How to propagate raspberries: seeds, cuttings, layering, dividing the bush
Raspberries are susceptible to many diseases, including those of viral origin. In cases where the signs of the disease are hardly noticeable, the propagation of raspberries using various parts of infected plants will lead to the spread of the disease. If you decide to plant a new variety in your country house, it is better to buy a seedling grown in a special nursery. By purchasing planting material from other summer residents, you risk not only getting an infected plant, but also ruining those bushes that you already have. If you decide to propagate raspberries yourself, carefully read our recommendations in this article.
How raspberries breed
There are many ways to propagate raspberries: seeds, cuttings, layering, dividing the bush ... You can use several methods and choose which one suits you best. To plant a large area with raspberries, one bush is enough. For propagation, a plant that has been growing for 2-3 years is suitable.
As planting material, any parts of the plant can be used.
Raspberry seed propagation
Hardest to grow raspberries from seeds. This method is used by breeders to produce new varieties.
This is done as follows:
- Collect as much as ripe large berries from well-bearing bushes and carefully crush them with your fingers at the bottom of the saucepan. The resulting mass is washed several times in water. Suitable seeds for propagation will be at the bottom. The pulp is drained and the precipitate is filtered through a sieve.
- To seed well sprouted, you need to prepare them. Seeds for a day are left in a glass of water. After that, they are mixed with wet sand and laid out in cloth bags, which are stored for 3 months in the refrigerator or in the basement in boxes filled with moistened moss. Moss is sprayed with water every 2 weeks.
- In March, seeds and sand are sown in boxes with soil to a depth of 5 mm. They are sprinkled with sand on top. To create a greenhouse effect, crops are covered with glass. Boxes should be in a room with a temperature of 20–22 ° С. Humidify the earth 2-3 times a week. It is impossible for the boxes to stand in the sun, this can lead to overheating of crops. As a rule, only half of the seeds germinate.
- When several real leaves appear on the seedlings, they begin to temper. This is done so that the plants are accustomed to temperature extremes and direct sunlight. Unhardened seedlings are likely to die. In warm weather, boxes with raspberry seedlings are exposed on the street. For the first time, just hold them in the fresh air for 1 hour. Further, the time spent by the seedlings on the street is increased by 1 hour daily. After a week, the boxes are exposed for the whole day.
- Hardened seedlings are planted on open ground when warm weather sets in (usually in mid-May). This should be done in the morning. Dig holes 10-15 cm deep, put seedlings there together with a lump of earth, and sprinkle with soil on top so that the roots are completely in the ground. Seedlings are well watered and covered with a film overnight for a month. After 2-3 weeks, it will be noticeable that raspberry bushes began to grow (new leaves will appear).
The method of propagating raspberries with seeds is the most time-consuming
The first raspberry crop grown in this way, you get in 2-3 years.
Video: raspberry seed propagation
Propagation of raspberries by cuttings
Propagation by cuttings is the most popular method among gardeners and gardeners. It is simple and allows you to get strong plants with a developed root system. There are several ways to propagate by cuttings.
Propagation by woody cuttings
- In the fall, after the leaves fall, use pruning shears to cut the raspberries. Woody stems divide into cuttings 25-30 cm in length.
- Store the prepared material in wet sand in the cellar, after wrapping the cuttings in paper and cloth.
- In February, the lower section is renewed and soaked in water for 12 hours. To begin to grow roots, cuttings are placed in water with honey. Dissolve 1 teaspoon in 1 liter of cold or warm water. honey. The process of root formation will be noticeable in a month.
- When the roots grow to 1 cm, transplant the cuttings into plastic bottles with earth. Make deep, wide pits, carefully place raspberry stalks in it and cover it with sand. Moisturize the soil regularly. Please note that with excessive watering the cuttings can rot.
- After 3 weeks, roots will form, and leaves will already appear on the stems.
- In May, rooted cuttings are planted in pits to a depth of 20–25 cm.
Such plants begin to bear fruit in the second year.
Propagation by green cuttings
- Cuttings are harvested in early summer from raspberry bushes, which has been growing for 2-3 years. Separate the green shoots at ground level and divide them into pieces 7-10 cm long.
- Immerse the prepared material for 12 hours in the root growth stimulator Kornevin: dilute 1 tsp. powder in 1 liter of water. Use only freshly prepared solution.
- Plant cuttings in loose soil. The distance between plants should be 10-15 cm. Cover the bed with a film.
- Seedlings require regular watering.
- 2 weeks after planting the cuttings do top dressing. Use mullein as an organic fertilizer. To do this, dilute a liter jar of slurry in 10 liters of water. This amount of fertilizer is enough to water 2 m2 of land with seedlings.
- Transplant young plants to a place of constant growth in 1.5–2 months. To transplant a seedling, dig it along with a lump of earth.
Cuttings for propagation are harvested in early summer from raspberry bushes aged 2-3 years
On a young raspberry bush, the crop will appear in the second year.
Video: propagation of raspberries with green cuttings
Propagation by root cuttings
In spring, when transplanting to another site, the roots of the bushes are shortened. This is done so that the plant takes root in a new place. Pruning stimulates the growth of lateral roots, resulting in the formation of a powerful rhizome.
To make raspberry roots branched, they are shortened before transplanting
Cut roots with a thickness of more than 2 mm and a length of 10-15 cm with several lateral branches are suitable for propagation.
- Take peat and sand in equal proportions, mix and fill the boxes with the mixture, the depth of which should be at least 20 cm.
- Make grooves up to 5 cm deep.
- At the bottom, put the selected trimmings of the roots and carefully cover with soil. Put the boxes in the greenhouse or cover with foil.
- Plant young plants at the end of May when the weather is warm.
You can plant root cuttings immediately in the ground at a summer cottage. Expect seedlings 2-3 weeks later.
- Make grooves with a depth of 5 cm, put the cuttings on the bottom and pour plenty of water.
- Cover the bed with foil to preserve heat and moisture.
- When the plants grow, remove the film.
Young raspberry bushes will begin to produce crops in 2-3 years.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
Video: Raspberry propagation by root cuttings
Propagation of raspberries layering
In autumn, the tops of some long and thin stems lean toward the ground and take root. In spring, such shoots are separated by secateurs from the main plant and transplanted together with a lump of earth.
To get the apical layers, proceed as follows:
- In May, they select a flexible thin shoot and pinch its top so that the lateral roots develop.
- A plot of land intended to form a layering is loosened. The topsoil up to 15 cm deep is mixed with peat and sand. For this, 1 bucket of peat and sand is taken per 1 m2 of land.
- Make a furrow 10 cm deep and tilt the stem so that the upper part of the shoot (10-15 cm from the top) touches the ground.
- The top is fixed with a wire clip at the bottom of the groove.
- The hole is covered with soil and watered.
- In September, the stem of the uterine plant is separated by secateurs at a distance of 30 cm from the young plant.
- After the leaves fall, the remainder of the maternal shoot is cut off.
- Cut off the tops of the layers to stimulate the growth of side shoots.
- Layers are dug out with a lump of earth and transplanted to a permanent place.
After 2 years, the bush will begin to bear fruit.
Propagation of raspberries with horizontal layering:
- In May, they dig out furrows to the sides of the main bush. The depth of the groove should be 10 cm. Sand is poured into the bottom.
- Green stems are laid on the bottom of the grooves and fixed with metal staples.
- The lower and lateral branches are cut with a secateurs.
- Top shoots sprinkled with earth. The tops of the layers are cut off so that the lateral buds develop.
- For better formation of the root system of layers, pour Kornevin solution. To do this, 5 g of powder is diluted in 5 l of water. Repeated watering with a growth stimulator is carried out after 3 weeks. By autumn, roots form in places of contact with the ground.
- In autumn, a new plant is separated from the main one and planted together with a lump of soil.
New plants begin to bear fruit in the second year.
Video: raspberry propagation by horizontal layering
Propagation by root offspring
Raspberry propagates very well by root offspring. Young shoots grow from the roots of the mother bush, which at the end of the vegetative period have their own root system.
- In the fall, with a shovel, separate the young plant from the main bush.
- Dig up with a lump of earth, trying not to damage the roots.
- Dig a hole of sufficient depth to fit a lump of land with the plant.
- Add soil to the pit, compact the ground and water well.
In autumn, the young plant is separated from the main bush
Transplanted plants yield in the second year.
Video: Raspberry propagation by root offspring
Scottish raspberry propagation method
This method is recognized as one of the most effective and allows you to get a large number of seedlings.
- In spring, peat, humus, sawdust are introduced into the soil around the bush (per 1 m2 of soil - 1 bucket of a mixture of peat, sand and sawdust taken in equal proportions). This leads to the formation of a large number of buds on the rhizomes of raspberry bushes.
- In autumn, the roots are divided into cuttings and placed in the basement until spring. They are stacked in bundles, wrapped in cloth and stored in wet sand.
- In March, cuttings are buried in a mixture of peat and sand in equal proportions and watered abundantly. After 2 weeks, a large number of green shoots appear.
- Sprouts along with part of the rhizome are planted in boxes.
- New plants take root very quickly. After a week, the seedlings are transplanted into pots. To do this, you need to prepare the soil in the following proportions: for 3 parts of turf, 1 part of peat and sand. Superphosphate and dolomite flour are added at the rate of 5 g and 50 g, respectively, per 100 l of soil.
- A month later, the seedlings are ready for planting in the open ground.
You will pick up the first crop from new raspberry bushes in 2 years.
Propagation of raspberries by dividing the bush
Raspberries begin to grow immediately after the snow melts. Therefore, already in March, you can plant it by dividing the bush into several parts.
- The stems are shortened to 20 cm to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots.
- Dig a bush along with the roots. The earth is carefully shaken off.
- Separate the bush with the help of secateurs in such a way that in each separated part there are 2-3 large stems.
- They dig holes 30–40 cm deep. The soil is mixed with peat and sand in the ratio of 3 parts of the earth, 1 part of peat, 1 part of sand.
- Plants are placed in pits, covered with a prepared mixture and watered abundantly.
The very next year, planted raspberries will begin to produce crops.
Raspberries are well propagated by any parts of the plant: roots, shoots, layering. If you have few bushes, then propagation by root cuttings or the Scottish method will allow you to plant a large area in 2 years. When transplanting raspberries to a new place, it is more convenient to use the method of dividing the bush. To raspberries brought a large number of large and tasty berries, it is recommended to transplant the bushes to another area every 5-7 years.