "baked potatoes", and darkens. The collected pears are recommended to be stored in refrigerators at a temperature of +3 +7 ° C. July and August pears begin to deteriorate after a week, but they are desired for preservation and processing in dryers. Another minus of summer varieties - seedlings of such hybrids are more expensive than mid-season and late varieties. Breeders have noticed for a long time - gardeners appreciate and love early ripe fruits, including pears.

The main representatives of summer varieties with a description and characteristic

Summer varieties of pears are divided into three groups according to the fruiting period:

  1. Early summers.
  2. Summer.
  3. Late summer.

Early summer varieties ripen in early July, summer hybrids ripen from late July to late August. And late summer pears give the main crop in late summer, sometimes in early September. Among summer pears, most are universal - suitable for fresh consumption and for preservation and processing (drying, drying, making syrups). Below are the most common earliest varieties of pears, bred in the middle of the last century and cultivated in different parts of our country and neighboring countries. The first harvest from such hybrids is obtained from July 5 to 20.

  • The Bashkir summer is ripening early (in the first decade of July), comes into fruition in the 6th year. Fine-grained fruits with a spicy flavor weigh no more than 100 g, despite the loose flesh, they are stored for up to two weeks; the variety is universal. Highly resistant to rot and scab, often grown in regions with a cold climate. Productivity 9–16 t / g, pear partially self-fertile.

    Bashkir summer is grown in the Volga region and in the Urals

  • Mid-July early ripenes from July 10 to July 15, increased drought tolerance of the plant is noted. The tree has a high yield, tolerates winter without problems in central Russia, the Kuban and the South, pears rarely crumble and are stored for up to 10 days. Enters fruiting in the 6th year, partially self-fertile. One of the minuses of this variety is that juicy fruits with snow-white pulp are usually too small (up to 180-200 c / ha). A tree is rarely prone to scab damage.

    The fruits of July early are not very large, but sweet and fragrant.

  • The ripe fruits of Early Sergeev can be tasted already in early July - pears with white oily flesh and pleasant sourness are stored for no more than a week. Mid-sized hybrid obtained by crossing Bere Giffard and Panna; begins to bear fruit in the 6–7th year, but does not differ in high productivity (75 kg / ha), the fruits ripen on July 5–10 and are stored for a week. It has a stable immunity to scab and requires additional pollination to increase productivity.

    Early Sergeeva rekdo is affected by scab and bacterial rot

  • In mid-July, in Central Russia and in the Volga region, a variety of pears for children ripen with small (60–70 g) light yellow fruits that have a sweet, pleasant taste; dessert hybrid is good fresh; partially self-fertile, the neighborhood of pollinating varieties will increase the yield. Winter hardiness is average. The variety is early and rarely affected by fungal diseases. The average yield is 50 kg / ha.

    Juicy fine-grained pulp is characteristic for the variety Children's

  • Parents of the early Moldavian hybrid variety are Williams and the high-yielding Lyubimitsa Klappa, common in domestic summer cottages. This pear is partially self-fertile. A tall tree begins bearing fruit in the 3-4th year, the first fruits (weighing up to 150 g) with sweet, loose pulp and a delicate aroma appear in mid-July - a dessert variety. Productivity from one tree reaches 75 kg.

    Fruits of the early hybrid Moldavian early ready for harvest in early August

Table: Other Early Summer Pear Varieties

Grade nameTasting

fruit assessment

Plant features
Veselinkasmall round pears,

with a slight blush, the taste is juicy,

sweet, fragrant, flesh - loose;

weight - 30-60 g, shelf life 10-14 days;

universal variety

parents: little wild Ussuri and

Forest beauty

early;

immunity to scab is increased;

the pear is self-infertile

the best pollinators -

Robin, Clapp's Favorite;

productivity - 120–150 kg / ha

Debutantelight orange with sweet acid

pulp of medium density, weight 90–110 g;

storage period 3-4 weeks;

technical grade

seedling of autumn Yakovlev;

winter hardiness - average;

enters fruiting on the 6-7th year;

pear;

partially self-fertile;

processing from scab is required;

productivity up to 240 c / ha;

Dubovskaya earlygreenish with a red blush

the fruits have an oily flesh with sourness;

weight 110 g; stored 2 weeks;

universal variety

Williams x Forest Beauty;

immunity to scab is increased;

winter hardiness is high;

partially self-fertile variety;

fruiting on the 5-6th year;

productivity - 80–110 kg / ha

Krasuliaorange red fruits

with creamy, fine-grained pulp;

weight 80–120 g; storage 10-14 days;

dessert variety

fruiting - on the 5th year;

high winter hardiness and

disease resistance;

the plant has spines;

propagated by vaccination on

Ussuri wild game;

productivity - 120 kg / ha

Early maturingmoderately sweet fruits with tender,

oily flesh, weight 80–100 g,

shelf life 2 weeks;

universal variety

Parents: Ussuri game

Citron de Carm, Bere Liguel;

winter hardiness is average;

partially self-fertile hybrid;

fruiting tree in the 5th year

after planting, occasionally

susceptible to moniliosis;

harvest from one tree - 20–35 kg

from the 3rd year of vegetation

Talitsamedium-sized fruits - up to 80 g;

light green with a sweet flesh and

citrus fruit flavor;

stored no more than 21 days;

universal variety

pollinating varieties are needed;

winter hardiness is average;

fruiting for 3-4 years;

immunity to scab is increased;

136 c / ha - average yield

Governor's (Astrakhan early)fruits - 100-120 g;

yellow with a blush;

sweet and sour flesh with a slight astringency;

storage up to two weeks;

universal variety

winter hardiness is low;

immunity is average;

fruiting for the 5th year;

additional pollination is required;

productivity - 35–40 kg from a 7-year-old tree

Summer pears, the ripe fruit ripeness of which occurs in early August, are assigned to a separate varietal group. The most common summer domestic pear varieties in domestic plots, characterized by high immunity and an enviable yield, are presented below.

  • Hybrid Early summer bred S.P. Kedrin at the beginning of the last century (Bergamot Volga and Williams). On a tall tree with a narrow pyramidal crown, medium-sized fruits (80–150 g) grow. Sweet and sour pears with yellow pulp ripen in the first decade of August, stored after harvest for up to two weeks. Productivity in an adult tree (10 years) reaches 120 kg. Scab resistance is medium. Late entry into the fruiting season (in the 9th year) is the only drawback of the variety.

    The first fruits of the Early Summer are ready for trial in late July

  • Combining the best qualities of Esperin and Gliva, Ukrainian breeders received a summer August hybrid - Mliyevskaya early. A medium-sized tree with abundant fruiting is often found in Ukraine and the south of Russia, in Latvia. In medium-sized fruits (90–150 g), the flesh is cream-colored, semi-oily, sweet. The pears of this winter-hardy hybrid are stored in a cool place for up to two months. The variety is characterized by increased immunity to bacterial cancer and is considered partially self-fertile.

    Mliyevskaya early is extremely long stored - up to 2 months

  • Tall trees of the Oryol summer will delight the gardener with the first harvest in early August. Weighty, juicy fruits (180–250 g) retain freshness for about 10 days. This pear is not demanding on climatic conditions and is successfully cultivated in the Central Black Earth Region and in the North-West of Russia. The tree is characterized by early maturity (the first pears - in the 3-4th year), but has a short period of consumption - 2-3 weeks. Yields up to 127 kg / ha, planted next to pollinating pears to increase productivity.

    Only a week preserves the taste and freshness of Oryol summer

  • Sredneroslaya Lada combines the qualitative characteristics of two varieties - Forest Beauty and Olga. The hybrid is partially self-fertile (pollinators - Rogneda, Chizhovskaya) and for 3-4 years already allows you to try the first crop. Pears (120–140 g) with friable, yellowish pulp have a weak aroma, rarely crumble, but are stored for no more than 10 days, in a cool room - up to 60 days. Immunity to diseases is average, winter hardiness is high. For the 5th year, the harvest is 140 kg / ha.

    Variety Lada is resistant to extreme environmental conditions and diseases

  • In Belarus, Ukraine and Transcaucasia, the variety Lyubimitsa Klappa is widespread with bright red fruits melting in the mouth (70–110 g) - a dessert variety and the best for fresh consumption. This is a pear hybrid, the first fruiting of which occurs in the 8th year. The harvest is ripe for harvest at the end of July – beginning of August; pears are stored for 7–10 days, as they tend to soften and lose their taste. The drought-tolerant plant and rarely exposed to low temperatures has a weak immunity and is self-infertile. Productivity up to 300 kg / ha.

    Klapp's darling - is damaged by a tinker, but remains a darling for sweetness and lack of astringency

  • Winter Michurina along with Forest Beauty is a sort of Marble pear with large (up to 200 g), orange fruits and juicy sweet, flesh melting in your mouth (dessert variety). Ripens in late August, fruiting lasts 4 weeks. Immunity is high, winter hardiness is weak; increased requirements for hydration and top dressing. The first fruiting is on the 6-7th year; the variety is partially self-fertile. From one tree collect up to 40 kg of fruit.

    Ripe Marble fruits can be tasted in late August

  • August dew is a winter-hardy and disease-resistant, early-growing, requiring additional pollination variety. Pears ripen in August, stored 10-14 days. The variety is early. Fruits with white, sour flesh (average weight - 120-150 g) are put in compotes and make jam. Productivity up to 200 kg / ha. The disadvantage of a pear hybrid is not the uniformity of the fruit.

    The best pollinator of August dew - a variety of Memory Yakovlev

  • On a tall tree, Sibiryachka cultivars grow small (40-60 g), sweet and sour, tart fruits with a mediocre taste (technical grade for processing), ripening in early August. Shelf life is 20 days. The northerner is partially self-fertile. The quick-growing variety is characterized by high winter hardiness. Productivity 160–180 kg / ha.

    Small fruits Sibiryachki used for preservation and drying

In my little garden on the sand, two pears, two plums and a cherry-spinach grow, I no longer dare to plant anything. Two years ago I got the August dew, hoping for its fertility and winter hardiness, in addition - Marble, which should pollinate the first hybrid. Bloomed plentifully, but lush "bouquets" fly around after two weeks, from ovaries there is no trace left. In these two years, the trees have grown and grown stronger. I'd like to see the harvest at least this year. My opinion is that the flowers freeze or the trees do not have enough moisture on the sandy soil (although they are regularly watered). What will happen next with the summer "promising" pears - time will tell.

Table: Other summer pear varieties

Grade nameTasting

fruit assessment

Plant features
Allegrothe fruits are pink-yellow, sweet,

the flesh is fine-grained,

weight 100–140 g, storage - 15 days; for fresh consumption and processing (universal)

hybrid of Autumn Yakovlev;

consumption period - 10 days;

winter hardiness is high;

partially self-fertile variety;

fruiting - on the 6th year;

resistant to fungal diseases;

Prominentfruits with white, dense

the flesh is sour and

fruity notes; weight - up to 150 g;

storage - 15 days;

universal variety

pollen mixture;

the grade is partially self-fertile, has

increased immunity to diseases;

early;

winter hardy;

productivity - 90 kg / ha

Gwidonsweet, semi-oily

yellow-skinned fruits weigh up to 120 g;

2-3 weeks are stored; go to processing and compote

pollen mixture;

resistance to frost is low;

rarely affected by scab;

early variety;

the best pollinators -

Chizhovskaya, In memory of Yakovlev;

productivity up to 248 kg / ha

Cathedralfruits are yellow-red, aromatic, medium density; weight 110 g;

storage of 8-12 days;

dessert variety

pollen mixture;

early;

winter hardy;

resistant to scab and rot;

matures in late August;

productivity up to 98–110 kg / ha

Bananafruits are yellow-golden, juicy with creamy pulp;

weight 80–100 g;

stored for 2 weeks;

universal variety

winter hardiness is high;

scab prophylaxis is required and

pollinating varieties;

fruiting for the 6-7th year;

harvest from one tree - 25-30 kg

Virgoflesh yellow fresh sweet with a reddish dense skin; weight 150–220 g; storage - 2 weeks;

dessert variety

fast-growing (the first fruits appear on the 4th year);

partially resistant to scab;

frost resistance is low;

partially self-fertile;

productivity 80–100 kg / ha

Krasnodar summerbrown skin, yellow flesh with acidity and moderate aroma; weight 140–160 g;

keeping time up to 15 days;

dessert variety

eat fruits - August 10–20,

resistant to scab;

winter hardiness is high;

the variety is partially self-fertile;

fruiting later

Lelfruits with suntan are sweet, with spices, weigh 70–100 g;

storage - 2-3 weeks; used in compotes and jams;

universal variety

resistant to frost;

not affected by scab and rot;

partially self-fertile;

fruiting for the 5th year;

maturity - at the end of August

Originalthe whitish-creamy pulp of the fruit is covered with a yellow peel, the taste is delicate sour; weight up to 100 g; dessert grade;

storage 10 days

eat fruits in the first half of August;

partially self-fertile;

frost resistant;

resistant to disease;

quickly deteriorates;

fruiting for the 7th year;

yield 30 kg from an adult tree

Palmyrathe skin is green, the pulp is denser-grained, sweet;

weight 60–90 g;

storage 10-14 days;

technical grade

high winter hardiness and low susceptibility to scab and rot;

additional pollination is required;

fruiting in the 3rd year;

yield 32–45 kg per pear

Память Госенченкоплоды с жёлто-красной кожицей имеют рыхлую, слабо ароматную мякоть с посредственным вкусом;

вес 50–80 г;

хранение 10 дней;

сорт универсальный

сеянец сорта Тёма;

winter hardy;

заболеваниям не подвержен;

требуется дополнительное опыление;

средняя урожайность 100–120 ц/га

Petrovskayaсочные, полумаслянистые с загаром плоды, сладкие; вес 115–135 г;

хранение 10–15 дней;

сорт десертный

скороплоден;

поспевает во 2-й декаде августа;

устойчив к болезням и низким температурам;

средняя урожайность 28 т/га

Румяная Беркутплоды с жёлто-красным оттенком и плотной мелкозернистой мякотью; вес 70–100 г;

хранение 21 день; сорт технический

сорт переносит любые морозы и устойчив к болезням; частично самоплоден;

плодообразование на 5-й год;

урожайность — 330, 0 ц/га;

Самарянкаплоды с кисло-сладкой рыхлой мякотью и жёлтой кожицей, вес 110 г;

хранение 2–3 недели;

сорт годен для переработки

Уссурийская + Любимица Клаппа;

созревает в середине августа,

плодоносит 3 недели;

частично самоплоден;

первое плодоношение на 6–7-й год;

умеренная устойчивость к болезням;

морозостойкость слабая;

Northernerсветло-жёлтые плоды с полумаслянистой

сочной мякотью без терпкости;

вес 90–110 г;

хранение 2 недели;

подходит для переработки на сок и компот;

сорт универсальный

практически бесплоден;

созревает в первой декаде августа;

winter hardy;

требуется дополнительное опыление;

устойчив к парше;

плодоношение на 5-й год;

с одного дерева собирают до 45 кг плодов

Свердловчанкажёлтые плоды с румянцем, мякоть сочная, душистая;

вес 140–180 г;

хранится 10–15 дней;

сорт десертный для свежего потребления и соков;

сорт самобесплоден;

плодоношение на 4-й год;

подходит для северных регионов;

устойчив к болезням;

урожайность — 200 ц/га

Видео: летние сорта груш

Выделяют самые вкусные позднелетние сорта груш, которые отличаются высокой урожайностью, неприхотливостью и стойкостью к грибным болезням:

  • Летняя Россошанская ранняя — результат скрещивания Россошанской красивой и Мраморной. Плоды этого универсального сорта с нежной, кремовой мякотью, тающей во рту, отлично подходят для тепловой переработки. Средний вес груш — 120–180 г. Россошанская ранняя способна храниться до 30-и дней, её плодами можно лакомиться более месяца — они не осыпаются и не портятся, но этот гибрид практически не приспособлен к заморозкам. Сорт не поражается паршой. Средняя урожайность — 130 ц/га.

    Летний гибрид Россошанская ранняя хранят до 30-и дней

  • Астраханскую раннюю грушу впервые начали культивировать в Нижневолжском регионе. Довольно крупные (до 400 г), выровненные плоды имею светло-жёлтую, крупнозернистую мякоть и лёгкий вяжущий привкус. Сорт самобесплодный, созревает в третьей декаде августа и хранится до 10-и дней. Астраханскую раннюю относят к долгожителям (плодоносит до 80-и лет) и ценят за морозостойкость. Хотя этот сильнорослый гибрид неустойчив к парше и вступает в плодоношение только на 10-й год, урожайность до 120 ц/га.

    Астраханская ранняя — груша-долгожитель

  • Августинка — объединяет сорта Румяная Беркут и Любимица Яковлева. Гибрид отличается крупными, оранжево-жёлтыми плодами (200–400 г) с нежной, маслянистой мякотью с мускатным ароматом (для свежего потребления и десертов). Лучшие опылители — Любимица Клаппа, Вильямс, Петровская, Лель. Устойчивый к грибным болезням сорт культивируют в северных регионах страны. Плодоношение на 5-й год, срок созревания — начало августа. Высокоурожайный гибрид — получают до 400 ц/га.

    Любимый сорт садоводов центральной России — Августинка

  • Позднелетняя Чижовская (Ольга + Лесная Красавица) вырастает до 4-х метров и начинает плодоносить на 3-й год; жёлто-кремовые плоды с розовинкой весят около 150 г, мякоть рыхлая, ароматная; универсальный сорт пригоден для консервации и свежего потребления. Гибрид частично самоплоден, для дополнительного опыления подходят Лада и Северянка. Груша скороплодна, урожайность — 50 кг с одного 5-летнего дерева. Зимостойкость и иммунитет к болезням высокие.

    Августовский гибрид Чижовская отличается повышенным иммунитетом к болезням

Таблица: прочие позднелетние сорта груш

Grade nameTasting rating

плодов

Особенности растения
Lyraбуроватые плоды с кремовой, сочной мякотью;

вес — 200 г;

хранение — 10 дней;

сорт универсальный

Бере зимняя Мичурина + Лесная красавица;

груше требуется дополнительное опыление;

созревает в конце августа;

early;

устойчив к парше;

неустойчив к низким температурам;

урожайность 80–100 ц/га

Оленёкплоды с жёлтой, твёрдой мякотью и приятным ароматом весят 120–150 г;

хранение 2 недели; пригодны для приготовления компотов и джемов (универсальный сорт)

смесь пыльцы;

самобесплоден (опылители — Невеличка, Сибирячка);

созревает в первой декаде сентября;

умеренно зимостойкий;

не поражается болезнями;

урожай 25–30 кг с дерева

Rognedaсветло-жёлтая мякоть плодов

кисло-сладкая с мускатным послевкусием;

вес 150–170 г;

хранение 2 месяца; идёт на сок и варенье

Тёма + Лесная красавица;

зреет в 3-й декаде августа;

early;

требуется соседство груш-опылителей;

плоды осыпаются;

устойчив к парше и гнили;

переносит заморозки до — 22 С°

Alexandraплоды жёлто-бурые, сладкие с пряностью; вес 150 г;

хранение 2 недели;

сорт десертный

смесь пыльцы;

frost resistant;

частично самоплодный;

необходима профилактика парши;

плодоношение на 6–7-й год;

средняя урожайность — 80, 5 ц/га

Bryansk beautyзолотисто-жёлтые плоды с маслянистой мякотью, душистые; вес 200–220 г;

хранение 2 недели;

сорт универсальный

плодоношение на 4–5-й год;

иммунитет средний;

частично самоплодный сорт;

зимует при температуре до — 25 С°;

урожайность 45–50 кг с 6-летнего растения

Машукплоды жёлтые с загаром, мякоть кремовая,

без привкуса; вес — 100–120 г;

срок хранения 15–20 дней; технический сорт — для переработки

Вильямс и Лесная красавица;

зимостойкость высокая;

требователен к влаге;

созревает в конце августа;

плодоношение на 7-й год;

частично самоплоден;

на 8-й год — урожай 168 ц/га

Памятнаямелкозернистая, рыхлая, сладкая мякоть покрыта зеленовато-жёлтой кожицей; вес 120–140 г;

хранение 7–10 дней; подходит для переработки и кулинарии

смесь пыльцы южных сортов;

early;

устойчивый к парше и гнили;

поспевает в конце августа;

40–60 ц/га;

Ровесницамякоть плодов кремовая, сочная, кожица — оранжевая; вес 80–100 г; хранение 2–3 недели;

сорт универсальный

иммунитет средний;

устойчив к морозам;

частично самоплодный гибрид,

первое плодоношение наступает на 4-й год;

созревает в 3-й декаде августа;

урожайность — 60–80 ц/га

Русаковскаяплоды кисло-сладкие с гранулированной мякотью; вес 60–80 г; хранение 30 дней; сорт универсальныйТёма + сеянец уссурийской груши;

устойчивость к низким температурам и парше высокая;

частично самоплоден;

склонен к осыпанию;

плодоношение на 4-й год;

урожайность — 70 ц/га;

Летние сорта груш для Центральной России

Требовательная к освещённости и теплу, груша отлично себя чувствует на территории Центрального Черноземья, в Поволжье. Большинство старых мичуринских сортов давно прижились на садовых участках Воронежской, Калужской области, на Брянщине. Здесь популярны сеянцы Бере и Мичуринские гибриды (Россошанская ранняя, Июльская и другие); современные зимостойкие груши — Лада, Чижовская, Кафедральная, Россошанская красавица; универсальные — Скороспелка, Видная.

Лучшие летние сорта груш для Северо-Запада нашей страны

Для Подмосковья и Ленинградской области подходят сорта груш с высокими показателями морозостойкости, неприхотливые, скороплодные и устойчивые к болезням. Среди большинства грушевых гибридов, отвечающих этим требованиям, выделяют известные сорта Бергамот летний, Мраморная, Видная, Августовская роса, Россошанская. Сравнительно недавно появились — Лель, Скороспелка, Дебютантка.

Летние сорта груш для южных регионов России

В Крыму, на тёплом побережье Краснодарского края, в Ростовской области выращивают все три разновидности летних груш. Видная, Оленёк, Рогнеда, Лира, Августовская роса, Аллегро созревают раньше сентября. Достаточное количество влаги и тёплый климат благотворно влияет на позднелетние сорта Чижовская, Ровесница, Брянская красавица — с каждого дерева успевают снять достойный урожай сладких, ароматных груш.

Летние сорта груш для Сибири и Урала

Для суровых погодных условий и неустойчивого влажного и морозного климата в межсезонье селекционеры вывели множество сортов груш, среди них рослая Чудесница, сладкая Кафедральная, суперранние Лель и Лада. Давно известна местным садоводам Пермячка, Северянка и Гвидон, раннеспелая Талица и розовобокая Веселинка, южноуральский сорт Красуля, старые сорта Июльская ранняя, Чижовская.

Самые известные на Украине летние сорта груш

Для тёплого, влажного климата и засушливого лета Украины отлично подходят ранние сорта Петровская, Кафедральная, Машук. Гибриды Астраханская ранняя, Оленёк, Рогнеда; технический сорт Аллегро. Также популярна мелкоплодная Веселинка и сорт Старкримсон с нежно тающей мякотью и грушевым ароматом.

Летние сорта груш для Беларуси

The most common pear hybrids in Belarus are Kudesnitsa, Rossoshanskaya, Bashkirskaya early tested for decades. Good yields are given by Chizhovskaya, Rogneda, Severyanka, which perfectly take root in the humid, temperate climate of Belarus. Fun, Prominent, Marble, Augustine, Lel - these are new varieties that promise to conquer the Belarusian land.

Features of planting pears

When choosing a site for placing a pear, it should be remembered that the tree is photophilous (the ideal option is south or southwest of the garden), does not like drafts and always reacts to a lack of moisture in the soil. It is best to plant a pear in an elevated area with a neutral or slightly acidic soil solution (pH 6.2 - 6.6) and a humus horizon of 20 cm thick, with air drainage (loose, “breathing” soil), on sandy soils with an admixture of loam and chernozem. The best time for planting a pear is the end of March - the beginning of April (in the "sleeping kidney" stage).

  1. Pits are dug with a width of 0.7 to 1.2 meters and a depth of 60 - 70 centimeters.

    A hole for planting a pear is dug up to a depth of about 70 cm

  2. The soil for filling the holes is formed from the top layer of soil mixed with rotted manure (6–8 kg), compost (7–10 kg), supplemented with mineral fertilizers per 100 g / m2 superphosphate, 1 kg of wood ash and 40 g / m2 potash salt.

    The soil mixture for filling the root space is enriched with minerals and organic

  3. The plant is placed in the planting pit so that the root neck is 3-5 cm above the soil level (due to further subsidence of the soil).

    Planting scheme of pear seedlings

  4. The roots are gently covered with the finished soil mixture and turf, shaking the root processes for a snug fit of the clods of the earth. The surface of the hole is slightly tamped.

    The root space is slightly tamped

  5. The tree is abundantly watered (20–40 L of water), the trunk circle is mulched (with straw, sawdust).

    Young seedlings of pears abundantly watered after planting

Two-year-old pear seedlings with diversified branches and a strong crown with 3-5 well-developed shoots are suitable. A developed root system with thick, moist root processes is a sign of a healthy, full-fledged plant.

In the first three years after planting, the trunk circle should be 1 m in diameter, 1.5–1.7 m in the next 6 years, and 2–2.5 m at the age of 8–10.

Video: how to plant a pear

Plant care

In early spring, the soil of the near-stem circle is loosened to a depth of 15–20 cm, then weeds are removed and weed every month until autumn. Pear care is as follows:

  1. regular watering;
  2. sanitary pruning;
  3. fertilizer application;
  4. preventive treatment of plants from fungal diseases and pests.

Watering

The depth of irrigation of the soil should be at least 80 cm. Pear is watered abundantly (15-30 buckets - depending on the age of the plant), but infrequently (once every two weeks). Maximum irrigation is required in June - July, when the fruits are poured.

Fertilizer application

Pear fertilizer is introduced in the fall into circular grooves 50 cm deep, made around the crown projection, or into the furrows. Nitrogen is fed only in the spring when digging during a period of enhanced shoot growth. Phosphorus and potassium (up to 150 g) together with organic matter (about 20-30 kg) are applied every 3-5 years - it all depends on the state of the soil.

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To increase winter hardiness and stimulate growth, a tree is treated twice in spring and autumn with a 1% urea solution. To protect the bark, the branches of the pear and trunk are whitened with lime in the water in spring.

Whitening pears - protecting a tree from fungal diseases

Pear pruning and shaping

The formation of the pear is mainly aimed at creating short shoots, as well as long branches, especially 2-3 years of age. Every spring, sanitary crown trimming is performed - damaged, dry, rotten shoots are cut with a sharp secateurs .

To reduce the growth rate of young shoots in the first year of life, they make a pinch - for this, 1-2 growth points are left, the remaining branches are removed.

The higher part of the crown always remains slimmer than the lower tier. In the process of forming too thick branches, thickening the lower part of the crown, cut out. This forms the first tier of the crown, stimulates the growth of other branches. Annual growths with the apical young bud are left on the tree, branches older than 4 years old are removed. In the middle of the crown, 2 and 3 year old branches are left, on which the fruits are formed. If the fruit set is too large, some ovaries are thinned out, this affects the quality and size of the future crop.

Pear formation: sparse-tiered (left) and freely growing (right)

To stimulate the growth of new fruit buds, the pear shoots are bent and left to grow in a horizontal position. Often undersized pear hybrids are placed on steel trellises.

Branch reinforcement

The thin fragile wood of young pears requires the formation of support, and with a plentiful harvest, the protection of the fruits from churning by the wind. To do this, use thick wooden supports 2-4 meters long, placing them at an angle to the trunk. Another method of attachment is wire. Carefully, without damaging the bark and fruits, bend the branches to the center of the trunk, securing them with a wire between themselves and the trunk.

Safe reinforcement of pear fruit branches

Harvesting

If the fruits of the pear are not collected on time, they can crumble, overripe, the taste will deteriorate, the shelf life of the fruit will be reduced. The duration of the removable period varies from 7 to 14 days.

There are distinguished removable and consumer ripeness of fruits, both in different summer varieties come from July to late August (early September). In the first case, the fruits are ready for use (by time) in connection with the maximum coloring of the skin and the achievement of the pulp of sweetness and the necessary juiciness and density. Consumer maturity occurs when a characteristic taste and aroma appears, even if the fruit has not ripened and the harvest has not arrived.

Diseases and Pests

Unlike many stone fruits, a pear does not require such intensive protection against pests and diseases. The main diseases that often affect plants are scab, bacteriosis and tinnitus. The most effective control measures are the preventive spraying of the shoots, trunk and trunk circle of the pear 2-3 times a season with modern insecticides and fungicides (strictly according to the instructions) .

Table: Pear Disease

TitlePathogenSignsControl measures
ScabFusicladium pirinum fungusOn the leaves, over time and

reddish on the fruits

tight spots

with a velvety coating, the fruits crack

and lose their taste

In the spring - 1% Bordeaux fluid, Topaz,

Fufanon;

Autumn - Topaz

Powdery mildewPodosphaera leucotrichaWhite fungal plaque on leaves and inflorescences, in which they curl up into a tube and gradually dieSpraying with Fundazole or soda ash solution (60 g per bucket of water) with the addition of liquid soap (10 g).
Moniliosis (fruit rot)fungus Monilia fructigenaThe fruits rot and crumble, especially in wet weatherSpraying with drugs Fufanon, Aktofit
Rustpathogenic fungus Gymnosporangium sabinae.Orange-brown spots appear on leaves in late spring, in the middle of summer - on fruitsIn the spring - 1% Bordeaux fluid,

Kuproksat and Bayleton preparations for irrigation of shoots and leaves

Soot fungusThe appearance of sooty black plaque on leaves and fruitsProcessing Fufanon, Fitoverm, Calypso
Black cancerCracking of the trunk and skeletal branches, followed by infection through cracks of fungal diseasesThe affected area of ​​the bark is cut off, then the cut is treated with copper sulfate and garden var

Scab (left) and moniliosis (right) affect pear fruit

With timely processing, the leaves and shoots of the pear are rehabilitated during the summer season.

Powdery mildew (left) and rust (right) infect shoots and leaves

The most common pear pests are ticks, moths, aphids, pear gall midges. Some affect foliage and shoots, others destroy the crop.

Fruits and leaves of a pear are damaged by aphids (left) and a butterfly moth (right)

Most effective for pest control:

  1. timely clean the area of ​​foliage and dry branches;
  2. spray plants with complex biological (Decis) and contact insecticides (Zolon, Karbofos, Spark)

The Russian market has a large selection of drugs aimed at pest control and eliminating the main sources of infection with pear diseases.

Reviews

From summer varieties grow: Lada, Chizhovskaya, Skorospelka from Michurinsk, Severyanka, Cathedral. From autumn: Russian beauty, Autumn Yakovleva. Recently planted and still not bearing fruit: Sverdlovchanka, Nursery. All summer varieties are poorly stored. The consumption period is 2 weeks. Lada crumbles when ripe, plant an autumn variety, they are stored longer. And it’s hard to choose to taste. Ideally, you have to go and try it yourself, and take a stalk from this tree.

Flower

I like varieties that have grit. You can put up with this. If only they were not sour, like Lukashevka (hybrids with Far Eastern wild forms). And such varieties, to taste sweet and aromatic, such as southern ones, are in the selection of Ural breeders. Now several of these varieties are in trial. Many varieties have already been fruiting. I will list all the varieties that suit us for winter hardiness, productivity, and taste. Not only Ural breeding. And those that we experience, and we like them. Maybe for lack of a better? It may well be. August dew, Yellow birch, Valentine, Century-old, Veles, Prominent, Karataevskaya, Cathedral, Krasuly, Red-sided, Kupava, Lada, Larinskaya, Lel, Early Leningrad, Lyubava, Myth, Tenderness, Otradnenskaya, In memory of Zhegalov, Perun, Permyachka, Sverdlov Severyanka, Severyanka Chelyabinsk, Severyanka red-sided, Fairytale, Somova. Siberian, Taiga, Talitsa, Chizhovskaya.

Aleksandr Kuznetsov

Just not Lada. An ugly variety, very disappointed in him. Problems: 1. The frequency of fruiting (year / year) 2. Of all that I have - the biggest defeat scabs. 3. The fruits are small, pick and eat very quickly. Just a couple of days I did not have time - it is already impossible - they become like tasteless cotton wool. 4. The taste of the fruit - so-so, for an amateur. There is NO STABILITY! I also have Chizhovsky and the Memory of Yakovlev - in all respects an order of magnitude better.

Billi boi

Favorite - Bergamot summer variety. About ten years did not bear fruit at all, and since there was a lot of land, we did not touch it. But once Bergamot gave a small crop, accidentally saw already ripe pears ... before you did not pay attention to this tree! Such a taste, aroma and juiciness of a pear I have never tried anywhere else. Voronezh region, Ertil chernozem.

ehpebitor

For the entire existence of our site, and this is more than 25 years, we tried to grow pears. Our soil is sandy, 200 km from Moscow to the southwest. The most successful pear turned out to be Summer Lada, the earliest not stored. It ripens in August. Fruits every year, often all covered with pears. We distribute, cook jam from whole pears, compote.

tak1956

I have Lada and Chizhovskaya for a long time. They bear fruit well, there are seeds in Chizhovskaya. But to lie down ... Even those who are not quite ripe in the refrigerator lie badly, the middle blackens, they become soft, nothing. But this is also an amateur. Someone likes it. If they remain on the tree, it is not measured ... And what about wintering? It is also unclear why they freeze somewhere, and where not.

arinka

Patient and caring gardeners plant not only late pear varieties on the plot, but also summer varieties. Their fruits are ready for use at the height of summer, and seedlings take root quickly and painlessly. Pears are an incomparable dessert and at the same time a dietary product. Pear juice and mashed potatoes are useful for babies, and the pulp is suitable for preparing dried fruits, preserves and jams - this quickly solves the problem of perishable summer varieties. Early ripe hybrids take root in Siberia and in the northwestern regions and manage to bear fruit until the first frost. Having made the right choice, you can grow this amazingly delicious fruit in your garden without much labor.

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