How to grow a pear Noyabrskaya
Pear Noyabrskaya is an almost standard European variety with Moldovan roots. It is popular in Poland, Holland, Belgium, Moldova, Ukraine. In Russia, this pear began to spread in 2014.
There are two pears of the Noyabrskaya variety, which are “namesakes”. The first was obtained in the 50s of the last century by the Far Eastern Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture and was included in the State Register in 1974 in the Far Eastern Region. This variety was the result of the crossing of an Ussuri pear with a winter decan. It has certain advantages - relative winter hardiness in its region, resistance to scab, high (64–174 kg / ha) and annual crops. Immaturity at the level of 3-4 years. The taste of fruits is sweet and sour, good. Shelving and portability are high. Ripening occurs in September, and consumer maturity is achieved in October - November. Fruits can be stored until the end of December. But due to a significant drawback - the mediocre presentation of small fruits (65 g) - the variety did not gain popularity.
The Far Eastern version of the November pear has small fruits
The second pear of the Noyabrskaya variety was obtained in Moldova by breeder Ksenia Dushutina. This was done by crossing the varieties Triumph Vienne (large-fruited French variety) and Nikolai Krueger (ancient Romanian frost-resistant, large-fruited, productive variety). November is popular in Ukraine, Russia, Europe. In Poland, grown on an industrial scale for more than 20 years. The general license for the cultivation of seedlings of this pear is owned by the Dutch nursery Van Rhein de Bryn. In the European Union, the November pear is registered under the name of its author - Xenia, in addition, the variety has many more unofficial names - November winter, November late, Novembra, Oksana, Nojabrskaja, Novemberbirne.
When, in 2014, at the request of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden (Crimea), it was decided to add the variety that gained popularity to the State Register of Russia, they discovered that such a name already exists. The way out was quickly found - the variety was given the name Noyabrskaya Moldova and regionalized in the North Caucasus region.
Sadovodov is interested in the second of the namesakes.
The tree is medium-sized, the crown is narrow-pyramidal, of medium density. Like many industrial pears, they plant it on a forest pear and quince. In the first case, the tree is higher and more winter-hardy. It bears fruiting on the 4th – 5th year after planting. Grafted on quince, the pear has a smaller growth, which allows you to grow it on a trellis. And fruiting in this case occurs earlier - in the 3rd year. The lower yield of the tree on the quince rootstock is offset by a higher density of planting. With the right technology, it stably brings up to 40-50 t / ha of fruits per year. It blooms in May. For pollination, the Williams summer variety is most often used. The variety Noyabrskaya (Ksenia) has high frost resistance in places of industrial cultivation, as well as immunity to scab and bacterial burn. It is stronger than the Conference variety, it is affected by ticks, but less susceptible to attack by the leaf-flare (pear throat).
The November pear has a low tree with a pyramidal, spreading crown
The fruits are elongated, large. The average size is 300-400 g (200 g is indicated in the State Register, but most sources say more weight), the maximum is 600 g. Harvesting takes place in early October, and the pears are ready to be eaten in early November. The peak of demand is for the New Year. The pear skin is dense, light green in color with small subcutaneous dots. The ripened fruits acquire a pale yellow color with a faint blush. The pulp is juicy, tender, buttery, aromatic. It has a wonderful refreshing, sweet and sour taste. Tasting score - 4.8 points. In the refrigerator, the pear can be stored until April without loss of consumer properties. Before use, it should be kept at room temperature for a week to fully reveal the taste.
The fruits of the November pear reach a mass of 300-400 g or more
Video: November pear review
Planting a pear variety Noyabrskaya
The conditions for planting the Noyabrskaya pear must meet the standard requirements for this crop:
- a small south or southwest slope, protected from cold northerly winds;
- sunny, unshaded place;
- lack of stagnation of water, deep occurrence of groundwater;
- loose, drained soil with an acidity of pH 5.0-6.5.
The distance between neighboring plants in a group planting is 3 m, between rows - 4 m. It is possible to grow on trellises, in this case, planting densification is achieved up to 2 m in a row and up to 3 m between rows.
In warm regions, you can plant pears both in spring and autumn. It is important that at the time of planting there is no sap flow and the seedlings are in a sleeping state. When planting in autumn, it is advisable to cover plants with a spanbond for the first winter to avoid possible frost damage. In industrial gardens, usually two-year-old seedlings are planted.
If plants with a closed root system are acquired, then the age can be large, and they can be planted from April to October.
When growing pears on a trellis, the support should be installed in advance. To do this, use metal or reinforced concrete poles installed at a distance of 4-5 m from each other. Their height above the ground should be within 3–3.5 m. Between the posts stretch several rows of galvanized steel wire with a diameter of 4–5 mm with an interval of 40–50 cm.
- About a month before the planned landing, a landing pit should be prepared, the depth and diameter of which is about 80 cm. During spring planting, a hole is dug in the fall. In the case of heavy soils, drainage should be arranged by laying a 10-centimeter layer of crushed stone or broken brick on the bottom.
For drainage, a layer of rubble or broken brick is laid at the bottom of the pit.
- A pit is filled up to the top with a composition of equal parts of humus, chernozem, peat and sand with the addition of 300-400 g of superphosphate and 3-4 l of wood ash.
- The roots of seedlings with an open root system are soaked in water for several hours before planting. It will be nice if you add growth stimulants to the water, for example, Epin, Kornevin, Heteroauxin, etc.
- In the pit form a hole with a mound in the center. A peg 1-1.3 m high from the ground is driven in 10-15 cm from the center. If a trellis is used, then there is no need for a peg.
- A seedling is planted in a hole with the root neck on the top of the knoll. They fall asleep with earth, carefully compacting it in layers. At this time, it is necessary to ensure that, as a result of planting, the root neck is at the level of the soil.
The root neck of the seedling should be at ground level
- Tie a tree to a peg or trellis with elastic material. In this case, you need to make sure that the trunk is not transferred.
- A trunk circle is formed using a chopper or a plane cutter and the soil is watered abundantly. After this, no sinuses should remain in the root zone.
- After 2-3 days, the soil must be loosened and mulched with hay, humus, rotted sawdust, etc.
- The central conductor should be cut to a height of 60-80 cm, and the branches should be shortened by 50%.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Pear Noyabrskaya needs regular and plentiful watering, because it does not tolerate drought. If the gardener leaves her to the mercy of fate, then the result will be small, hard fruits. And with a deficiency of nutrients, the ovaries can crumble.
During the season, as a rule, you have to water the Noyabrskaya pear 5 to 10 times. Of course, the frequency of watering depends on the amount of precipitation and the humidity of the site. Excessive waterlogging will also not be beneficial - it is not necessary to maintain a “swamp” in the near-stem circle.
To determine the need for watering, a simple test is carried out. From the near-trunk circle you need to take a handful of earth, squeeze it into a lump and throw it from a height of 1 m. If, as a result, the lump crumbles, the tree should be watered. If the lump remains intact, there is enough moisture in the soil.
After irrigation, the soil must be loosened to ensure access of oxygen to the root zone. You can reduce the amount of watering and cultivating by applying mulching of trunks. In group plantings, especially when growing on trellises, it is advisable to use drip irrigation systems.
For group plantings, it is advisable to use drip irrigation systems
Large yields of large fruits require a significant amount of nutrients. In the first 3-4 years, while fruiting has not yet begun, the tree has enough fertilizers laid in the planting pit. In the future, you need to regularly top up according to this scheme:
- Once every 2-3 years, in the spring or in the fall, organic fertilizers are applied for digging. It can be humus, compost or peat. They are used at the rate of 5-7 kg / m2.
- Every spring, mineral nitrogen-containing fertilizers should be applied, which contribute to good growth of young shoots. It can be urea, ammonium nitrate, nitroammophosk. They are also brought in for digging at 30-40 g / m2.
- During the flowering period, the crown can be treated with a solution of 2 g of boric acid in 10 l of water. This contributes to an increase in the number of ovaries.
In Europe, gibberellins are successfully used for such purposes - drugs that stimulate the formation of ovaries and increase the mass of fruits. The pear variety Noyabrskaya responds well to the use of gibberellins.
- After flowering, you need to feed the tree 1-2 times with potash fertilizers, after dissolving them in water. For this purpose, potassium monophosphate or potassium sulfate is used at the rate of 10-20 g / m2.
- In summer, during the period of fruit growth, liquid organic fertilizers help well. They are prepared by insisting mullein in water (concentration 2:10), bird droppings (1:10) or fresh grass (5-7 kg per 10 liters of water). Before use, the concentrated infusion is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 and watered around the trunk, spending one bucket per 1 m2.
- In autumn, superphosphate must be added for digging in an amount of 30–40 g / m2.
- The necessary microelements are added as part of complex fertilizers, following the instructions of the attached instructions.
Without proper crown formation, high yields cannot be achieved. Since the November pear has a small stature, a crown in the shape of a bowl is great for it. Such pruning is even a beginner gardener.
The advantages of this form are: ease of care and harvesting, the creation of good ventilation of the internal volume and its illumination. The disadvantages include the increased growth of shoots, thickening the crown, which will require annual regulatory pruning. Formative pruning is carried out in early spring before the sap flow begins in the first 4–5 years of the tree’s life.
For pear Noyabrskaya, crown formation according to the type of bowl is suitable
Palmette crown formation
This form is used when growing pears on a trellis. For fruiting choose 10-12 skeletal branches located in the same plane. They are tied to trellis wires, and the overgrowing fruiting branches are left to grow freely. In order to prevent thickening, they are thinned out so that the remaining shoots are from each other at a distance of 15-20 cm.
Palmette shaped crown ideal for growing pears on a trellis
All unnecessary and competing shoots are cut to the ground with a “ring” technique.
The shoots are cut to the base with a “ring” technique
This operation is carried out in early spring in order to adjust the density of the crown by removing shoots growing inward. It should be wise to approach this procedure and avoid excessive thinning, as this leads to some loss of yield.
It is carried out in order to maintain stable high yields. It consists in the so-called minting of young shoots, which is carried out in the first half of summer by shortening them by 5-10 cm. This provokes fouling of the shoots with fruit branches. They subsequently laid flower buds. Recently, experienced gardeners have been applying the method of trimming to a knot of substitution to maintain the crop. In this way, winegrowers successfully use. It is somewhat more complicated than conventional coinage, but gives excellent results.
Recently, experienced gardeners have been using the trimming method for replacing the knot to maintain the crop
It is important for maintaining a healthy tree. Spend in late autumn, removing dried, broken, diseased branches. Sometimes you need to carry out the procedure in the early spring as well.
Harvesting and storage
It is very important to choose the right time to harvest. The duration of subsequent storage and the quality of the fruit depends on this. In conditions of industrial cultivation, the moment the fruits are taken is determined using laboratory methods — the density of the pulp is determined, the percentage of dry soluble substances is measured, and an iodine-starch sample is taken. It is clear that this is not available to the ordinary gardener. Therefore, you should rely on your experience, the recommendations of your neighbors - by trial and error, you can determine the optimal timing for starting the harvest. It is better to store the fruits in low, ventilated boxes in a row. It will be ideal if the boxes are placed in the basement with an air temperature in the range of 2-5 ° C.
It is better to store the fruits in low, ventilated boxes in a row
Diseases and Pests
Do not allow the pear to become infected with diseases, as well as pest attacks. It’s easier to prevent such troubles than to deal with them later.
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- Every fall, the garden is cleaned. After the end of leaf fall, fallen leaves, weeds, branches remaining after sanitary pruning are raked in piles. They are burned, and ash is used to fertilize various crops. At the same time, spores of fungi, bugs, ticks and other pests that can winter in this garbage are destroyed.
- Inspect the bark of trees. If cracks and other damage are found, it is necessary to clean such places to healthy wood, then treat with fungicides and cover with garden varnish.
- Trunks and thick branches of trees are whitened. To do this, use a solution of hydrated lime, to which 3% copper sulphate and PVA glue are added. The latter will prevent the washing away of the solution by rains. This technique will avoid sunburn in winter.
Whitewashing prevents sunburn of the bark
- Before the onset of the first frosts, they dig the soil in near-stem circles on the bayonet of a shovel, turning over the layers of earth. As a result, pests wintering in it will appear on the surface and die from frost.
- To enhance the effect at the same time, it is possible to treat the soil and tree crowns with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture. The same treatment should be carried out in early spring.
- In addition, in early spring, tree crowns are treated with potent broad-spectrum herbicides. Well-proven drugs DNOC (used once every 3 years) and Nitrafen (used in the remaining years). Such treatments are preventive measures against almost all known diseases and pests.
- An effective measure against the entry of various insects - ants, weevils, caterpillars - onto the tree crown is the installation of hunting belts on trunks. They can be made from improvised materials - roofing material, film, burlap, etc.
The hunting belt can be made from improvised materials.
- Before the pear blossoms, when the moths begin to fly, the crown is treated with insecticides such as Decis and Fufanon. After flowering, another 2-3 treatments are performed at intervals of 7-10 days with systemic insecticides of biological action, for example, Spark Bio.
- And also, after flowering, they start prophylactic treatments with systemic fungicides to prevent fungal diseases. They are carried out regularly with an interval of 2-3 weeks. Such treatments are especially important in wet weather and after rains. Immediately before the harvest, drugs with a short waiting period are used, such as Skor, Horus, Quadris.
Not all diseases the November pear has immunity. They should be known.
Moniliosis (monilial burn)
The disease is caused by a fungus, spores of which are usually introduced during flowering by bees and other insects. It affects the flowers, leaves and shoots of pears, which as a result fade and blacken. From the side, the phenomenon looks like a burn. If such signs are found, the affected shoots should be immediately cut along with part of the healthy wood and burned, and the tree treated with fungicides. In the summer, moniliosis affects the fruits with gray rot.
In summer, moniliosis causes gray rot of the fruit
This disease affects pears, not far from which there are juniper plantings. This is due to the peculiarities of the development of the pathogen fungus. The disease alternately passes from juniper to pear and vice versa. Disputes are carried by wind over a considerable distance (up to 50 km). Initially, small spots of greenish-yellow color appear on the affected leaves, which increase and become red-rusty by mid-summer. On the underside of the leaf, bulges form in the form of warts, inside of which there are spores of the fungus. Preventive treatments with fungicides prevent the problem.
Outgrowths form on the underside of a leaf affected by rust
As a rule, infection with this fungus is preceded by a defeat of the pear by aphids. The sweet liquid secreted during the life of aphids is a breeding ground for the soot fungus. Fungal excrement appears on the leaves in the form of a black coating resembling soot. In addition to leaves, fruits that become unfit for food can also be affected.
The excrement of the soot fungus appears on the leaves in the form of a black coating resembling soot.
There are some insects that do not mind eating fruits and leaves of a pear.
Small sucking insects feed on pear leaf juice. They get into the crown with the help of ants who like to eat aphid sugary secretions. You can detect a pest when inspecting a tree. If leaves folded into a tube are observed, the aphid is probably inside. Such leaves should be torn off and treated with insecticides. In addition, there are many popular methods of combating this insect.
If leaves folded into a tube are observed on a pear or apple tree, the aphid is probably inside
A small brownish butterfly flies in the spring and lays eggs in the soil of tree trunks. Caterpillars crawl out of the eggs and climb the trunk to the crown of the tree, penetrate the fruits, gnawing holes in them. Damaged pears lose marketability, will not be stored, can rot on a tree. Fighting is effective at the butterfly stage. Caterpillars can be stopped using hunting belts and insecticide tillage. If they penetrate the fruits, there is no point in fighting.
Caterpillar caterpillar emerges into the fruit
A small weevil beetle that winters in the soil of tree trunks. In early spring it rises to the surface, crawls to the crown and eats flower buds, after which it can feed on flowers, ovaries, tips of young shoots, young leaves. In May, it lays eggs in the soil, from which larvae appear - the so-called khrushchites.
The flowers affected by the florist dry out
They fight a bug by treating it with insecticides. And also in cold weather you can shake numb insects from branches onto fabric pre-spread under a tree. In this state, the flower beetles are at an air temperature of no higher than 5 ° C. They fight the scrub by cultivating the soil with Diazinon. This is effective in early June. The drug acts for 3 weeks, after which it decomposes. It does not accumulate in soil and fruits.
Pear November weight 416 g small 270 - 280g each. Remove preferably unripe. When lying, they get a good taste, reminiscent of a melon. Winter hardiness is good, the bark is clean, without frost pits. Black dots on a pear - hit hail.
Noyabrskaya is not sensitive to thaws, it has low frost resistance with late ripening of wood, fruit-bearing laden trees are especially affected.
Fruiting in November in the conditions of Donbass (Yasinovataya). Vaccinated on quince S1. Since 2010 there has been no freezing, it shows good results on drip irrigation, in this case, on quince it requires good support. Sincerely, Maxim Kuchinsky.
I want to say especially about the November pear variety, whose popularity and prevalence in Ukraine came from Bukovina. November, or November Moldova, was bred by breeder Ksenia Dushutina as a result of crossbreeding of Triumph Vienne and Nikolai Kruger. The tree is medium-sized with a spreading pyramidal crown, winter hardiness is high, the variety is resistant to fungal diseases, especially scab and bacterial burns. The fruits are large - 180-350 g (some have a weight of 700-800 g), after ripening - yellow, with a faint blush on the sunny side. The pulp is juicy, oily, sweet and sour, refreshing, with a pleasant aroma, taste almost standard - 4.8 points. Without exaggeration, it can be argued that both in Ukraine and in Europe there is no tastier pear.
My opinion: Noyabrskaya is fruitful, beautiful, very large fruits, but the taste is somehow not very, the flesh is not tender and not melting, kept on a tree until frost, maybe there are nuances, or is it not climate-friendly?
alex31, Belgorod region
Last fall I bought Noyabrskaya in Vygonichi near Bryansk. The view, of course, is not the same as in the pictures, but the taste is normal. This indicates, above all, the high adaptability of the variety, which distinguishes the quality of breeding Dushutina. In favorable places with protection from the wind, the varieties Sokrovische, Noyabrskaya grow even in the Bryansk region. Of the shortcomings - they quickly respond to spring heat and therefore flower buds freeze. And the second - they still need more heat to gain a taste. But I repeat on high, sunny places with protection from the wind, they give good taste to our pears.
yri, Bryansk region
November near Kiev in 2016. Taste this year is better than last year (first fruiting). And when she lay down, she began to get stiff and soft. The taste is even better. I consider the variety as one of our best for our zone.
The advantages of the November pear are undeniable. Great taste, excellent shelf life and transportability make it attractive for retail chains. Good frost resistance, immunity to certain diseases, productivity - these qualities attract industrialists and farmers. Сорт также интересен для приусадебного садоводства.