How to grow a radish
Radish in Russia is considered to be its local culture. We began to grow it in ancient times, so long ago that it is impossible to establish an exact date. Ancient sayings are connected with the radish. “Radish horseradish is not sweeter, ” “Tired of worse than the bitter radish, ” and others. And in the world she was known along with onions and garlic in ancient Egypt and ancient Greece. And today radish is grown all over the world. We mainly cultivate two species, black and white radish, which are called winter radishes because they are successfully stored until next spring. And only recently in our beds began to appear Japanese radish - daikon, Chinese green radish and others, hitherto unfamiliar varieties.
All radishes belong to the cruciferous family. You need to know this in order to take into account predecessors when landing. Radish is not recommended to be planted after cruciferous, for example, cabbage. Also, all cruciferous have common pests that are fought with the same means.
This is an annual plant, may be two-year-old when planting a wintering root crop on seeds. Fruits are round or oblong, with a thin black skin. The size depends on the growth conditions, under favorable conditions, root crops of some varieties can grow up to 3 kg. The taste is similar to the taste of radish, but more burning and aromatic, more characteristic of seasonings than the main food. Due to the highly concentrated content of essential oils and glucosides (glycosides), radish cannot be consumed in large quantities. Therefore, in Russia it was never grown in large areas, like potatoes, beets and turnips, but they were always grown a little.
Black radish is listed in the catalogs of food and medicinal plants, and is the basis for a huge number of healing recipes in folk medicine.
It is believed that black radish has the following useful properties:
- Improves the work of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.
- It stimulates the immune system and strengthens the whole organism.
- Improves digestion.
- It works as a prophylactic against atherosclerosis.
- Plant juice stimulates hair growth and relieves inflammation in skin diseases.
- Normalizes the water - salt balance.
- Helps with urolithiasis, dissolving stones.
- Helps relieve bruised pain.
- Increases lactation in nursing mothers.
- Helps with heart pain and rheumatism.
- Effectively helps with cough, bronchitis.
- It works as a natural antibiotic.
- Improves the metabolism in the body, which is fundamentally necessary to prevent obesity and other disorders.
But you need to remember that radishes, like any potent remedy, have contraindications. First of all, it is intestinal ulcers and individual intolerance. A significant amount of radish, taken with food, always greatly activates the digestive processes, which inevitably causes the rapid formation of gases. Therefore, the consumption of radish should always be started with small amounts.
The radish contains easily digestible mineral salts:
As well as a wide range of vitamins:
- Groups B - B1, B2, B3, B5, B6.
- Vitamin C in large quantities - 29 mg per 100 g of radish.
- Vitamin A.
- Vitamin E.
Regardless of the color and variety of radish, their composition is almost identical. The significant difference is that black radish contains more essential oils and glucosides (glycosides), which give it a sharper taste and pungent smell. Radishes with root vegetables of white color, as a rule, of early varieties.
As an example, consider a popular variety of white radish.
They are not stored in the winter, they are used fresh in the summer. The first fruits begin to ripen, after 50-60 days from seedlings. Root crops are small, from 70 to 140 g, smooth, white. The pulp is juicy and tasty, not too sharp in contrast to later varieties. Not cracking. Plus varieties in resistance to flowering, which often happens during the summer heat, and this property allows you to harvest the entire warm season. The first sowing is in the earliest spring.
Among the white and black radishes that are familiar to us, daikon is different, which in Russia has many names: Japanese radish, white radish, sweet radish.
It tastes more like a widely spread radish (radish), but much more productive due to large oblong fruits.
The size of the fruit makes it clear how daikon is more productive than radish
Fresh daikon tops are also used as food in salads.
It is also called Chinese radish, forehead or forehead.
It differs from the usual radish and daikon with juiciness and mild taste. Outwardly completely unlike radishes, but has a lot in common with it. Just like radish, it can be of different shapes - round, oval or elongated. The weight of the root crop is from 300 to 500 g. Like radishes, it quickly ripens, coarsens and loses consumer value. Tasteful also looks like radish. Color may surprise - this radish is white, green and even purple.
Green color option and garden view
Margelan radish is relatively unpretentious. It grows quickly to marketable ripeness, as does radish. It grows well at a temperature of 16-25 degrees. But it has not yet received wide distribution either in Europe or in Russia.
In addition to radishes with root vegetables, there are other varieties.
Wild radish, or overbig
Wild radish is considered conditionally edible and medicinal plant, but requiring knowledge and proper handling when used. Its mustard oils at the time of flowering contain toxic substances. At other times, the stems are edible. and there are many recipes for using them as food.
During flowering, remotely similar to colza
The roots of wild radish are poisonous, and its seeds are also dangerous. They can harm livestock or poultry that will take them with food.
This is a malicious weed with a height of 30 to 70 cm, the seeds of which spread through cultivated fields with insufficiently cleaned seed.
May be beneficial as a good honey plant.
This is an annual plant not found in the wild. Recently, overseas and in Russia, she began to plant large plantations with different goals. Oil radish:
- Great siderat, like mustard. Roots loosen and aerate the earth, saturate with useful substances, essential oils destroy the main group of diseases and parasites, rotted green mass provides the field with high-quality organic matter. Radish treats and nourishes depleted plantations.
- Strong honey plant. It blooms for a long time and stably, regardless of the weather, it works as a source of nectar, even when the flowers on other crops have long bloomed.
- A forage crop that is more nutritious than plain meadow hay, silage is made from it and dried for the winter.
- Used in pharmacology for the manufacture of drugs.
- In the food industry, it is used to make protein for the diet of athletes and fortified vegetable oils, for which radish is called oilseed. But preparing oil from it is a time-consuming and expensive process, because they produce minced oil in small quantities.
The leaves are left to rot in the winter, and the bees have a lot of nectar
Radish loves with such qualities:
- Neutral acidity.
- Loose chernozems, loams, sierozems and sandstones.
Radish grows poorly in clay cold soils. She loves moisture, therefore, on sandy soils that do not hold water well, in dry weather, constant watering is required. Radish can be grown after any crop, but not cruciferous. But the best predecessors are solanaceous, cucumbers and especially peas.
It is possible to qualitatively prepare the soil with an additional operation before autumn plowing - peeling. In autumn, immediately after harvesting the predecessor, the soil is loosened to a shallow depth, up to 7 cm. After this treatment, weed seeds that are in the soil germinate, they are then destroyed by conventional plowing in the fall or digging. As a result, next year there will be fewer weeds, and young weeds, quickly decaying, will give the soil an additional dose of organic matter.
In order for the weeds to germinate, winter plowing is carried out no earlier than two to three weeks after peeling. But some predecessor crops are harvested late in the fall, and then plowed immediately without peeling.
There can be no calendar dates for the start of spring work, they are different every year and by region. An exact reference point is that in the spring, under sowing, radishes for summer consumption begin to be prepared immediately as soon as the soil dries and does not stick to the tool. In small areas, they harrow a rake, manually. When harrowing, the topsoil is loosened, tiny weed shoots that have germinated are removed, the soil retains moisture.
But if the soil during the cold season has become very denser due to rains, you may have to dig it up again or loosen the walk-behind tractor to half the depth of autumn plowing and plant it.
Radish is demanding on nutrients, so even on fertile soils it will not hurt to add 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 25 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium salt per 1 sq. M.
In depleted soils, in addition to this top dressing, it is necessary to make 3-4 kg of compost or dung humus per 1 sq.m. Fresh manure is strictly forbidden; it can cause cracking, decay and the formation of voids in root crops.
Radish seed size matters. Large seeds have a higher germination percentage, they give stronger shoots, large root crops grow from them. Purchased seeds are calibrated, and if their seeds, they need to be prepared. Use healthy seeds of the same variety. If there is a sieve with cells of 2–2.5 mm, the seeds are sieved. If there is no sieve, bring a solution of salt (a tablespoon with a little top, about 50 g per 1 liter of water) and pour seeds into it. The largest seeds will sit on the bottom. But after such a calibration, the seeds must be washed, otherwise salt will have low germination.
The seeds are soaked in methyl blue (methylene blue) in a proportion of 0.3 g per 1 liter of water or in potassium permanganate 0.2 g per 1 liter of water for about a day, until the seeds begin to hatch.
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- In early spring for summer consumption.
- For winter storage from late June to late July, often after harvesting other precocious crops - garlic, early potatoes, spinach.
The radish can be sown in single rows, with a distance between them of 60 cm, or in 3 rows, between which 35 cm, and then passages of 60–70 cm are left between the rows built.
Without a special seeder, it is impossible to immediately maintain the correct distance between plants in a row. In addition, before germination, the percentage of germination is unknown. Therefore, they are sown at the rate of 0.3–0.4 g per 1 sq. M, or 3-4 g (teaspoon flush with the edges) per 10 sq. M. Then, in the process of growth, the radish is pulled twice. For the first time in a phase of two to three true leaves. Between the bushes should remain 9-12 cm. The second time thinned out in the phase of four to five leaves. Between bushes of late large-fruited varieties should be 18–20 cm. Between early varieties with a small root crop, 10–12 cm is sufficient.
Thinning is combined with weeding, so the second thinning is not superfluous, but an operation associated with weeding. By the phase of the four leaves, weak plants that are lagging behind in development are clearly visible, they are removed, as well as weeds that ascended in the rows next to the radish.
Thinning is a necessary operation for thickened landings. Like radish, a thickened radish, in principle, will not be able to give a normal crop and will go into bloom.
In addition to thinning, it is required:
- Loosening the soil.
- Watering if the soil dries without rains.
- Pest control.
The soil under the radish cannot be loosened deeper than 7 cm. If deeper, the root system can be damaged. Moreover, with deep cultivation, weed seeds rise to the surface. Then they sprout, and additional weeding is required - the radish does not bear fruit in the thickening, not only among themselves, but also in the weeds, therefore there are increased requirements for the purity of the plots of weeds.
Sprinkle the soil with mulch under the crops of radish, it makes sense only closer to summer, when the soil warms up and thinning and weeding take place. Previously, mulch will slow down the heating of the soil and will interfere with weeding. Mulching the weeded summer crops can greatly facilitate the care - the mulch drowns out the germination of small weeds and prevents the soil from drying out in the summer heat.
Top dressing during growth
To guarantee a high yield, radish is fed in small doses twice during the growing season. In dissolved form during irrigation, 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium salt per 10 sq. M are added. That is, in terms of 1 g of each fertilizer per 1 sq.m.
This top dressing can be replaced with organics. Use bird droppings with water in a ratio of 1:10. Pour a little, 2-3 liters per 1 sq. M, together with irrigation with clean water. The rate of irrigation with clean water in dry weather is significant - 20-30 liters per 1 sq.m.
The most dangerous pest of radish is the cruciferous flea. The cabbage fly also harms, but it rarely breeds in large quantities, and a flea - a small black jumping insect - can destroy crops completely. To prevent their appearance and disperse the already settled colony of fleas, you can mix tobacco dust and wood ash in a 1: 1 ratio. It may be necessary to dust several times with a frequency of once every few days or as pests appear. Fleas spoil the coarsened foliage of an adult plant less than tiny tender sprouts.
In extreme cases, the recommended insecticides can be used according to the instructions for their use. But after processing them, as well as after dusting with ash and tobacco dust, fleas may appear again after some time. Therefore, treatment with folk remedies is preferable.
Radish seed cultivation
Radish seeds have time to ripen even in cold regions, where the climate allows you to grow radish. In the first year, seed radish is not grown specially, but is selected from the total harvest. Root crops of medium and large sizes, standard, that is, with typical characteristics of the variety, are selected for seeds. The atypical fruits — irregularly shaped, of unusual color, cracked, damaged — are rejected. The tops are cut off, leaving 1-2 cm, the main thing is not to damage the apical kidney. Seed plants are stored along with food radish. (Storage of radish see below).
In the second year, seed radish requires almost the same soil and care.
Radish is a cross-pollinating plant, it can be sprayed with radish, other varieties of radish, wild radish, oil radish, and as a result, plant seeds with unpredictable properties can be obtained. Therefore, we must carefully monitor the neighborhood:
- Grow only one variety.
- Destroy flowering bush of wild radish.
But we must remember that pollination is possible only if different plants bloom at the same time and not exaggerate the problem.
At the same time blooming with the cultivar, the seed radish can be pollinated
The seed plants are planted in the earliest spring, as soon as the condition of the soil allows, together with the product radish, but leaving the testes with a large nutrition area - 70 by 70 cm. Sprouting can be accelerated by germination. For 12-15 days before planting, root crops are dug in greenhouses or in a warm room in boxes with ordinary soil, close to each other. During this time, the radish takes root and the apical bud starts to grow.
In the process of leaving, the testes are fed along with the product radish, but with a narrower specialization, focused on seed production, special feeding is used at other times:
- At the beginning of shoot growth, 20–30 g of ammonium nitrate and 50–60 g of superphosphate per 10 l of water. Under one plant, use 2-3 liters of such a solution.
- The second top dressing at the beginning of flowering, 30 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium salt per 10 l of water. Under one plant, also use 2-3 liters of solution.
Pest control is carried out in the same way as on a food radish, but queen cells have a personal pest - a rape-beetle. Recommended chemicals can also be used against it, because the testis will not be used as food.
Signs of seed maturity:
- The pods are yellowed.
- The seeds turned brown.
When ripening, the pods of the radish do not open and the seeds do not fall out, as in many other crops. The bushes are cut, tied with sheaves, dried on the street, in dry weather, or in a dry room. The dried testes are spread on a cloth and threshed, then peeled, thrash sown through a sieve, or blow in a sufficiently strong wind.
One plant can produce 60–75 g of seeds.
For winter storage leave intact fruits. The tops are cut completely, but without damaging the root crop. The correct storage conditions for radishes in winter are in a cellar, underground or in any room with a temperature of 0 to plus 2 degrees and an air humidity of 85–90%. Minus temperatures are unacceptable. The higher the temperature will be from the ideal 1 degree, the less radish will lie. At temperatures above 10 degrees, it will become lethargic, it will begin to sprout or rot in 30–45 days. Storage should be well ventilated. Radish is stacked in several tiers, on the floor, shelving, in boxes.
Я в середине лета выкапываю ранний картофель и на его место сею редьку. Мой мини-огород не должен пустовать. Ещё сею дайкон. Больше ничего не успевает вызреть.
Я сею зимнюю чёрную редьку на плантации после озимого чеснока, в середине июля. Успевает вырасти и стрелку не даёт. Для зимнего хранения — это лучший срок посадки.
Зося 1, Витебская обл.
Из редьки не поняла только «Редьку майскую», вот ни разу этот сорт не получался. Зелёную маргеланскую, чёрную зимнюю от разных производителей сажала, и дешёвые пачки семян белые, и цветные подороже — все росли прилично.
У нас три любимых рецепта. 1.Чистим редьку, натираем на крупной тёрке, соль по вкусу, оставляем на 2–3 часа. Добавляем лучок, лучше порезать его мелко-мелко и заправляем салат растительным маслом. 2. Такой же салат можно сделать, только лук предварительно обжарить до золотистого цвета. Получается вкусно. 3.Вкусный салат и очень сытный получается, если в натёртую редьку добавить обжаренный до золотистого цвета лук, а также обжарить кусочки бекона. Только после обжарки лук и бекон нужно остудить, затем все смешать. Этот салат лучше заправлять майонезом. Enjoy your meal!
Видео: посев редьки
Редьку выращивают тысячи лет во всём мире, а значит и нам сегодня не нужно «изобретать велосипед» заново. Несколько десятков корнеплодов чёрной, белой, маргеланской, японской редьки для летнего и зимнего потребления со своих грядок избавят от необходимости покупать искусственные биологически активные добавки.