How to propagate grapes: techniques available to any summer resident
To plant grapes on a site, it is easiest to buy a ready-made seedling; there is no shortage of them in our time. But where do seedlings come from in the market, how are they grown, from what? After all, having minimal gardening experience, it is very simple to grow a seedling of grapes yourself, at home.
The main methods of propagation of grapes
Grapes, like almost all shrubs, can propagate both by seeds and vegetative methods. Seed propagation at home is not used, since it is much more difficult to propagate by cuttings or layering. In addition, it is difficult to predict in advance what kind of variety will grow from seeds, so seed propagation is used mainly in breeding work.
In most cases, winegrowers practice growing grape seedlings from cuttings. Somewhat less often, propagation of various kinds by layering, that is, by digging up the vine, and grafting onto already planted adult bushes of grapes of another, frost and disease resistant variety, is performed. During vegetative propagation, the new plant transfers all the properties of the bush from which the stalk, a long piece of vine, or even a single bud for grafting was taken.
Propagation of grapes by cuttings: a method available to a beginner
The most commonly used method of propagation of grapes is the harvesting of lignified cuttings and their rooting. It is so easy to perform that it can be recommended to a beginner winegrower. True, simple - does not mean "by itself", you have to work hard, and a lot. First you need to get somewhere or buy cuttings of your choice and start this interesting process.
Cuttings are harvested, as a rule, during the autumn pruning of grapes or a little earlier - when the leaves have already ceased to be pure green, that is, the vegetation is nearing completion, and the shoots are ripe and lignified as far as they can. It is impossible to leave cuttings for spring: it is not known what will happen to the winter weather, how successfully the bushes will survive the frosts.
When sending for storage cuttings do not forget to sign
The best quality cuttings are obtained from the middle part of the vine: the top is usually not quite ripe, and the bottom of the little strong buds. A fully ripened vine with some bending cracks, but does not break. Cuttings are cut "with a margin", that is, with 5-6 eyes, despite the fact that they will be required to be half as long directly for growing in the spring. It is better if their diameter is not less than 5 mm, and the shoot from which they are cut has grown over the summer to at least one and a half meter length.
In most cases, cuttings will be needed only at the end of winter, and before that time they must be properly stored. You can keep them in the refrigerator, if there is a place, but it is more convenient in the cellar. The best temperature is about +1 ° C. Before being sent to the cellar, the cuttings are soaked for 1-2 hours in a 1% solution of iron sulfate and a day in clean water. Store in plastic bags, leaving only the top outside. In winter, integrity is checked and, if necessary, washed or only wiped from detected mold. In case of drying - soak.
Planting cuttings immediately in open ground
In the warmest regions, you can plant lignified cuttings directly in the garden. Sometimes they are planted even immediately after the autumn harvest, only slightly insulated with dry leaves or spruce branches. If you plant cuttings in good soil, they take root easily and begin to grow with the onset of spring heat. To do this, cuttings with 3-4 buds in the autumn are buried almost completely in the ground, leaving only one bud above the ground. But until spring, this kidney is also covered with earth. Often, to save heat and moisture, the resulting mound is covered with a plastic film, and in the spring a hole is made in it for the growth of a young shoot. When it becomes warm and the stalk begins to throw out leaves and begins to grow, the film is removed, and the mound is raked.
More often, cuttings are planted in the garden in the spring. In the central regions, the probability of success of such breeding is low, and in the south in March, when the earth warms up to 10–12 ° C, cuttings are planted in the same way as in autumn, though after serious preparation. First, cuttings removed from the cellar are decontaminated, then both ends are cut and soaked for several days in clean water.
Then, in the lower part, an oblique cut is made just below the kidney, and the top is cut directly, 2-3 cm above the upper kidney. Put them in a jar, pour water 4–5 cm high and keep in a warm place until the roots root out. Water is periodically changed and added to keep the level constant. If the water temperature in the bank is from 25 to 30 ° C, and in the zone of the tops of the cuttings 5-7 degrees lower, after three weeks white tubercles will appear on the cuttings at the surface of the water.
Roots are not allowed to grow, and if the weather allows, cuttings with root buds are planted deep in the garden. In this option, it makes no sense to make cuttings short: you can plant them with 6 buds, the roots will be stronger. With an inclined landing in the spring, two buds are left above the ground. Water well and keep the soil moist. If frosts are still possible, cover with non-woven materials.
It is better to plant cuttings in the garden with small roots
At first, the cuttings will grow roots, but the leaves will bloom almost immediately. And by the time the weather is completely warm, the shoots (one or two, you do not need to leave more, even if they appear), will quickly grow. By autumn, a good seedling will grow from the cuttings. If the handle was planted immediately in place, in well-fertilized soil and a previously dug planting hole, you can leave the plant here. But usually he is transplanted to a permanent place, having prepared a hole in advance according to all the rules.
Growing seedlings from cuttings at home
As a rule, especially in the climatic conditions of the middle zone, grapes from cuttings begin to be grown at home. They do this in different substrates, and very often wet sawdust is used instead of garden soil. Generally speaking, there are a lot of options for growing seedlings from cuttings, everyone chooses for himself the most, in his opinion, simple. Work begins in February. Cuttings are unpacked, disinfected, washed and checked to see if they have wintered well.
On the handle, the bark is slightly scraped off. If he is alive and able to give life to a new plant, there will be a green fabric under the bark. Another color does not guarantee success: the stem has not overwintered.
Chubuki are cut from good cuttings: this is the name traditionally called cuttings with three buds. We will not introduce unnecessary terms, let them remain cuttings in our country, especially since in case of good buds, two are enough for reproduction. If you leave more than three kidneys, you will have to put whole buckets at home, this is not necessary.
Upper and lower sections are made, as already mentioned: the lower one is oblique, the upper one is straight and put the cuttings for 2-3 days in a bath with water (preferably snow). In principle, well-soaked cuttings can be planted immediately in prepared containers with a substrate. They will probably grow there. But for safety, they often act differently:
- Around the lower kidney are applied a few shallow longitudinal scratches “for seed”.
Scratch with any sharp tool.
- The top of the handle is covered with garden varnish or plasticine.
- Put the cuttings in a liter jar, where a layer of about 5 cm is poured boiled water and two tablets of activated charcoal are put.
- They put a jar near the heating battery so that the water is warm (not higher than 30 ° C), and the tops of the cuttings are in a cooler zone.
- Maintain the water level, sometimes it is completely changed.
Roots will appear at the water / air border
- If everything went as it should, after about a month they plant cuttings with the resulting roots (up to 3 cm long) in pots.
The most convenient as pots are plastic one and a half liter bottles with a cut narrowed top. Only in the bottom do you need to make several holes to remove excess water and place drainage from small pebbles or coarse sand. A mixture of river sand and good garden soil (1: 1) is considered to be the best soil, but some lovers do with sawdust, only they must first be doused with boiling water. The continuation of the work looks like this:
- Pour the substrate into the bottles so that the stalk, placed on it with roots, rises above the container with one kidney.
- Carefully fill up the substrate, without breaking yet very delicate roots. If there are three kidneys, the middle one is left at the soil / air interface. If two, the top should be about 1 cm above the surface.
- If the leaves have not yet blossomed, cover the planting with plastic bags.
- Place containers on the illuminated windowsill at room temperature.
- Periodically watered, but in moderation: waterlogging does more harm than temporary overdrying of the soil.
- A few days later, when the leaves obviously grow, put a jar of water at their level and gradually accustom the cuttings to be without a bag.
- If the window is north, after expanding the leaves add lighting: arrange a luminescent lamp or phytolamp over the grapes.
- After a month, they feed the cuttings with Novofert or Azofoska according to the instructions.
- Closer to summer, hardening is carried out, bringing future seedlings to the balcony. From mid-May they can already be completely settled on the balcony.
Do not be afraid if the shoots do not grow long: the main thing is powerful roots
It is worth saying that the first part of the described works (germination in water before the formation of cuttings) is not mandatory, many lovers plant cuttings in a container with a substrate and without roots, growing them there. This option, on the one hand, is simpler, on the other more difficult: it is necessary to more strictly monitor the humidity, light and temperature conditions. In addition, there are grape varieties that give poor roots, and for them such a number will not work.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Video: germination of cuttings in sawdust
Propagation of grapes with green cuttings
Growing seedlings from green cuttings is possible for most shrub plants, it is also used for grapes. On the one hand, this is a simpler procedure: it is performed in the summer, and there is no need to start a house with banks, and storage of cuttings in the cellar in winter is also not required. On the other hand, it is possible to grow a seedling from a green stem only if you have a good greenhouse in which you have to maintain high and constant air humidity for a long time. Therefore, such breeding is more suitable for industrial nursery farms, where there is special equipment for creating artificial fog in a confined space. The algorithm of actions is as follows:
- Prepare a bed in the greenhouse. A layer of clean sand 4–6 cm thick is poured on top of well-fertilized soil.
- A fogging plant with a spray is placed over the bed for intermittent supply of finely atomized water.
- In the early summer, during flowering, cuttings from young green shoots are cut in the morning hours. The best cuttings are with two nodes (it is still difficult to call them kidneys), from the central part of the shoot.
- Cuttings are placed in containers with water. If it is not possible to plant immediately, keep in a cool place.
- Make straight cuts with a sharp razor, respectively above and below the nodes.
- The bottom sheet is cut off completely, the top half. Again, the cuttings are soaked for some time in water.
Shank should be with two internodes, but only one leaf
- Cuttings are planted in a greenhouse according to the scheme 10 x 10 cm shallow: the maximum immersion in sand is 3 cm.
- With the help of the installation, constant short-term launches of fog are carried out, stopping the process only at night.
- Loosely soil.
- As rooting, the frequency of fogging is gradually reduced.
Thus, the essence of this technique is that the planted cuttings are constantly in conditions of high humidity (about 80%, and in the heat - up to 100%) and air temperature from 20 to 30 ° C. Then, after a month and a half, they grow good roots and shoots up to 30 cm long, after which the cuttings harden, and then transplanted to the school. Obviously, in ordinary summer cottages, propagation of grapes with green cuttings is extremely difficult, but enthusiasts try, and some succeed.
Video: sprouting green cuttings at home
Propagation of grapes by digging a vine
Many shrubs are propagated by layering, that is, by digging in one way or another branches (shoots). This option is possible in the case of grapes, and with a successful outcome in one summer, you can get several new grape plants. In this way, hard-rooted varieties are usually tried to propagate. Since future seedlings, in fact, feed on the roots of the mother bush, they develop well and form a powerful own root system.
Dropping a lignified shoot
This is usually done in early spring, before the start of the growing season. Choose conveniently located powerful last year's shoots. In the right place they dig a rather deep, up to half a meter, ditch, extending from the bush to the place where they are going to dig the vine. Naturally, directly at the bush it should not be deep so as not to damage the roots. In the ditch, at the very bottom, pour soil well fertilized with humus and superphosphate and lay the shoot. It must be bent carefully so as not to break, and you can attach it to the bottom of the ditch with a piece of bent thick wire or simply crush it with a heavy stone.
It’s not difficult to spread the vine, but it must be done carefully so as not to break
Where there will be a new bush, the vine is carefully bent, brought out and tied to a stake. Remove all eyes located from the mother bush up to the place of this bend. Many experts at the very beginning of the shoot, near the mother bush, pull it tightly with wire, so that later in the year it would be easier to separate a new plant. The ditch is gradually covered with soil and well watered. As a rule, good roots grow in a tucked place over the year, and next spring a new plant is separated from the mother.
Dripping a green shoot
In the summer, in June or July, you can dig powerfully grown green shoots of this year. Do this in the same way, bringing to the surface the top of the shoot with two or three leaves. If the shoot is very long, it can be tipped with a "sinusoid", leading to the surface several times. All parts remaining underground must be attached to the bottom of the ditch with studs.
If the soil does not allow drying out in summer, for well-rooted varieties by the next spring you can even get several new bushes in this way.
Performing "Chinese" layering
Chinese are called layering, performed by completely laying the lignified shoot in the ground. This is the case for the most poorly rooted varieties. For laying in early spring, choose a long shoot located at the very base of the bush. They dig it all the way into a ditch with a depth of no more than 20 cm. Also in fertilized soil, also pinning it to the bottom of the ditch. But the ditch is not completely filled up: the soil layer above the vine is first made no more than 5 cm. And only as new shoots emerge from the buds and grow grow gradually the soil is added to the ditch. All the time keep prikop in a wet state.
Usually new shoots grow from each buried kidney; in autumn, carefully dig up the vine and cut it into several new plants. However, in order for this to happen, one has to sacrifice part of the crop, reduce the load on the mother bush. It is necessary to break out in the summer not only extra clusters, but also all stepsons and part of the young shoots.
Video: laying green vines in the ground
Grape propagation by grafting
Like most fruit trees, grapes can be grafted. Vaccination is no more complicated than, for example, in the case of the apple tree, but not all varieties are compatible, and success in each case is not guaranteed. Therefore, it is advisable to study literature before the operation, to look at what adult bushes one or another variety can be planted. If you did not find such information, you can only experiment.
Grafting is just as common as grafting
In the case of grapes, all known methods of grafting are used (splitting, copulation, budding, etc.), but the number of options is even greater. Inoculate both last year's cuttings, and chopped from the shoots of the current year. Both in the standard or last year’s escape, and in the current year’s escape. Therefore, the terminology is applied correspondingly: “black to black”, “black to green”, etc. There is even a desktop, winter vaccination.
So, for example, the “black to black” vaccination is performed in the spring, when the active vegetation has not yet begun. Scion are cuttings cut in the fall and stored in the cold. For such an inoculation, the buds on the cuttings should be slightly swollen. It is performed by methods of replication. Pick the cuttings that are suitable in thickness to the shoot of the rootstock, soak, perform oblique sections on the handle and rootstock, connect and firmly tie the place of grafting. When new shoots on the cuttings grow to 25-30 cm, pinch them.
In the case of the “black to green” vaccination, last year's cuttings with awakening buds are grafted onto young powerful green shoots of the current year. Such vaccination is usually performed in a “split” manner. It is possible throughout the entire growing season, while it is possible to preserve lignified cuttings harvested in the autumn in the cellar.
Grafting of the old bush is also possible when the upper soil layer is excavated in early spring; grafted cuttings under the ground, usually by "split". They make it at a depth of about 15 cm. The stem is completely buried with earth.
Video: grape grafting in shtamb
Budding, that is, a kidney vaccination, is carried out on a green vine in June or July. As on fruit trees, it is possible to implant a kidney into the shoot for the bark by making various incisions: T-shaped, longitudinal, into the crevice, etc. The grafting site is wrapped very well with a film, and after a month the kidney takes root well.
A detailed description of grape grafting methods is beyond the scope of this article, but it is quite affordable. Having read and trained a little, any gardener who has minimal skills in caring for trees and shrubs will be able to plant grapes.
Grapes are a liana, but, in fact, it is very similar to many fruit bushes, and its propagation methods are generally the same as, for example, currants. The goal - obtaining a new seedling - can be achieved by known methods: germinating cuttings, layering, grafting. Performing all these operations is accessible to one degree or another even to a beginner, and if at first it’s scary, you just have to try.