How to successfully grow apricot varieties Success
Apricot has always been considered a thermophilic plant. Breeders have long worked on the cultivation of varieties that can tolerate winters and bear fruit in central Russia, Central Black Soil and the Moscow Region. Now gardeners have winter-hardy apricots that can be grown in regions where they have never done so. One of them is the Success variety.
Description apricot varieties Success
Variety Success fully lives up to its name. With insufficient snow cover, it can freeze, but quickly recovers. In the middle lane, the plant suffers more not from frost, but from its absence. Apricot has the shortest dormant period, and with prolonged thaws in February, sap flow can begin. The subsequent lowering of the temperature destroys most varieties, but Success has good winter hardiness, and the flower buds withstand prolonged freezing frost.
A small tree height (up to 3 m) simplifies caring for it, the crown does not branch much. Fruiting Success begins in the 4th year after planting. In the middle lane, the crop ripens in late August - early September, 12-15 days earlier - in the Central Black Earth region. Fruits with a short stalk literally cling to branches. They are smaller in size than the southern varieties, only 25-30 g, but have a good dessert taste. The skin is yellow-orange with a blush and velvety pubescence. The pulp is dense, weakly fibrous. The stone is rough, easily detached. The fruits are fresh and suitable for processing.
Apricot fruit. Success is small, but with good taste.
Choosing a place and planting an apricot
We choose a place for this plant protected from the winds and well lit by the sun. It is better if the site is on a hill to prevent contact of the roots with groundwater.
In the lowlands, apricot can be planted “in the hill” (a mound of fertile soil about 0.5 m high and about 2 m in diameter).
In the lowlands, apricot is planted in a specially created hill so that groundwater is not close to the roots
The compatibility of apricot with other trees should be considered. Pome seeds (apple, pear, quince) and stone fruits (cherries, cherries, plums, cherry plums) will not affect it if they grow at a distance of 4–5 m, berry bushes (raspberries, currants) should be placed far away. Apricot will not get along with a peach.
In the mid-80s of the last century, my mother planted four walnuts, of which only one sprouted. At that time, she had no idea what size the tree would be, and how it affects other plants. The seedling was transferred to the garden, closer to the fence, and an apricot planted six meters two years earlier. It soon became clear that the nut suppresses everything within its reach. And when he reached above the apricot, dramatic changes began to occur with the latter. The number of fruits began to decrease, the trunk deviated, and the branches stretched away from the nut. The apricot began to wither, dry, and had to be uprooted.
Planting is best done in early spring, before the sap flow begins. You can do this at the beginning of autumn, but in the central zone of Russia or the Moscow region seedlings will not have time to take root and mature before the onset of cold weather.
It is better to prepare the pit in the fall. Until spring, the earth will shrink, so there will be no deepening of the root neck, which is extremely undesirable for any tree.
- Apricot prefers fertile, loose soil. Heavy clay soil can be improved by adding sand and peat (1: 1: 1). The width of the pit should be 60–70 cm, depth - 70–80 cm. For drainage, pour a layer of rubble or broken brick (7–10 cm), on top of it is a hill of a mixture of garden soil and compost or rotted manure (2: 1) with the addition of complex mineral fertilizers (according to the instructions).
Drainage in the apricot landing pit is required
- About 15–20 cm from the center of the pit, we set a stake 50–60 cm high for garter seedlings.
- We examine the roots of the plant, they must be lively, elastic, light brown. Broken or damaged cut out the secateurs. For better survival before planting, we put the plant in water with a root stimulant for several hours (according to the instructions).
- We install a seedling in the center of the pit, straighten the roots and fall asleep with a part of the soil. Lightly crush it and pour two buckets of water.
The roots in the pit should be straightened
- After soaking up the remaining soil, pour it under the seedling, compact it and make the side of the hole.
- If you have a plant with a closed root system, then we take it out of the container with an earthen lump, put it in a hole, fill it with soil and water it.
- Make sure that the root neck is not deepened. From the soil surface, it should be located at a height of 3-5 cm.
The root neck cannot be deepened
- We tie the tree to the support, and mulch the earth.
In the event that you are planting several plants, then the distance between them should be 3-4 m.
Plants should be bought from trusted sellers. Nurseries offer 2–3 year old plants. The root system should be well developed, not dried out, without decay; bark - brown, shiny, without lesions.
To increase the winter hardiness of the apricot, it is grafted onto stocks of plums or cherry plum. When choosing a plant, pay attention to this.
Recently, there are many seedlings on sale with a closed root system (in the container). They cost more, but after planting they take root better. When choosing, pay attention to the state of the bark and branches. Try to gently pull the plant out of the container. If it is easily removable, then you have a regular seedling, which was placed in a container before selling. When a tree grows in a container, it will be removed with a clod of earth.
Video: how to choose a seedling
Previously, we planted apricots in forest belts, and they were harvested just like currants. Once they found a young tree with large beautiful fruits of amazing taste. The plant has already yielded a crop, therefore, he was already 6-7 years old. About two meters high and a trunk diameter of about 6-8 cm. We ventured to transplant it to the cottage. There was no certainty that the tree would take root, because when it was dug up, the roots hardly fit into the trunk of the car. They planted him in early August. Our surprise knew no bounds when in the spring the apricot blossomed. He took root, grew and bore fruit for another fifteen years, until the February thaw and subsequent freezing rain killed most of these plants in our region.
Apricot is prone to drying out, so attempts to “warm” the trunk for the winter, wrapping it with straw and burlap, do more harm than good. Another feature of this plant is that it does not shed excess ovary like an apple tree or plum. Many fruits develop, which can lead to breakage of branches and weakening of the plant. Adjust the amount of ovary with cropping.
For the first 3-4 years, the apricot will have enough nutrients added during planting. After that, once every three years it is necessary to add organic matter, well-rotted manure (4 kg / m2) or compost (5-6 kg / m2). Mineral fertilizers are added annually. In spring, nitrogen-containing fertilizing (based on 30–40 g / m2) is divided into three parts: before flowering, after it, and when the ovary is the size of a pea. Potassium salt (40-60 g / m2) is also added in three doses: during the ripening period and then with a break of a month, filling the fertilizer into shallow grooves. Superphosphate is required for apricot before flowering, after it and when the crop is harvested (25-30 g / m2).Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The lack of trace elements is judged by the state of the plant. Replenish their deficit by foliar top dressing.
Table: What trace elements are missing apricot
|Element||Signs of lack||Remedies|
|Iron||Young leaves are covered with pale spots.||It will help spraying the leaves with an iron chelate (according to the instructions) with an interval of 8-10 days until the signs of deficiency disappear.|
|Boron||Bundles of leaves appear at the ends of young shoots, growth slows down. There are fewer flowers, and brown spots can be seen in the pulp of the fruit.||2-3 times during the growing season, you should water the plant with a solution of boric acid (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).|
|Manganese||A peculiar mesh pattern or mottling appears on the leaves.||Spray with a solution of manganese sulfate: |
|Magnesium||Early yellowing and falling of leaves in the lower part of the crown, the appearance of color in the "Christmas tree".||Foliar top dressing with magnesium sulfate 20 g per 10 l of water 3-4 times with an interval of 10-12 days.|
Young plants, especially immediately after planting, need more water than adult trees. Water them once every 7-10 days, and in hot weather - after 5-7 days, followed by loosening and mulching the trunk circle. For adult trees, four waterings must be carried out per season:
- in early spring, when sap flow begins,
- during flowering,
- 2-3 weeks before harvest,
- in the middle - the end of October.
It is watered abundantly, in several stages, so that the earth is well saturated with water to a depth of 2 m.
The formation of the crown contributes not only to the beauty of the tree, but also to its health:
- When planting, shorten the top of the seedling, leaving a height of 30-50 cm.
- Next spring, three strong shoots are chosen, which make an angle of 45 ° with the trunk, the rest are cut out.
- The upper of the left branches is shortened to a length of 30–35 cm, and the other two are cut at its level. The central shoot should protrude 35–40 cm above the cut of the left side branches. It turns out the first tier.
- Next spring, long shoots are shortened by 1/3.
- The central shoot is cut off above the first tier by about 80–90 cm.
- Next spring, three branches are selected, which are staggered with the previous ones at a distance of 10-15 cm from them. It turns out the second tier. In the middle band this will be enough.
The formation of the crown in a tiered way contributes to good ventilation of the tree
In subsequent years, continuation shoots are shortened if necessary. Branches directed vertically and inward to the crown are removed. When the tree reaches a height of 3 m, the central conductor is cut to the side branch above the bud, from which a horizontal shoot will then grow. In subsequent years, only weak thinning will be needed to prevent thickening.
Sanitary pruning is carried out in spring, autumn and, as necessary, during the season . Dry, frostbitten, diseased and broken branches are removed. Anti-aging pruning is designed to maintain high yields. In a 5–6-year-old plant, shoot growth is inhibited. In autumn, several old branches are removed, on which there were no fruits, and young branches that thicken the crown or grow randomly.
If the tree is old, then the anti-aging pruning is carried out not at a time, but in several stages, and this work will stretch for 2-3 years. In the case when many branches are removed at once, the plant is greatly weakened, can die in the winter or recover for a long time.
Diseases and Pests
Apricot Success is highly resistant to disease, but in some cases it can be affected by fungal or bacterial infections. This occurs when the pruning is incorrect, cracks appear on the bark from frost, when the weather has been warm and humid for a long time or there is a diseased tree nearby. Preventive treatment of the garden in spring and autumn with Bordeaux liquid or copper-containing preparations will help minimize the risk of infection.
Table: What can an apricot get sick
|Disease||Characteristic signs||Control measures|
|Cytosporosis||Gray-brown tubercles appear on the cortex. The branches begin to dry and die.|
|Bacterial cancer||Ulcers appear on the cortex, these areas then turn brown and die. A noticeable strong release of gum.|
|Moniliosis||Leaves and young shoots brown, dry. Fruits are affected by rot.|
|Brown spotting||Brown spots appear on the leaves, they dry and fall off.||Before budding, the plants are treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid.|
|Gum detection||Appears when bark is damaged by frost, pests or plant diseases.||The damaged area is stripped to a healthy tissue. It is treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and coated with garden var.|
|Holey spotting||Small red-brown spots appear on the leaves. After 10-14 days, holes remain in their place. The development of the fruit is disrupted, they become ugly.|
Photo Gallery: Apricot Disease
- Hole spotting affects leaves and fruits
- Cameo-detection appears when bark damage
- Moniliosis leads to drying out of shoots
Great damage to apricot trees is caused by pests:
- aphid. If you notice that the leaves on the tops of the shoots began to curl, then on the back you can see small insects. They feed on plant sap. Aphids reproduce very quickly. Trees can be treated with Karbofos, Fitoverm or Fufanon (according to the instructions). During the ripening period, the use of chemicals is undesirable, so you can use proven folk remedies. For example, a solution of laundry soap. Grate one bar on a coarse grater and fill with water (10 l). After 2-3 hours, stir and spray the plants;
- leaflet is a small butterfly. Its yellowish-green caterpillars with a dark head (12-15 cm long) eat the leaves and, when pupated, curl it up with a tube. Treatment with Karbofos, Fufanon or Kemifos (according to the instructions) is carried out in the spring during budding;
- moth - medium sized butterfly. Its caterpillars are brown with dark stripes on the back, feed on buds, buds, ovaries and leaves. The plants are treated with Karbofos, Fufanon or Kemifos (according to instructions) in the spring during budding;
- codling moth is a small butterfly. Lays eggs in opened flowers. Caterpillars whitish or pinkish with a brown head feed on fruit seeds. The treatment of plants is carried out at the moment the buds appear with a solution of Chlorophos (0.2%) or Entobacterin (0.5%).
Photo gallery: pests that threaten the apricot tree
- Moth caterpillar eats buds and buds
- Butterfly leaflet does a lot of harm
- Aphids settle on the back of the leaf
Last summer, I acquired the one-year-old apricot "Success" of Tula production. It occurred to me: “As you call a yacht, it will sail.” The real success of the enterprise was not really believed, but the plant not only overwintered, but also gave a decent increase. From "science" she only knew that it was necessary to plant in a sunny place, preferably light soil without stagnation of water. I know about “Success” that it is winter-hardy, early-growing and rather self-fertile.
The taste is good, the average fruit size is 40 grams. It is practically not damaged by diseases, but before moniliosis, he, like other apricots, is powerless. Sugar is gaining beautifully with us. It goes without saying in taste it does not compare with the good southern varieties, but for the Midland is very optimal.
On an adjacent plot of about 5 years, success apricot grows. Tall, strong tree, this summer about 3 kg of fruits were collected from it, large enough and tasty. To all other advantages, it is also self-fertile.
Apricot Success and other winter-hardy varieties occupy an honorable place in the gardens of many regions where they had only dreamed of before. Knowing the features of this fruit tree, you will not make mistakes when caring for it.