How strawberries propagate: mustache, dividing a bush, growing from seeds
It is unlikely that you can find a garden plot, on which there will be at least a small garden with strawberries. But even bushes of elite varieties are gradually aging, productivity is declining, the taste of berries is deteriorating. To prevent this from happening, every 2-3 years of planting should be updated. Strawberries propagate quite easily in both vegetative and generative ways.
Mustache Strawberry Propagation
The easiest and fastest way to get a new strawberry bush, requiring the gardener minimum time and effort - propagation by lateral shoots, or mustache. This method is provided by nature itself. On the forming mustache, rosettes and roots gradually develop. When they are firmly fixed in the ground, the shoot dries out, and the new plant is separated from the mother.
Rooting a mustache - the easiest way to get new strawberry bushes of a certain variety
Thus obtained strawberry bushes fully retain varietal characteristics of the “parent”. Mustaches take root quickly enough, are formed independently, without any efforts from the gardener. The only drawback of this method is that it takes a lot of effort to form several new rosettes on a plant. Accordingly, it is impossible to get a plentiful harvest from it this season. Therefore, experienced gardeners recommend pre-determining several of the best bushes, focusing on the number, size, taste of berries, as well as the number of "horns", and use them for propagation.
New sockets on strawberry mustaches begin to form in June
As a rule, most varieties of strawberries have no problems with the formation of whiskers. On the contrary, they are formed too much. Therefore, it is better to pick off the excess ones, leaving no more than 5-7 pieces on each bush so that new sockets with a powerful root system develop. The formation of whiskers begins when the air temperature reaches 15 ºС, and daylight hours continue for at least 12 hours.
The farther from the mother bush, the smaller the "daughter" sockets
The mustache that formed in July is the best and fastest to take root. Each can develop not one, but 3-4 new outlets. But the most powerful of them are those that are closest to the mother bush. Therefore, 3–5 cm after the first or second (if you need to get a lot of seedlings), outlets with sharp scissors or a knife are cut at an angle of 40–45 ºС. All flower stalks forming on the mother bushes are immediately removed so that the plant does not waste strength on them.
Do not rush to separate new outlets from the mother plant, let the developed root system form
Cutting a mustache ahead of time is not worth it. Each previous outlet provides power to the following, and together they receive water, the necessary micro and macro elements from the mother bush.
Next, operate according to the following algorithm:
- When the roots begin to form on the selected mustache, they are attached to the ground with a piece of wire or a hairpin. This place is covered with moist fertile soil or humus. You can also dig a peat or plastic cup into the ground, dipping about a third. They are filled with special soil for seedlings. In this case, the stress that is inevitable during transplantation is minimized, because a new bush is subsequently removed from the soil along with a lump of earth, even the smallest roots do not get damaged.
Strawberry rosettes begin to take root almost without the help of a gardener, but it can help them form a powerful and developed root system.
- The future outlet is watered every 2-3 days. The soil must be constantly maintained in a slightly moist state, especially if it is hot outside. After each rain, the soil around it is gently loosened.
- After approximately 8-10 weeks, the new outlets are ready for transplantation. The optimal time for the procedure is from the end of August to the second decade of September. The exact period depends on the climate in the region. They should have a well-developed “heart”, at least 4–5 true leaves and roots 7 cm or more in length. For the procedure, choose a dry sunny day, it is best to spend it in the early morning or evening, after sunset.
Ready-to-transplant strawberry rosettes must have a well-developed root system and strong, healthy leaves
- Sockets are separated from the mother plant and transferred to a new place with a lump of earth. The whiskers are cut off about 10 cm from the main bush. It is sometimes recommended in advance, about two weeks before the procedure, to incise it in order to reduce the “dependence” of the new plant on the mother. So it will quickly adapt to get everything necessary from the soil using its own root system.
In order for strawberry outlets to successfully take root in a new place, the bed for them needs to be prepared in advance. It is also worth considering which cultures grew in the chosen place before. It is not recommended to plant strawberries after any Solanaceous and Pumpkin, raspberries, lilies and roses. But carrots, beets, radishes, any herbs and garlic are good predecessors. Onions and Legumes are also acceptable, but only if you are absolutely sure that there are no nematodes in the soil.
A place for strawberries is selected sunny, while it is advisable to provide protection against gusts of cold wind
For strawberries, a well-warmed area, even or with a slight slope, is suitable. The soil needs light, but nutritious (sandy loam, loam). Since the autumn, the garden bed has been carefully dug up; at the same time, all plant debris and weeds must be removed, as well as fertilizers. For 1 running meter, 8–10 kg of humus and 35–40 g of superphosphate are enough. And you can also use special complex fertilizers for berry crops (Agricola, Kemira-Lux, Zdraven, Rubin), provided that there is no chlorine in the composition. A few days before planting, the bed is sprinkled with a thin layer of fine sand and the soil is loosened, closing it deep. This will help protect strawberries from many pests.
Ruby is one of the specialized fertilizers for garden strawberries, it can be used to prepare beds for strawberries
If the bed with strawberries is mulched or tightened with a layer of covering material, the mustache does not have the opportunity to root. In this case, they are cut off, soaked for about a day in water at room temperature with the addition of any natural or artificial biostimulant (Kornevin, Zircon, Epin, potassium humate, succinic acid, aloe juice).
If strawberries are grown under cover material, they will not be able to root themselves on new outlets
Then they are planted on a prepared bed in a fairly light loose soil. The best option is a mixture of peat chips, ordinary garden soil and large river sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. Mustaches are planted in grooves with a depth of 2–2.5 cm, tightly, placing 100–120 pieces per 1 m².
To protect from direct sunlight over the plantings for the first 2-3 weeks, a canopy is constructed from any white covering material. As the soil dries, the substrate is moderately moistened. By the end of the growing season, most mustaches will form a developed root system, and they can be transplanted to a permanent place.
In principle, if there is enough space on the bed, you can immediately root the mustache here, avoiding the inevitable stress for the plants associated with the transplant. In this case, a developed root system is formed in new strawberry bushes, they become more resistant to drought. This is especially true for southern regions with a subtropical climate. You just need to direct the forming mustache to the desired place and fix them in this position, creating a new row. The only caveat - in this case, you will have to root second-order outlets, since the very first ones are too close to the mother plant. So that they do not interfere, taking food, they cut roots and / or leaves.
If there is enough space on the garden bed, you can skip new outlets at all, immediately forming another row
If there is a shortage of space in the garden or on the plot, which is especially important for the owners of the standard "six acres", you can get a large number of strong new bushes by planting several strawberry bushes in the near-stem circle of any fruit tree or between berry bushes. During the summer, the mustache allows you to grow in any direction. The weakest are gradually rejected, leaving no more than 6-8 pieces on each bush. The "garden" is regularly weeded, watered and gently loosened. By the fall, powerful rosettes with developed roots are formed, which later bear fruit abundantly.
Common mistakes gardeners
It would seem that there is nothing complicated in propagating strawberries with a mustache. Nevertheless, often the procedure does not give the expected results due to certain errors. The most typical of them:
- The mustache connecting the mother plant and the new outlet is cut off too early. As a result, the young bush does not have time to form a fairly developed root system, takes longer to take root in a new place (or does not take root at all), and the next year brings a smaller crop than expected. Even the very first whiskers form the beginnings of roots in June, if you are very lucky with the weather - at the end of May. They can be separated from the parent plant not earlier than after two months (preferably after two and a half).
- The number of mustaches on the bush is not controlled in any way. As a result, a lot of new outlets are formed on each mother bush, but small and underdeveloped. Firstly, it greatly weakens the main plant, which is not able to provide them with adequate nutrition. Secondly, they do not differ in viability and take much longer to take root in a new place after transplantation.
- The mustache changes from place to place several times. The roots of young outlets are still fragile, with each transplant they are inevitably damaged. Accordingly, the bush grows weaker, takes root longer, and hibernates worse.
- The procedure is carried out in the rain or in extreme heat. Wet cool weather contributes to the development of many infections, fungal spores easily penetrate through the cut. Heat greatly weakens plants, which reduces their immunity.
- New bushes are replanted in an unprepared bed. Even powerful sockets do not take root well if you choose the wrong place for planting, plant them in soil unsuitable for strawberries, and do not introduce the necessary fertilizers into the soil.
It is better not to transplant strawberry mustache several times, as the plant is under stress
Video: what time is better to propagate strawberries with a mustache
Rarely, but still there are strawberry varieties (mostly remontant) that form a mustache rather reluctantly. And breeders also bred special hybrids that do not form them in principle (Trade Union, Raymond, Snow White, Ali Baba, Veska and so on). For such strawberries, there is another vegetative propagation method that fully preserves the varietal characteristics - division of the bush.
Some strawberry varieties bred by breeding are devoid of mustaches, so the easiest way to reproduce
This method has other advantages. For example, when propagating strawberries with a mustache, it is impossible to simultaneously obtain from a single bush both a plentiful crop and high-quality seedlings. And in the case of dividing the bush, this is quite possible. New plants perfectly take root in a new place. Practice shows that no more than 10% of outlets die.
For division, only healthy and fruitful strawberry bushes are selected, marking them in advance
This method is only suitable for absolutely healthy plants with a developed root system. Selected bushes should be carefully examined for the presence of symptoms characteristic of diseases and traces of damage by pests. Planting material will “inherit” all existing problems.
It is impossible to divide strawberry bushes infected with any infection, since this problem will spread to new plants
The optimal age for division is 2–4 years. There are too few "horns" on too young bushes, and the old ones are no longer distinguished by high productivity. From one bush, depending on its size, you can get from 5 to 15 new copies. A prerequisite is the presence on each of them of a “heart” and at least a few roots.
From one adult strawberry bush, you can get a lot of new copies
The best time for the procedure is the first half of August, although you can divide the bushes throughout the growing season. At the new place, the sockets take root quickly enough, as a rule, this happens already in mid-September. Harvest, however, is not too plentiful, they give the next year. And in a year they reach the peak of fruiting. Experienced gardeners, however, are advised to wait and cut off all the flower stalks that form during the first season to allow the bush to build up a developed root system and powerful green mass.
There is nothing complicated in the procedure itself:
- The selected strawberry bush is carefully dug out of the soil. It is necessary to try to keep the earthen lump as far as possible so as not to damage the roots.
Dig a strawberry bush for dividing, trying not to damage the roots
- Dry and yellow leaves are torn off, the plant is placed in a basin with water at room temperature. For disinfection, you can add several crystals of potassium permanganate (to a pale pink color).
- When the soil settles from the roots to the bottom of the tank, you can begin to divide the bush. Whenever possible, they try to untie the roots with their hands, resorting to using a knife or scissors only as a last resort. You can’t pull too much so as not to damage the “heart”. The tool used must be sharpened and sanitized.
Strawberry bush roots are much easier to separate if you pre-soak them in water
- The roots are dried and inspected for about an hour. Those on which the slightest traces of rot, mold, as well as dark and dried cut off are noticeable. “Wounds” are sprinkled with powdered chalk, activated charcoal, wood ash or cinnamon.
- New outlets are transplanted to the selected location. To stimulate the development of the roots, each available leaf is cut off by about half.
When planting young strawberry outlets, you need to monitor so as not to deepen the "heart"
If, as a result of dividing the bush, too small, obviously unviable sockets are obtained, they can be grown. Such bushes are planted in small pots or glasses filled with a mixture of peat chips and universal soil for seedlings. Be sure to make sure that you do not deepen the "heart". Plantings are abundantly watered, the pots are transferred to the greenhouse and kept there for 4-6 weeks.
Even the smallest strawberry sockets should not be thrown away, if you grow them in a greenhouse or in a greenhouse, you get a completely viable planting material
Care for young strawberry plantings
After transplanting to a permanent place, proper care is especially important. During the first two weeks, young strawberry bushes should be protected from direct sunlight. Abundant watering is also required. Mulching will help to maintain moisture in the soil. It also saves the gardener time on weeding the beds. About a month after planting, strawberries can be fed with potassium sulfate or any complex fertilizer for berry crops and gently hush the bushes. The latter contributes to more active root formation.
Plant new "horns" in the same way as ordinary seedlings, observing the recommended distance between them
When planting between bushes and between rows, 35–40 cm is left. Humus is added to each hole, filling it about half, a handful of sifted wood ash and a teaspoon of simple superphosphate. The outlet should be located on the surface of the soil. It is impossible to fill it with earth, otherwise the bush will die.
Video: procedure for propagating strawberries by dividing the bush
Growing strawberries from seeds
Growing strawberries from seeds is a time-consuming, time-consuming method. In addition, it does not guarantee the preservation of varietal characters, therefore, it is hardly suitable for the reproduction of its rare and valuable varieties. Amateur gardeners resort to it quite rarely. Basically, professional breeders who want to develop a new variety propagate the seeds of the culture, but no one forbids trying. The method also has a significant advantage - bushes grown from seeds do not inherit diseases that infected an old plant. But it is not suitable for hybrids.
In specialized stores a fairly wide range of strawberry seeds of various varieties is presented.
Strawberry seeds can be purchased without problems in any specialized store, but many gardeners prefer to collect them on their own. They retain germination for about a year. But even when planting fresh seeds, no more than 50-60% of seedlings will sprout.
It is better to collect strawberry seeds on your own - in this case you can be sure that they will sprout well
From the strawberry bush, you need to pick a few large ripe berries and use a scalpel or razor blade to carefully cut off the upper layer of pulp with a thickness of about 2 mm from them. The resulting strips are dried in a warm place, avoiding direct sunlight, laid out on paper towels or cotton napkins. After a few days, dry pulp is rubbed with fingers, separating the seeds. Store them in paper bags, linen bags or hermetically sealed glass jars, plastic containers in a cool dry place.
Ripe large strawberries are best suited for collecting seeds.
Video: Strawberry Seed Harvesting
In order for the seedlings to appear faster (in 10–15 days instead of the usual ones for strawberries 30–45), stratification is recommended. The seeds are mixed with wet sand or peat and placed in a refrigerator for 2–2.5 months, in a special compartment for storing vegetables and fruits, where a constant temperature of 2–4 ºС is maintained. As it dries, the substrate is moderately moistened. For small-fruited strawberries, the stratification period is reduced to 1.5–2 months.
Stratification of seeds allows you to imitate the natural "winter", during which time they go through several stages of development
If there is not enough space in the refrigerator, the container with seeds can be taken out to a glazed loggia or balcony, throwing snow on top. Or dig directly into the garden on the site, pre-marking the place and tightening the container with film.
The emergence of seedlings from strawberry seeds, if we neglect the preplant planting, will have to wait a long time
Strawberry seeds are planted in the first half of February. You can use universal purchased soil for seedlings, but experienced gardeners prefer to mix the substrate on their own:
- peat crumb, vermicompost and coarse river sand (3: 1: 1);
- sheet land, sand and humus or rotted compost (2: 1: 1);
- humus and any baking powder: sand, perlite, vermiculite (5: 3).
To prevent the development of fungal diseases, sifted wood ash or crushed chalk is added to the finished soil - about a glass for every 5 liters of mixture. Then it must be disinfected, spilling boiling water or a saturated pink solution of potassium permanganate, calcining in the oven or freezing in a freezer. 7-10 days before planting seeds, the soil is soaked in a solution of Fitosporin, Trichodermin, Baikal-EM1, Actofit. Then it will need to dry well.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Potassium permanganate is one of the most common disinfectants that helps kill most pathogens.
The landing procedure itself looks like this:
- Seeds for 4-6 hours are soaked in a solution of any biostimulant in a small container or wrapped in gauze, tissue. Those that float to the surface can be thrown away immediately. They are guaranteed not to produce shoots. Some gardeners recommend hardening to enhance germination. For three days, seeds wrapped in wet gauze are kept in the refrigerator at night, and during the day - in the warmest and sunniest place in the apartment.
Soaking seeds increases their germination
- Approximately 2/3 of the wide flat containers are filled with prepared soil mixture. It needs to be well moistened and leveled, slightly condensed. A drainage layer of sand or fine expanded clay 1.5–2 cm thick is mandatory at the bottom. If there is snow, an even layer of 1-2 cm thick is poured on the surface of the soil.
- Seeds are planted in grooves with a depth of not more than 0.5 cm. 3-4 cm are left between rows. They are not sprinkled on top of them.
Strawberry seeds do not need to be covered with soil
- The container is covered with plastic wrap or glass, until emergence is kept in a dark, warm place. Plantings are daily ventilated for 5-10 minutes, moisten the substrate as it dries out from the spray gun.
A plastic film or glass helps to create the effect of a "greenhouse", but condensation often accumulates there, so the shelter needs to be removed and aired daily
- As soon as the first seedlings hatch, the shelter is removed, the container is transferred to the brightest place in the apartment, for example, on the windowsill of a window facing south, southeast. But most likely, you will need additional illumination using conventional fluorescent or special phytolamps. The required daylight hours for strawberries are 14–16 hours. The temperature after the appearance of mass seedlings is reduced from 23–25 ºС to 16–18 ºС so that the seedlings are not excessively stretched.
For the proper development of strawberry seedlings, a lot of light is needed, otherwise the seedlings will stretch excessively, the stems will be thinned
- After the formation of two true leaves, the temperature of the content is reduced to 12–15 ºС. The soil is constantly moistened as soon as the top layer dries. In no case should seedlings be poured in order not to provoke the development of the “black leg”, which can destroy crops already at this stage. But it is also undesirable to get water on the leaves, so it is better to water strawberries from a pipette, under the root. Once a week is enough. If mold appears on the surface of the soil, the soil is sprayed with a solution of any fungicide of biological origin (Planriz, Maxim, Baikal-EM1).
Planriz, like any fungicide of biological origin, is safe for seedlings, but it destroys pathogenic fungi
- After 2-3 weeks, a mixture of fine sand with peat or humus can be added under the base of the stem. But only carefully so as not to fall on the "heart". This contributes to more active root formation.
- When 3-4 true leaves appear, they pick. To make seedlings easier to extract from the ground, they must first be abundantly watered about half an hour before the procedure. They are taken out of the container along with a lump of earth, trying to damage the roots as little as possible. You need to hold them by the cotyledon leaves, in no case by the stem. After transplanting into individual containers, the plants are moderately watered.
In the process of picking, seedlings are planted in small plastic cups or peat pots
- 10-12 days after transplantation, strawberries are fed. Subsequently, this procedure is repeated every 2-3 weeks. Preference is given to phosphorus-potassium fertilizers with a low nitrogen content (Mortar, Kemira-Lux).
Kemira-Lux - one of the most common fertilizers suitable for seedlings
Video: planting strawberry seeds for seedlings
For planting in open ground strawberry seedlings, on which 5-6 true leaves have already formed, is ready in late May or early June. The soil should warm up to 12 ºС. 10-15 days before the planned procedure, seedlings begin to harden, taking to the street. The time spent in the open air is gradually extended from 1-2 to 2-14 hours.
Hardening seedlings helps plants to adapt faster to new living conditions after planting
The procedure for planting seedlings in the ground and preparing the beds is no different from the one described above. Further care is like an adult strawberry. The first, not too plentiful crop, from seedlings can be expected the next season after planting in a permanent place.
For planting in the soil suitable strawberry seedlings aged 2–2.5 months
Video: proper planting of strawberry seedlings in the ground
I like transplanting strawberry mustaches in cups more: transplanting without disturbing the root system. But I live in beds and I can water on time. And one more thing: it will be good if, about a week before the transplant, the outlet is cut off from the mother bush. This will stimulate the development of their own roots.Irinaa
A strawberry bush has taken root if it has grown enough roots. It is not difficult to check: if the roots are small, the outlet can be easily pulled out of the ground (soil in a glass). If it holds (can withstand a slight twitch), then the roots have grown and can be cut off from the mother liquor. Yes, the leaves can fade, it is natural, it takes time to switch the power from the main bush to its own roots. Abundant watering and shading will help the outlet recover.Alay
Even strawberries cut off from the bush without roots must take root if they are lowered into the water.Pavel summer resident
This year, the best strawberry mustache was planted, and the rest, just in case, was lowered into a basin of water and brought into the house. A week later there was such a "beard" from the roots has grown, charm!IrinaVolga63
The first time I planted strawberries with seeds five years ago. I hadn’t read the forums then, and I didn’t like whistling with seeds, but everything had sprouted and bore fruit. Large-fruited strawberries overwinter not very, but I didn’t cover it in any way. I’m not planting small-fruited ones anymore - I didn’t like it. Every year I plant several seeds in transparent cake boxes. I put a layer of hydrogel on top of the usual purchased land, spread the seeds on top with a toothpick. Then I put it on the refrigerator for 10 days (not “in”, but “on”). It is warm and does not interfere. When they ascend - to the windowsill. You need to have patience and not touch it until it becomes at least 1 cm wide. I water it with a sprayer. For the third or fourth year, it degenerates, and one must either plant a mustache from the one you like, or seed again. Yes, she gives a mustache mainly in the first year.Lenamall
There is a simple and effective way to germinate strawberry seeds. Take a plastic container with a transparent lid, peat tablets, pour over water. When the tablets are swollen, a seed is on top. They closed the lid and in the sun. It is advisable to soak the seeds in the biostimulator before planting. Most of the repairing varieties “work” for no more than two years. It is also possible to propagate large-fruited strawberries with seeds. But then, as a young Michurinist, breeding, choosing successful options, since pollination affects the genetics of the seed and not always for the better. From the seed, in addition to the repairing small-fruited varieties, a little new variety will always be obtained from pollination.Mig 33
It has sown strawberry seeds more than once, a good berry grows, especially the repair varieties. I always sow on a peat tablet, on the surface. I lay out the tablets in a food container or in any one, just to be with a transparent lid. I soak them well with water, spread the seeds, cover and cover for 2-3 weeks in the fridge in the vegetable basket. Sowing spend in January-February. Then I expose to a bright place, I do not open the lid before germination. How to sprout, periodically ventilate, water only in a container, the tablets from the bottom absorb water. In January, it sowed a repairless beardless strawberry, and already in August of that year the first berries were eaten.Diana
Strawberry seeds need to be sown on disinfected soil covered with a layer of snow (if it is not there, then you can scrape it in the freezer). Cover the sowing container with glass or a bag and refrigerate for a week. Air out. Then put in a bright warm place. Shoots appear unevenly over a period of three weeks.Julia2705
The sowing period for strawberry seeds is the first decade of February. When shoots appear (no more than 50% of the number of seeds) and when they give 2-3 leaves, seedlings need to be dived, and dived twice. Otherwise, by the beginning of planting in the ground, it will simply outgrow.Cege
Different varieties of strawberries were grown from seeds repeatedly. The most important nuance - do not sprinkle seeds, cover it with earth - you will not see seedlings. Sprinkled seeds on moist soil, covered with cellophane, and forgotten for two weeks. Hatching seedlings were pipetted so as not to break. Then picking and landing in the ground, like almost any seedlings.Leksa
I propagate strawberries with rosettes. Seedlings can be bought or obtained on their plants, grown on the shoots of uterine bushes. The best sockets are close to the mother bush. It is necessary to leave no more than three outlets on one shoot. And on one uterine plant there should be five shoots. As soon as rosettes appear, I fix them in moist soil. You can put the sockets immediately in small pots, deepening them in the ground. It is not recommended to grow rosettes and berries immediately on the uterine plants, so the first flowers need to be removed. From the bushes of the second year, the best seedlings are obtained.Elena2010
When dividing a strawberry bush, you must carefully cut or chop it with a shovel, you can use the drug for rooting. If your bush does not give a mustache, then most likely you have a variety that must be propagated by dividing the bush. Do not be afraid - this is the normal way for bezusnyh varieties. You can try seed propagation, but this is risky - there could be a pollination of flowers.Zosia
It happens that up to 5-6 rosettes are formed on a strawberry bush. But it is advisable not to bring to such a state and seated by division earlier. I have a remontant strawberry, which also propagates by dividing the bush. Gently cut the bush with a knife and root.N_at_a
I dig a strawberry bush. Then I lower it into a container of water. It lies there until the bulk of the earth at the roots falls to the bottom of the tank. After that, I take one outlet with my hand and gently shake the bush. The roots themselves are released without clipping.Guis
Regular and timely updating of beds with strawberries is the key to an annual plentiful harvest. In the procedure itself there is nothing complicated, even an aspiring gardener can carry it out. The specific method is selected based on personal preferences, as well as the type of strawberries and the type of bush. If everything is done correctly, new plants quickly take root and begin to bear fruit.