How much cabbage is good and different: all possible types in one article

If we are talking about cabbage, then first of all we imagine a traditional white-cabbage culture. It is this kind that has for many centuries occupied an honorable place on the beds and on our dining table. Quite often gardeners grow cauliflower and Beijing cabbage, less often broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kohlrabi. Does the list include the main varieties of vegetables? Let's try to bridge the gaps in our vegetable and gastronomic knowledge and talk about different cabbage.

General description of cabbage and its place in the plant classification system

Cabbage is a common and common vegetable that was grown, consumed, used for medicinal purposes in the Ancient World. It belongs to the family of cabbage plants, which includes not only annual and perennial herbs, but even shrub and semi-shrub forms. The composition of the family is estimated in hundreds of genera and thousands of species. Among the closest relatives of cabbage are turnips, rutabaga, mustard, rapeseed, horseradish, turnip and many others. All cabbage plants have a rooted root system, simple leaves. Their flowers are collected in inflorescences, and the fruit is a pod.

The genus Cabbage has more than 50 species. Wild forms of plants are common in the Mediterranean, Central Europe, Central and East Asia. In America they are not: there are cultivated varieties brought from Europe.

Varieties of cabbage

13 types of cabbage are cultivated in the Russian Federation. This is evidenced by the State Register of selection achievements allowed for use on the territory of the Russian Federation. Each species is divided into different varieties. In Russia, mainly cabbage forms are common, but gradually other varieties are becoming more popular.

The most common type is white cabbage

White cabbage is the most familiar, popular and widely available variety of culture in our latitudes. Its prevalence is evidenced by the large number of varieties represented in the State Register - more than 400. All of them have the main characteristic feature - a round and large fruit, which is formed from leaves in the center of the rosette.

Due to its composition, a white-headed beauty with regular use helps to prevent diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, heart, normalizes sleep

The color of a fork of white cabbage ranges from almost white to dark green. The vegetable is rich in B vitamins, carotene, ascorbic acid, fructose, fiber, potassium, calcium and a number of other useful elements. Varieties vary in maturity, almost all tolerate low temperatures, but are demanding on nutrient and soil moisture.

White cabbage is universal in use. It can be eaten raw, stewed, cooked, baked, fermented, pickled. There are traditional dishes that cannot be cooked without cabbage - cabbage soup and borscht. Later varieties are perfectly stored, which allows to extend the consumption of fresh, nutritious vegetables.

When consumed fresh, white cabbage is an excellent source of ascorbic acid, and this makes the vegetable a wonderful way to combat winter vitamin deficiency

Fresh juice from white cabbage promotes the healing of wounds of the stomach and duodenum, as it contains antiulcer vitamin U.

Red cabbage

Red cabbage is the closest relative of white cabbage and differs from it only in color. The plug has a red-violet color, both outside and inside. Only the veins and the head of the head are painted white. Cabbage has such an unusual color due to a special pigment - cyanidine.

Red cabbage was bred by breeders of Western Europe in the 16th century. It came to Russia in the 17th century under the name “blue cabbage”.

For pigment formation, the vegetable needs good illumination. In the shade, the leaves lose their color, forks are poorly formed. In addition to illumination, red cabbage makes high demands on the nutrition and moisture of the soil. But the culture tolerates low temperatures well.

Red cabbage has very dense heads of cabbage, which are perfectly stored until spring.

More than 40 varieties of this species are registered in the State Register of Breeding Achievements. They differ in maturity (from early to late), productivity, shade of leaf color. Red cabbage is used primarily in fresh form for the preparation of vitamin salads. This variety has certain disadvantages:

  • coarser leaves compared with white;
  • unappetizing, brown-gray appearance after heat treatment.

But there are many more positive qualities:

  • it is stored for a long time,
  • does not lose its attractive color when pickling and pickling;
  • regular consumption of red cabbage normalizes the pressure and acidity of the stomach, strengthens the walls of blood vessels, improves metabolism;
  • red cabbage is much richer than white cabbage in the amount of vitamin C (almost 2 times), carotene (almost 4 times).

When pickling red cabbage, you can use bay leaf, black pepper, cloves and even cinnamon, which interestingly complements the taste and aroma of the vegetable

Savoy beauty

If white cabbage is often called a lady in the cabbage family, then the Savoy gardeners were called the aristocrat. Her almost perfectly round head has a corrugated dark green wrap of curly bubble leaves with white veins. It is unusually beautiful, therefore it is often used not only to obtain forks, but also to decorate a personal plot.

Because of their corrugation, the heads of Savoy cabbage are quite loose, have a small weight.

Savoy cabbage has long taken root in European gardens, but has not yet earned well-deserved popularity in Russia

Savoy cabbage is grown in the same way as white cabbage. It is frost-resistant, not afraid of drought. It should be noted that corrugated cabbage leaves are not very fond of pests.

Selectively remove the heads of cabbage early varieties of Savoy cabbage begin in July, and later in October

In addition to its attractive appearance, Savoy cabbage has a rich composition, which makes it indispensable in the diet. The taste of leaves and head of cabbage is very delicate, slightly sweet. The culture is great for making cabbage soup, salads, pies with cabbage. Because of its friability, the head of vegetable is easily disassembled, so it’s easy to cook cabbage rolls in the leaves of Savoy cabbage, they are tender and juicy.

Savoy has very delicate leaves, which makes excellent cabbage rolls

Brussels sprouts

This variety can be called the rarest cabbage in our gardens. It is quite exotic: on a long stalk miniature bright green heads of cabbage 4-5 cm in size are formed. Up to 40 buds can ripen on one plant.

The stem of Brussels sprouts up to 60 cm high is covered with mini cabbage heads the size of a walnut

The culture is distinguished by a long growing season. Even with early sowing of seeds, the crop ripens no earlier than the end of September. Ideal conditions for Brussels are long, non-hot summers and moderate humidity. This variety of cabbage has some growing characteristics:

  • it cannot be spudded, since the largest heads of cabbage are tied to the ground, below the stem;
  • plants of tall varieties need support;
  • Brussels sprouts cannot tolerate thickened plantings;
  • so that the buds grow larger, pinch the top of the plant and cut off the leaves.

The most delicious are the cabbage brussel cabbage, which are still closed, but have already reached the desired size

Despite the late ripeness, Brussels sprouts have a lot of advantages:

  • frost resistance;
  • undemanding care;
  • content of much more amino acids and vitamins than white cabbage;
  • excellent preservation;
  • universality in use. Bassets are put in salads, they can be fried, added to soups, stewed, frozen.

Brussels sprouts have a spicy nutty flavor, which is explained by the content of mustard oils in it.

Decorative views - garden decoration

Green, yellow, white, purple with a variety of shades and a combination of colors decorative cabbage - a worthy decoration of the most sophisticated flower beds. This variety of cabbage is used for autumn decoration of the site, when most of the flowers have already ended the growing season.

An interesting feature is the fact that autumn frosts do not destroy plants, but make them brighter and more expressive.

The State Register of Selection Achievements includes 12 varieties of this plant with a description of not only decorative properties, but also nutritional value. It turns out that salads can be prepared from ornamental cabbage, its leaves are pickled and frozen. They taste a bit bitter, have a rough structure, but are extremely rich in useful substances. For example, selenium - an element that regulates the activity of the immune system. In the greenery of ornamental cabbage, it is three times more than in other species.

Fresh leaves of this culture can be had all winter. To do this, it’s enough to dig a plant bush in the fall and transplant it into a large tank. Decorative cabbage will decorate your room and its fresh greens will always be at hand.

Photo gallery: decorative cabbage on personal plots

Propagation of decorative cabbage - this spectacular two-year-old plant is carried out by seeds, which can be purchased on the market or in a specialized store

Ornamental cabbage grows well in large flowerpots or pots

For transplanting, decorative cabbage is dug up with a lump of earth and transferred to a new place

Ornamental cabbage - a cold-resistant plant, does not suffer from spring-autumn temperature extremes

Experienced gardeners recommend planting seedlings of decorative cabbage first on inconspicuous beds and then move to a flower bed only when the flower reaches its maximum beauty

Ornamental cabbage easily creates beautiful hanging and vertical flower beds

Using various shrubs, perennials and decorative cabbage, you can create various amazing compositions

Decorative cabbage is not afraid of cold, the plant will delight the eye even at –10 ⁰С, while only enhancing the color intensity

Kohlrabi

The name of this variety of cabbage consists of two German words: koil - cabbage and ribe - turnip. Her stembled is really somewhat reminiscent of a turnip. The plant itself is compact, consists of a root, a thickened stem and a small number of elongated and upward-directed leaves. The state registry of selection achievements recommends about 30 varieties of vegetables for growing in the Russian Federation. They differ in maturity (from early to late ripening), fruit mass (from 0.3 to 3 kg), skin color (from white to dark purple).

Among kohlrabi there are varieties with green, yellow, snow-white and purple color

Kohlrabi, like other varieties of cabbage, is grown by sowing seeds in the ground or through seedlings. She does not make special requirements for care, with the exception of the breathability of the soil. Only in loose soil do tender and juicy stem-beers ripen, but if they are not removed on time, then the flesh can become coarser and become fibrous.

Kohlrabi will grow in soils of any composition, except acidic and depleted, on which the stems will grow coarse-fibered and hard

To taste, the vegetable resembles a stalk of white cabbage, but without bitterness. The stempled contains a number of vitamins, a lot of potassium and calcium, fructose and glucose. This type of cabbage is recommended for diabetics. It is universal in use. Delicious mashed soups are prepared from kohlrabi, the fruit can be stuffed, pickled, added to salads. Stebleplod is perfectly stored in a dry and cool room.

Video: what is the best to eat kohlrabi

Kale

In Russia, 6 varieties of fodder cabbage are grown, but only one is registered in the State Register of Selection Achievements - Milestone. This plant, consisting of a powerful and succulent stem, which can reach a height of 2 m and large, ovate-elongated leaves. Their color may simply be green or have a purple hue.

Due to the powerful root system, cabbage can tolerate short drought

The feed value of this variety of cabbage is very high: it exceeds in nutrition all fodder root crops and corn, can be equated to an oatmeal mixture. The culture is in demand in various sectors of livestock: cattle, pigs, chickens and ducks eat it with pleasure.

The vegetable is unpretentious in cultivation, tolerates frosts well. It can be stopped by heat and excessive dryness of the soil. The main growth of the crop occurs in the fall, and given that an adult plant can easily tolerate frosts of -10 degrees, it can be harvested in November, that is, long-term consumption of green feed by livestock can be prolonged.

The crop yield is very high - up to 800 kg per hundred square meters.

Greens or vegetables - species similar to grass

Having seen some varieties of cabbage, you can take them for grass. The unusual form gives only an external difference with the usual heads of cabbage, and all the "cabbage" features are also characteristic of such original species.

Chinese cabbage

This variety of culture does not form a head or root crop. It looks more like a salad than a traditional cabbage. The state registry of selection achievements distinguishes it as a separate species and recommends 17 different varieties for growing. Chinese cabbage (or Pak Choy) is a vegetable crop consisting of elongated oval, bright green leaves on thick petioles.

Puck choi is cleaned throughout the season, until frost

The main advantage of Chinese cabbage is early maturity. Its early varieties have a very short growing season: just a month after planting, the leaves and petioles of the plant can be eaten. In this case, the vegetable does not have special requirements for soil fertility and temperature conditions.

Chinese cabbage can be grown and give a good harvest when planted at home.

Another important cultural advantage is utility. It contains a huge list of vitamins, trace elements such as phosphorus, iron, potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium. Chinese cabbage is especially valuable in containing a large amount of lysine, which helps cleanse the blood. In China, this vegetable is considered a source of longevity.

Chinese cabbage greens are not stored for a long time, so it is better to use it immediately for cooking

The leaves of the Chinese woman will be tender, juicy and extremely tasty if they are removed on time without yellowing. Leaves no longer than 25-30 cm are considered ideal for collection. They are used in borscht, salads, and are excellent for making cabbage rolls. Petioles of cabbage, which make up almost half of the vegetable, are also consumed.

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Fancy Kale

Kale does not head out. Its beautiful, carved and long leaves can be of varying degrees of curliness and various colors - from green to dark purple. Plant height depends on the variety and ranges from 30 to 90 cm.

This variety of cabbage is grown for various purposes. Someone decorates their plot with it - after all, the decorative properties of kale are also noted in the State Register of Selection Achievements. This species has high nutritional qualities. Cabbage leaves are added to salads, they can be stewed with meat, used as a side dish, salt, pickled, baked, made from them filling for pies. Especially tasty are the young leaves of the plant. Petioles and central veins of an adult vegetable become coarse and fibrous.

Two varieties of kale are listed in the State Register:

  • Redbor;

    Redbor - late-ripening, superb quality kale hybrid with curly, dark purple leaves

  • Reflex.

    Reflex kale is distinguished by openwork gray-green leaves, which have a low susceptibility to yellowing

Popular varieties include red and green feces. All varieties of kale tolerate lower temperatures - plants do not die even at -15 degrees. After exposure to frost, the leaves become sweeter and more aromatic.

Cabbage leaves go well with onions, tomatoes, dill, parsley

Exotic japanese cabbage

Japanese cabbage is distributed in its homeland as well as ours. This is a leaf-type cabbage; it does not form inflorescences. Its corrugated or smooth leaves have torn edges, strongly dissected. Outwardly, the plant does not look like cabbage at all, but judging by how quickly the main cabbage pest, the cruciferous flea, finds it, there is no doubt that the spreading leaf bush presented below belongs to the cabbage family.

Even a beginner gardener can grow Japanese cabbage, as it is unpretentious, heat and cold resistant

Japanese cabbage is a rare guest in our beds. But she deserves the attention of gardeners and its decorative, and usefulness. Culture refers to dietary products recommended for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Так как растение имеет ранние сроки созревания, то его можно активно применять при весеннем авитаминозе.

Урожай японской капусты можно собирать несколько раз за сезон. После срезки у неё довольно быстро отрастают новые листья.

Японку можно добавлять в салаты, тушить с другими овощами, использовать при приготовлении супов. Её необычные листья могут служить основой и украшением бутербродов.

Пекинская капуста

Пекинская капуста похожа одновременно на капусту и салат. Её сочные листья с неровными краями образуют розетку, в центре которой формируется удлинённый, конусовидный, рыхлый кочан. Нежные части листьев чаще всего окрашены в светло-зелёный цвет, а донце розетки и прожилки — белые.

Не так давно появилась краснокочанная пекинская капуста с листьями пурпурного цвета. Товарный вид этого сорта необычен и уникален.

Обычно вес кочана пекинской капусты колеблется в пределах 1 кг

Свою популярность пекинка завоевала скороспелостью и полезностью. Выращивать её совсем несложно, главное — вовремя провести посев и соблюдать правила ухода за растением. Культура остро реагирует на долготу дня. При позднем весеннем посеве, бедности грунта и недостатке влаги она может выпустить стрелку.

Пекинская капуста идеально подходит для выращивания в теплицах и в открытом грунте, а хлопот доставляет не больше своей белокочанной родственницы

Пекинская капуста богата разнообразными витаминами, в ней особенно высоко содержание аскорбиновой кислоты и каротина. Вкус пекинки очень деликатный, он сочетает в себе вкус салата и капусты. У овоща сочные, хрустящие, упругие листья, которые отлично подходят для приготовления первых и вторых блюд, салатов, их можно мариновать, солить и даже сушить.

Видео: пекинская капуста и её польза

Соцветие вместо кочана

Брокколи, цветная капуста — название знакомы каждому. В чём-то они похожи, но есть и различия.

Цветная капуста

Цветную капусту по популярности можно поставить на второе место после белокочанной. У неё толстый разветвлённый стебель, вокруг которого формируются плотные многочисленные соцветия. Чаще всего они имеют белый или желтовато-кремовый оттенок. В последнее время выведено много новых сортов, имеющих разную окраску: розовую, фиолетовую и даже оранжевую.

В наше время цветная капуста широко распространна и возделывается на территории всей Европы, в Южной и Северной Америке, Китае и Японии

Госреестр селекционных достижений рекомендует для выращивания более 150 сортов этой разновидности. Среди предлагаемого разнообразия можно подобрать сорта, подходящие по срокам созревания, урожайности и особенностям ухода. При выращивании цветной капусты необходимо учитывать следующие нюансы:

  • растение любит плодородную почву;
  • головки капусты следует притенять. При попадании прямых солнечных лучей соцветия могут получить ожоги, что приведёт к появлению бурых пятен;
  • капуста морозостойка, но при температуре ниже +10 градусов не завязывает соцветия;
  • растение плохо переносит жару и засуху;
  • передержанные на грядках головки становятся рыхлыми и невкусными.

Цветная капуста богата белком, калием, кальцием, железом, фосфором, рядом витаминов. Она известна своей гипоаллергенностью и диетическими качествами, поэтому рекомендована даже для первого прикорма грудничков. В кулинарии цветную капусту используют как самостоятельное блюдо, так и в сочетании с другими овощами. Её можно жарить, варить, запекать, мариновать, замораживать и даже солить.

Румяную, ароматную, хрустящую снаружи и нежную внутри жареную цветную капусту в сырной панировке невозможно не полюбить!

При приготовлении блюд из цветной капусты следует учитывать, что при долгой тепловой обработке овощ теряет часть своих полезных свойств.

Живописная романеско

Романеско — разновидность цветной капусты. Это интересная и необычная форма, которая отличается мягкостью и нежностью текстуры и вкуса, а также декоративностью. Бутоны романеско располагаются по спирали и образуют остроконечные соцветия.

Капуста романеско (итал. romanesco — римская капуста) – является результатом селекционных экспериментов по скрещиванию цветной капусты и брокколи

Вкус романеско приятный, сливочно-ореховый без горечи. Как и обычную цветную капусту её можно тушить, жарить, мариновать. Благодаря своей изысканной форме овощ часто применяют для украшения блюд.

Видео: капуста романеско — супер-еда, которую вы не пробовали

Полезная брокколи

В последнее время огородники всё чаще высаживают на своих участках эту разновидность капусты. Растущая популярность объясняется неприхотливостью культуры к условиям выращивания и богатым набором полезных веществ. Высаживать её можно рано, так как брокколи легко переносит похолодания, она нетребовательна к поливу и плодородности грунта. В первый же год на толстом центральном стволе брокколи образуется большое количество цветоносов с плотными группами мелких бутонов на концах. Вместе цветоносы составляют небольшую рыхлую головку. Разросшиеся соцветия брокколи могут иметь зелёный цвет и его оттенки, есть сорта с фиолетовыми и белыми бутонами.

По своему внешнему виду брокколи похожа на цветную капусту, но при этом формирующиеся головки чаще всего имеют ярко-выраженный зелёный цвет и небольшие размеры

Головку брокколи срезают, когда она достигнет диаметра 10–17 см и бутоны не начнут развиваться в цветки. При правильной срезке (у основания над листьями) из боковых почек начнут развиваться новые соцветия. Они вырастут не такими крупными, как центральная головка, но по вкусу и полезным свойствам ей не уступят. Таким образом плодоношение брокколи может быть растянуто на несколько месяцев.

Жёлтый цвет бутонов брокколи — свидетельство того, что капуста перезрела и не пригодна для употребления в пищу.

Урожай брокколи нужно успеть собрать до того, как зелёные бутончики раскроются и превратятся в жёлтые цветы

Брокколи отличается высоким содержанием полезных элементов: витаминов, микроэлементов, белка и клетчатки. Употребление овоща благоприятно сказывается на работоспособности организма, он оказывает антиоксидантное действие, способствует выводу токсинов.

Долго хранить свежесрезанные головки капусты не рекомендуется — они быстро теряют свою полезность. Сохранить витамины и другие полезные элементы помогает заморозка овоща.

Брокколи не нуждается в длительной тепловой обработке. Её припускают на пару или бланшируют. Эту разновидность капусты используют в салатах, супах, запеканках, овощных рагу, её можно консервировать с рисом и другими овощами.

Жареная брокколи в кляре не только очень вкусна, но и выглядит весьма эффектно

Капуста брокколи — один из лучших диетических продуктов: в 100 г овоща содержится всего 34 ккал.

Капуста, которая капустой не является

Очень часто мы называем капустой такие растения, которые никакого отношения не имеют к одноимённому семейству. Среди них следует назвать салат айсберг и морскую капусту.

Iceberg lettuce

Айсберг — кочанный салат. Его светло-зелёные, слегка зазубренные по внешнему краю листья свёрнуты в небольшие по размеру, округлые, но неплотные кочанчики, напоминающие белокочанную капусту. Родиной этого растения является Калифорния.

Салат Айсберг не требует специальных условий для произрастания и легко выращивается на приусадебном участке, даче или подоконнике

По некоторым сведениям, своё название эта форма салата получила из-за того, что для сохранения свежести салат транспортировали в ёмкостях со льдом. Другие источники соотносят название с эвкалиптовым освежающим послевкусием салата.

По вкусу Айсберг похож на листовой салат, но из-за своей сочности он имеет приятный хруст, который не свойственен салатным культурам. Айсберг рекомендуют включать в меню не только взрослых, но и детей. Он способен снять симптомы переутомления, оказать положительное влияние на деятельность желудочно-кишечного тракта и сердечно-сосудистой системы, улучшить состояние зрения и кожных покровов.

Хрустящий кочан салата Айсберг имеет не очень плотную структуру

Использовать Айсберг можно только в сыром виде, так как при тепловой обработке он теряет не только полезные свойства, но и внешнюю привлекательность.

Морская капуста

Морская капуста к капусте не имеет никакого отношения. Это морская водоросль — ламинария. С незапамятных времён она используется в питании тех людей, которые живут рядом с морем. Ламинария распространена в Белом, Карском, Охотском и Японском морях. В местах с постоянным течением водоросли образуют густые заросли вдоль берегов. Её пластинки имеют бурую окраску, а длина варьируется от нескольких сантиметров до 20 м.

Большие подводные «водорослевые леса» из ламинарии образуются обычно на глубине 4—10 м

Своё народное название продукт получил за сходство с нашинкованными листьями обычной белокочанной капусты, прошедшими термическую обработку.

There are a huge number of varieties of kelp, but only 2 types are used for food: sugar and Japanese. They have a pleasant taste and soft texture. Other species are also used by humans, but as technical raw materials and for medical purposes.

The composition of seaweed includes proteins, amino acids, a number of vitamins necessary for the human body. Of particular value is the content of a record concentration of iodine in bioavailable form. The rich composition makes seaweed both healthy food and affordable medicine. You can use seaweed in any form: dried, frozen, fresh or dried.

It is recommended to purchase not ready-made salads, but dried seaweed. It is very useful because it only loses excess moisture, but retains vitamins and minerals completely. Dry seaweed is very convenient in that you can make a salad from it at any time or serve with any dish.

With many useful properties, a powerful charge of vitamins, minerals, micro and macro elements, kelp should be present in our diet in reasonable quantities

Video: growing and harvesting all kinds of cabbage

Having become acquainted with the main types of cabbage and some of their characteristics, you can choose the most suitable variety for yourself. Planting beds with a unique vegetable will help to create a unique decor on the site. We hope that tasting organic cabbage delicacies grown in your garden will bring you real joy and pleasure.

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