How to properly conduct spring dressing of garlic
Garlic is not a whimsical and moody culture. Among gardeners and gardeners there is even an opinion that it can grow completely independently, without any additional care - just stick the cloves into the ground in time. Grow, it will grow, but the crop is unlikely to please. In order for garlic heads to be large and tasty, it is necessary to provide the plant with proper nutrition. At the same time, top dressing should be done correctly, with exact observance of all dosages and with mandatory consideration for the compatibility of fertilizers applied.
The basic rules for feeding garlic
Garlic undergoes several successive stages of growth and development during the growing season. On each of them, starting from the very first days after planting and ending with the complete formation of heads, he needs certain nutrients and microelements. Based on these needs, the rules of fertilizing the culture are formed, as well as the selection of specific types of fertilizers that must be applied at the right time and in the required quantity. Particular importance is attached to spring dressing, since it is during this period that the foundation is laid for obtaining a future abundant crop.
Young shoots of garlic must be fertilized
It was also noted by our grandmothers that good top dressing of garlic and onions with various organics contribute to the formation of large and strong heads.
Number of spring dressings
According to the method of planting, garlic is divided into two varieties:
- winter - planted in late autumn before winter and begins to grow with the first sunshine, ripens early and is not stored for very long;
- spring - planting material is embedded in the soil in the spring, when it is already warm enough, the crop is harvested later and it is stored well throughout the winter.
Regardless of the type and timing of ripening, you need to fertilize all the garlic. Winter varieties must be fed for the first time in the fall, so it is planted on a prepared and well-fertilized garden. But this procedure does not replace the need to nourish the culture in the spring, when it especially needs strength for active growth after a long winter.
In order for plants to develop better, they need to be fed on time
Spring top dressing of winter garlic is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Approximately 7–10 days after the melting of the snow cover. The first seedlings are already appearing and the plant needs nutrition for the development of the root system. For this, nitrogen-containing substances are used. Most often this time falls on the end of March or the beginning of April. Exact dates are determined by local climatic conditions.
- About 15–20 days later, when the vegetable is actively increasing its green mass, it is fed with mineral fertilizers, which are used in various complex formulations. The procedure must be carried out no later than the second or third decade of May.
- The last top dressing is required for the culture during the formation and growth of the bulbs, when the feather is already large and dense. It is imperative to do this on time. Too early fertilizer application will provoke increased growth of tops, belated dressing will not bring any benefit. It is not recommended to use nitrogen, since its excess will inhibit the formation of heads and cause further development of foliage. It is better to use mineral fertilizers (superphosphate). The appeared flower arrows should be previously removed. The deadline for this event is no later than mid-June.
All summer residents know that you need to break off the arrows of garlic, otherwise the heads will be small. The author of this article, for years of ignorance, threw ragged green stems into compost. But this should never be done. Garlic shooters are an excellent seasoning for meat and chicken, they can be freshly added to various green salads. This aromatic and spicy seasoning is perfectly stored frozen. If you can’t use all the greens at once, then you can make preparations for the winter.
They try to combine garlic top dressing with watering
Spring garlic supplements are somewhat different in terms of timing, since it is planted in the soil much later and, accordingly, begins to grow more slowly.
The very first step to get a good harvest is the proper preparation of the place for planting the crop. About a month before the expected date, various organic matter (mullein, humus, etc.) is brought into the ground.
Spring garlic is fed with the same fertilizers as winter
In the future, summer garlic is fertilized as follows:
- After the first 3-4 feathers appear on young plants, when they grow up to 5-7 cm in height, the first spring dressing is carried out. Use the same compounds as for winter culture.
- After about two weeks, the garlic plantings are fertilized a second time.
- When the foliage finally grows and the onion begins to set, the vegetable crop is fed for the third time with the help of mineral complexes. This procedure usually takes place at the end of June or the beginning of July.
Living in harsh Siberian conditions, we never harbor winter garlic. There was no case that something happened to him. As soon as the snow melts, then its green fragrant sprouts immediately appear. There is not a single green blade of grass in the garden yet, but it is already growing. One year, for some family reasons, they forgot to plant it on time and the cloves were already being buried literally in the frozen ground. Despite everything, he successfully wintered and gave a harvest. The only thing is that the onions were not very large.
Video: the first spring top dressing of winter garlic
Foliar top dressing
In addition to the usual root dressings, it is extremely useful to spray fertilizers with the aerial green mass of the vegetable. This event is carried out in cases when it is urgent to bring certain nutrients or microelements to the plant. Foliar top dressing on the leaves is extremely effective, since the culture in this case is able to absorb the introduced components very quickly.
For this, the same compositions are used as for the conventional method. But in order to avoid burns on the leaves, the concentration of the working solution should be much lower. The procedure is carried out in the early morning before sunrise or in the evening after sunset. It is allowed to process plants on a cloudy, but not rainy day. Usually 2-3 times is enough during the vegetative period. Culture responds best to such care during the period of the most active development.
With foliar top dressing, nutrients are absorbed faster by the plant.
Foliar top dressing does not in any way replace the traditional method, but only complement it. Therefore, refusing to irrigate garlic with fertilizers under the root is not worth it, otherwise you can not wait for a good harvest.
What to use for spring dressing of garlic
Fertilizing garlic does not require the use of specialized products. The culture will suit traditional mineral and organic compounds. They can be used both in combination and separately. The time for carrying out such procedures should be chosen carefully, because the culture does not like excessive moisture and can rot from excess moisture. It is recommended to combine the watering of garlic plantings with top dressing. Fertilizers are applied according to the scheme, alternating mineral complexes and organics.
After the nutrient solution is absorbed into the soil, the aisles must be loosened.
After feeding the aisle, it is necessary to loosen
When cultivating onion crops, simple and complex mineral fertilizers are used. In stores, you can find complex formulations that contain several components. The use of such substances is more justified in the industrial method of growing garlic in areas with a large area. But summer residents also use minerals when there is no way to use organic fertilizing.
At the very beginning of the growing season, when leaves are actively growing, garlic needs nitrogen. Urea (urea) or ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) are used as highly concentrated nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
Urea is a high nitrogen fertilizer
Minerals are diluted with water in the following proportions:
- carbamide - 10-12 g, water - 10 l;
- ammonium nitrate - 8-10 g, urea - 6-7 g, water - 10 l;
- ammonium nitrate - 18–20 g, water –10 l.
You can use any of the solutions. The approximate consumption of the working staff is 1 bucket per 5 m2 of landings. It should be remembered that ammonium nitrate should be handled with caution, since this substance is very hot under sunlight. Fire may occur if diluted ammonium nitrate gets on sawdust, peat or dry straw.
Use ammonium nitrate carefully
During the formation and aging of heads, garlic needs elements such as potassium and phosphorus. For secondary feeding, complex fertilizers are taken: nitroammophoskos, nitrophoskos or potassium salt. They are bred as follows:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- potassium salt - 18–20 g, 10 l of water;
- nitrophoska - 30–35 g, 10 l of water;
- nitroammophosk - 60 g, 10 l of water (consumption - 10 l per 2 m2).
Potassium salt is rich in potassium
At subsequent stages, it is advised to use simple phosphoric fertilizers (superphosphate, double superphosphate, etc.). granules are dissolved in water in the following ratio:
- superphosphate - 30–35 g, water - 10 l;
- double superphosphate - 30–35 g, potassium sulfate - 40–45 g, water - 10 l (consumption - 4–5 l per 1 m2).
Superphosphate is a versatile and very common fertilizer
Other complex preparations have also proven their effectiveness:
- Kemira Wagon;
- Fertika et al.
Garlic can be fertilized with other mineral fertilizers, for example, Fertica
All fertilizers must be applied strictly according to the instructions that are attached to the package.
Do not get too carried away with top dressing, since an excess of fertilizers is also harmful and will not have a positive effect on the development and growth of garlic bulbs. Always consider the quality of the soil on which the crop grows. Depleted and poor soils must be supplemented with mineral compounds throughout the growing season. Minerals should be added to rich and loose soil only during the active growth of plants.
Fertilizers designed specifically for onions and garlic can be found on sale.
Experienced vegetable growers are advised to pay attention to the appearance and condition of the vegetable. Pale foliage and yellowing of the tips of the feathers may indicate a deficiency of trace elements. But this phenomenon can also be caused by bacterial infections or attacks by insect pests.
On our site, the land is quite loose and oily. We try not to use chemical mineral compounds without urgent need and usually get along with natural organics. We dig the garlic and onion beds with a good humus, and then mulch the emerged shoots with peat, humus or even freshly cut lawn grass. The lawn has to be cut often, sometimes twice a week, so grass is always abundant. Under the sun's rays on the bed, it dries very quickly and after a few days turns into dust.
Video: spring dressing of garlic with inorganic fertilizers
Natural organic fertilizers are widely used by gardeners and gardeners to feed garlic. It is believed that these substances are safe for human health, because as a result of their use in the pulp of the fruit does not accumulate a large number of dangerous nitrates. Particularly active organic is used by rural and rural residents, who have constant access to it. The most popular organic top dressings are:
- chicken droppings;
- wood ash;
- common salt;
Among summer residents, liquid organic fertilizers are most popular.
Cow dung, or mullein, has a high nitrogen content, which is especially necessary for plants at an early stage of development. But fresh manure cannot be used, as it can burn young shoots. He must be given a good ferment.
The technology for preparing the working solution is as follows:
- fresh manure is placed in a tank and poured with water in a ratio of 1: 5;
- the container is tightly closed with a lid or covered with a plastic film and bandaged with a rope;
- leave for fermentation for at least two weeks;
- the fermented composition is diluted with water in a proportion of 1:10 and watered the beds with garlic (bucket per 1 m2).
Mullein must be insisted for two weeks
Do not allow the working solution to get on the leaves, watering should be done as carefully as possible.
To avoid burns on the leaves of plants, fresh chicken droppings are not used. It is recommended to mix with peat or compost and add during the autumn digging of the site (the amount should not exceed 50 g per 1 m2). The litter is rich in nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, it increases the resistance of plants to various diseases, stimulates their growth, and also restores the acidity and microflora of the soil.
Chicken droppings are often used to fertilize garlic.
For spring dressing, a freshly diluted infusion of chicken fertilizer is used. Pour 1 kg of droppings into a separate container and pour 15 liters of water. After thorough mixing with this composition, the garlic beds are watered at the rate of 10 l per 5 m2.
At the end of the procedure, it is necessary to wash off the solution with leaves from the leaves with water, otherwise traces of burns may remain.
Ash contains a very large amount of nutrients and microelements that plants need for normal development and growth: potassium, phosphorus, cobalt, copper, manganese, boron, molybdenum, etc. Garlic does not grow well on soils with high acidity, and wood ash can lower it .
Wood ash for feeding garlic can be used in different ways.
Ash fertilizers can be applied in several ways:
- Liquid root top dressing. In 1 bucket of water, pour 1 cup of sifted wood ash, mix well, then water the planting;
- Foliar spraying. 0.3 kg of ash is poured into 1 liter of water, boiled for half an hour, then filtered. The solution is diluted with water, bringing the volume to 10 liters. For better adhesion, a little grated laundry soap (50 g) is diluted in the composition and plants are sprayed.
- In dry form. Between the rows of garlic make shallow grooves into which ash is poured. Then sprinkled with earth.
- Dusting. The bushes are sprinkled with crushed and sifted ash to repel pests.
Ash can simply be scattered between the rows
Ash has alkaline properties, so it should not be added to soils with an increased alkaline reaction. It can not be applied simultaneously with nitrogen-containing fertilizers, as a chemical reaction (neutralization) occurs.
Everyone remembers from the school chemistry course that sodium chloride (sodium chloride) contains sodium and chlorine. These elements in moderation are also beneficial for onion crops. In a bucket of water pour 3 tbsp. l salt, then mixed and poured under the plants, 2.5-3 liters of saline are enough per 1 m2. Sodium chloride is not only a good spring dressing, but also a means to combat the secretive hunter, aphids and onion flies. An effective aqueous solution of salt is also with yellowing and drying the tips of garlic feathers.
A solution of salt is watered planting garlic
One small packet (100 g) of raw yeast is diluted in a bucket of slightly warm water, insisted for a day and then filtered through cheesecloth. The resulting solution is watered garlic planting at the rate of 10 liters per 3 m2. Some summer residents use a more complex composition:
- yeast (dry or wet) - 10 g;
- granulated sugar - 5–6 tbsp. l .;
- wood ash - 500 g;
- chicken litter - 500 g.
Yeast contains nitrogen, which is very necessary for garlic in the initial stages of development
The composition is allowed to wander for 2-3 hours, then bred in a ratio of 1:10 and watered the beds. Yeast compensates for nitrogen deficiency and stimulates root formation.
Ammonia contains nitrogen, which is necessary for the growth of green mass. It is used as foliar top dressing. To do this, add 25 ml of alcohol to 10 liters of water, then garlic tops are sprayed with the solution. Ammonia is used to control some insect pests (wireworm, aphid, onion fly, etc.). In order for the composition to stay longer on the leaves, a bar of finely grated ordinary laundry soap is bred in it. It is better to take hot water, so the soap dissolves faster. Landings are treated approximately once a week.
Ammonia not only fertilizes garlic, but also repels pests from planting insects
Video: how to feed garlic in spring
A spicy vegetable is sure to please a good harvest, subject to all the simple rules for caring for this crop. Spring feeding is an essential part of agricultural technology, because it is during this period that the plant accumulates all the necessary substances for laying large heads. Timely and competent application of fertilizers will allow you to successfully grow a crop even on not the most fertile soils.