How, when and how to treat grapes from diseases and pests
Grapes are spread all over the world like no other culture. There are more than 10 thousand varieties of this wonderful plant with fragrant tasty berries, most of which are used to make wines and cognacs. In addition, grapes are used in cooking, medicine, cosmetology. Often a person himself became the cause of the death of vineyards, but the culture has always had other enemies - diseases and pests.
Why do you need to process grapes
Bacteria, fungi and pests can degrade the taste of berries, reduce, and sometimes destroy the entire long-awaited crop and even the whole plant. Preventing the disease is always easier than fighting it later. To combat diseases of grapes and harmful insects, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment of the vine. Well, and, of course, when a specific problem is discovered, urgently take measures to eliminate it.
The most harmful diseases of grapes are mildew, or downy mildew, and oidium, or real powdery mildew. This “dusty couple” of fungal diseases affects leaves, shoots, inflorescences and berries, they are especially dangerous for the sweetest European grape varieties.
Photo gallery: how plants affected by mildew and oidium look like
- mildew-affected grape has light yellow spots on top of leaves
- mildew-affected berries are covered with a white powdery coating
- oidium affects the leaves, they are covered with a gray coating, curl and dry
- oidium-affected berries crack
Fungal diseases are also such as anthracnose, various types of rot, spotting, fusarium and others. With the help of wind, spores spread over long distances, fall on the surface of plants, germinate and give rise to new spores. Stopping the onset of infection is quite difficult.
Many bacterial diseases are poorly treated and can lead to the death of a bush. The most common of these are bacterial spotting, necrosis, and cancer.
Some diseases are caused by insects that live on leaves and trunks. The most dangerous of these are aphids, phylloxera, leaf moths and spider mites. The spider mite manifests itself as red-red balls on the veins on the underside of the leaf; it inhibits the growth of young shoots very noticeably.
That is why preventive treatment of plants comes first.
Many grape varieties completely died from phylloxera (a pest introduced from North America) in the mid-19th century. So, for example, the varieties from which the famous "Madera" was made have disappeared. Now this wine is made from other varieties.Newpix.ru - a positive online magazine
When and how to spray grapes
The processing of grapes for preventive purposes is carried out regularly from the moment the grapes are opened in the spring and ends with the preparation for shelter for the winter. Spraying is not carried out in rainy weather, as well as on a bright sunny day, it is necessary to comply with the recommended concentration of solutions, well, treatment must be done on time. When using chemicals, safety precautions should be observed and the packaging of the product must be disposed of in accordance with the instructions.
Grape Processing in Spring
The first grape processing is carried out in the spring, when the temperature rises above 4-6 ° C, immediately after the opening of the vine, only before the buds begin to bloom. Previously, dry and diseased branches are removed from the plants, the last year’s leaves are removed around. Simultaneously with the vine, the soil around the rhizome is also cultivated; a weak one-percent solution of iron sulfate is used for this (a three-percent solution is most admissible). In addition to protecting against diseases and pests, iron sulfate delays the opening of buds, which will help protect plants from spring frosts, fights lichens and mosses and is a good foliar top dressing.
Video: first grape processing in spring after opening
Many do grape processing with vitriol only in autumn, and in spring they process plants with a three percent solution of copper sulfate. First of all, it is necessary to spray bushes that were sick last year.
The following treatment is carried out with fungicides (from Latin fungus “mushroom” + Latin caedo “kill” —chemical or biological substances used to combat fungal diseases) immediately after opening the eyes, when there are only 3-4 leaves on young shoots. You can add treatment of karbofos from awakened insects ().
French scientist Pierre-Marie Alexis Millardde invented Bordeaux fluid specifically for combating fungal diseases of grapes. Nowadays, it is used as a universal fungicide for other crops.Agronomu.com
If necessary, processing is repeated after 10 days.
The last spring treatment is carried out 1-2 weeks before flowering. In no case can spraying be carried out during the flowering period, extraneous odors will scare off insects and the vine will remain without pollinators.
Grape processing in the summer
Since grapes can be affected by diseases throughout the season, it is advisable to carry out treatments against fungal diseases in the summer during the ripening season. During this period, the vine can be treated with sulfur-containing drugs. Sulfur is effective only at temperatures above 18 degrees Celsius and it is the preparations with sulfur that help fight the more persistent powdery mildew.
The closer the time for picking berries, the less you want to use poisons in the struggle for the crop. During this period, with an interval of 1-2 weeks, I constantly spray plantings with a solution of potassium permanganate (5 g per 10 liters of water). I use a soda solution (2 tablespoons with a top in 10 liters of water) with the addition of 50 g of liquid soap and 5-10 drops of iodine. This composition noticeably improves the taste of berries, helps fight weeds.
Reliably included in my list of environmentally friendly means for combating diseases of different cultures, the drug Fitosporin-M universal. I use it three times a season for spraying grapes against diseases and increasing the yield. Very easy to use paste. Having made a concentrate once, I use it all season without waste of time.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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It was also noted that powdery mildew developed faster if the grapes were not watered on hot sunny days, although humidity is one of the conditions for the development of fungal diseases. Apparently, the weakening of plants from a lack of moisture in the soil contributed to the development of the disease.
Video: processing grapes from diseases during fruiting from oidium, mildew, anthracnose
Grape Processing in Autumn
In autumn, after harvesting the juicy clusters of sun berries, after leaf fall and pruning of the vine, one should proceed to the last treatment of plants from diseases and pests. This treatment will prepare the plants for winter and will enable your grape bushes to remain strong and healthy next year. This treatment is done using iron and copper sulfate (3-5%).
Video: final treatment before shelter for the winter
To get rid of fungi and mold in the fall, I bleach the trunks and branches of the vine. I dilute 1 kg of quicklime in a small amount of water and bring the solution to 10 liters.
How to handle the vine from diseases
In the fight against diseases and pests of grapes, along with the long-used iron and copper sulfate and Bordeaux liquid, many new fungicides have appeared. For their proper use, you should know that fungicides are:
- contact action;
- systemic action;
Contact fungicides are not addictive, but their effectiveness depends on the thoroughness of application, they act on the surface of the plant and are dependent on weather conditions and time of application, the first rain will wash them off, and dew will reduce the effect. They can be compared with drugs for external use.
Treatment with such fungicides can be repeated regularly. They should be used for prevention or at the very beginning of the disease. Contact fungicides include Omal, Rowright and Bordeaux.
Systemic fungicides act as if from the inside on the whole plant, the result of their use is immediately noticeable, and the rain will not wash them off. Their disadvantage is that they are addictive, they must be changed regularly, usually they are used after flowering.
Combined chemicals combine the characteristics of systemic and contact preparations, they include Shavit, Ridomil Gold, Cabrio Top. They are effective in combating mildew, oidium, all kinds of rot, black spotting.
Table: Systemic fungicides
|Captan||white rot, black rot|
|Tsinebom||white rot, black rot|
|Flaton||white rot, black rot|
|Topaz||white rot, black rot|
|Baytan||white rot, black rot|
Grape Pest Processing
The main pests that appear on grapes are aphids (phylloxera) and spider mites.
To combat aphids, the following chemicals have been developed:
- fastak, contact-gastric action on parasites;
- Fozalon, characterized by a long action;
- Actellik, valid up to 2 hours, prevents the reappearance of aphids;
- kinmix, destructive for both adults and larvae
To combat spider mites, fosalon, benzophosphate, permethrin are used.
Any pests, including the spider mite, die after being sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur (75%).
I try not to use chemicals and use alternative methods. Against aphids I use infusion of potato or tomato tops. 1.5 kg of chopped tops per 10 liters of water are taken and infused for 3-4 hours. Spraying with wood ash also helps (1 glass of ash in 5 liters of water, infused for 12 hours). The soap solution (100 g tar tar in a bucket of water) also has an effect. And from a tick I prepare an infusion of onion peel as follows: a jar (the volume depends on the required amount of infusion) is half filled with onion husk, poured with hot (60–70 ° C) water, insist for 1-2 days. After straining, I dilute with water twice and immediately use it.
Reviews of winegrowers
I do not work with Fundazole at all, and I spend one treatment with Ridomil Gold annually as a preventive. I prefer to process long before the harvest than to extinguish the burning mildew fire. And also I do not use Nitrafen. And after flowering, I prefer something more serious than any Abiga peak. For example, the treating contact Kursat. And I do not use insecticides at all, because I have neither a tick nor a leaflet. The second half of the growing season also freely walk around the vineyard without fear, and I try the berries from the bush. And from the end of flowering until the end of August, I’m not working in chemistry.Vladimir Stary Oskol, Belgorod Region
To combat rot, I use Horus and Switch.Vasily Kulakov Stary Oskol Belgorod Region
For several years I have been working with Cabrio Top, EDC. I am very pleased with the result: it acts perfectly against mildew, anthracnose, oidium and black rot. During the season, a couple of treatments are necessary, but only apply to seedlings in the school mainly, because the waiting period is 60 days. In the fruiting vineyard I try not to use at all. Although in extreme situations, even before flowering, they sometimes had to process it too ...Fursa Irina Ivanovna Krasnodar Territory
The first treatment, immediately after removal of the shelter-500 gr, LCD, 10 l, water. Also cultivate the land around the bushes. After garter of the vines, 250 g, ammonium nitrate, per 1 sq. M, water the Grapes abundantly, regardless of whether it is raw or dry. The first processing of the bushes, the size of the leaf, a coin of five cents. Ridomil Gold-50 gr, Topsin M-25g, Horus-6 gr, Bi 58 new, according to the instructions. The next treatment, after flowering, is two weeks. The same preparations + Colloidal sulfur, 60–80 g, per 10 liters of water. This scheme can be used by anyone, most importantly, to withstand deadlines and that there would be no fakes. In later grades, I apply the third treatment, Teldor, according to the instructions + potassium permanganate + soda. I do not use other drugs. Once every three years, in the fall, I process the Vineyard with Dnokom.Alexey Kosenko, Kherson region Golopristansky borough.
The vineyard is planted for many years (up to 100 years): the older the bush, the larger and sweeter the berries. Therefore, do not be lazy, do everything as expected, protect the vine from diseases and pests, and the result of your labors will be sweet juicy bunches of grapes.