How to grow cauliflower seedlings
Cauliflower is considered a valuable dietary product. Vitamin C in it is twice as much as in white cabbage. It also has a significant amount of vitamins of group B and PP. This is an early ripe vegetable. Depending on the variety, the head is formed after 70-120 days from sowing. In principle, precocious varieties can be grown by direct sowing of seeds directly into the open ground. But to obtain the earliest possible harvest, and especially for later, more valuable varieties, the seedling method is always used.
Dozens of different soil preparation recipes are used for cauliflower seedlings. The compositions are mixed from the following components in various combinations and proportions:
- Garden land.
- Sod land.
- The top layer of forest land.
- Fully mature humus of manure or compost.
- Sand in an amount of not more than 10%.
You can also use ready-made soil from stores.
The main requirements: the soil must be sufficiently airy and moisture permeable, that is, loose and should not stick together when wet. Also, the soil should be sufficiently nutritious and fertile. The addition of wood ash at the rate of not more than 0.5 liters per 10 liters of soil will greatly improve the quality of any mixture.
Special fanaticism in preparing the ground is not worth it. A plant in seedling containers will not grow long, and in a small state it does not need as much nutrition as an adult plant. Seedlings may be slightly worse than garden soil in a permanent place. Then the plant tolerates transplant stress more easily and develops better.
It is better if the soil in boxes or bags hibernated on the street in a frozen state. Frost kills pests, ice crystals tear lumps of soil, and after thawing, the soil becomes more loose.
Seedlings can be grown in two ways, with picking (intermediate transplanting into a larger container or greenhouse) and without it.
When growing with picks, boxes of any suitable area from different materials are used. But wooden crates are preferable. The soil breathes better in them, excess water always comes off and there are no conditions for acidification and decay. Airtight plastic boxes should have openings on the bottom for water to drain during overflow, it is more difficult to maintain an optimal humidity regime in them. That is, seedlings in a wooden box can be watered with excess, and in sealed boxes there is a risk of overfilling or underfilling.
In boxes, you can compactly plant a large number of seedlings, saving a warm and bright area that is scarce in the cold season.
But if you need a small amount of seedlings, you can plant each seed in a separate container: cups, pots or cut packages from under dairy products with a capacity of 0.2 l to 0.5 l. The capacity of 0.5 liters is not necessary to fill completely, enough volume of about 0.3 liters. Although normal seedlings can be grown in even smaller volumes, in cassette containers. For growing without picking, the minimum cell volume must be at least 0.1 l. Such a small volume is sufficient for nutrition and root development, but is inconvenient because the earth dries very quickly. It is required to closely monitor soil moisture and water more often. In addition, in a small volume, a plant older than 50 days becomes crowded, and no one can predict how prolonged cold weather can happen in any year. From any container, a transplant is recommended at the age of 50–55 days, but in large containers in the event of prolonged frosts on the street, seedlings can be kept warm and up to 60 days.
The capacity of each section is about 100 g
The first time for planting seeds for seedlings in the cool regions of the North-West and Moscow Region is March 10 - 15. In warmer regions, in Central Russia and closer to the Kuban, it can be planted earlier for 7–10 days, and in colder ones, in the Urals and Siberia, for the same period later.
But in the same region, according to the conditions of each year, spring can develop in completely different ways. Therefore, when determining the time for sowing seeds, it is more reliable to apply this calculation: seedlings are planted in open ground at the age of 50–55 days. That is, seedlings sown with seeds on March 10, it is time to plant in the ground April 30 - May 5. What weather usually stands outside at this time, residents of each region know better.
You can reduce the period of growing seedlings to 30 days, if by this time the street will have steady heat and suitable weather for planting seedlings. The main thing is that before planting the plant forms a branched root system, a strong stem and 5 true leaves.
In case of frost, seedlings can be delayed for up to 60 days, but seedlings older than 55 days take root worse.
Cauliflower is a cold-resistant plant. It develops well at 15–18 degrees. Hardened seedlings can endure short-term freezing up to - 3-4. Unhardened during freezing - 1–2 dies without shelter.
An adult plant can tolerate frosts up to - 2.
But the early March planting dates are needed only to obtain the earliest possible harvest, in late June - early July. And for growing cauliflower conveyor, until the fall, seedlings can be planted in several passes, until the end of April, or until mid-May in cold regions.
Since mid-May, cabbage can be planted directly in the soil in most central and southern regions. Then, even the late varieties with a ripening period of 120 days from sowing will have time to grow until mid-September. In the more northern regions, early varieties with a ripening period of 80 days from sowing will have time to ripen.
Untreated seeds germinate longer, and can be infected with pathogenic microflora. Therefore, it is recommended to process the seeds before planting. There are two ways to prepare seeds.
Crush three cloves of garlic, pour 50 g of boiling water. The working solution should not be hotter than 50 degrees (barely tolerates a finger). Seeds are soaked for 30 minutes. Then they are dried and they are ready for planting.
It’s more convenient to soak in cloth bags than in bulk
But especially diligent gardeners go further.
- Seeds are soaked for 15 minutes. in pure 50 degree boiling water.
- Dried on a piece of paper or cloth.
- Place for 24 hours in a nutrient solution of diammophos or nitrophos (1 teaspoon per 1 liter of water).
- The seeds are washed and dried again.
- They are placed in the refrigerator at a temperature of 0 + 2 degrees for 2-3 days for stratification (hardening).
In hot water at 50–55 degrees, pathogens of bacterial, viral and fungal diseases (if they were in the seeds) die, so the seeds after such treatment can be considered disinfected.
But at a temperature of more than 60 degrees, the seeds themselves can die, and at 40 degrees there will be no disinfection. Therefore, it is guaranteed to decontaminate the seeds by soaking them for 30 minutes in a pink solution of potassium permanganate or in a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide.
The depth of seed placement in the soil is about 1 cm. The distance between the rows in the box is about 5 cm. Between the seeds in the row should be 1.5–2.5 cm, but it is difficult to achieve such accuracy manually in practice. In addition, not all seeds can sprout, so the interval in the row is different. And if the plants are not visibly thickened too much (more than 2 plants per 1 cm), then they are not thinned out. While they are small, they will have enough food space before the dive. It will be possible to dive in April in unheated greenhouses or under the simplest film shelter in the garden.
At room temperature and in warm soil, seeds germinate on 3-5 days.
And then comes the crucial moment. As soon as shoots in the form of a loop appeared, containers with seedlings are taken out to a cool place. At a temperature of 5-8 degrees, it is cooled for 4-5 hours for 4-6 days. At a temperature of 12–15 degrees - up to 8–10 hours, and at this temperature, seedlings can already be grown to readiness without bringing them back to a warm place. Without cooling, the seedlings will stretch very quickly, literally in a matter of days and even hours, especially with a lack of light. This abnormal extension of the stem will then remain for the entire period of plant growth. An elongated plant can form a good fruit, but the trunk of the plant (stump) will be excessively long and may fall under the weight of the head. In any case, this is an abnormal development.
The room temperature of 23–27 degrees is excessively high for cabbage seedlings. However, if seedlings grow in a room, after cooling it can be continued to grow there.
In addition to too high temperature, seedlings can be extended for two more reasons:
- Lack of sunlight in the absence of artificial lighting.
- Too thickened landings in drawers and delayed picking.
The frequency of irrigation is determined on the spot. Dry most quickly:
- Loose, peaty soil without clay.
- Soil in containers with a thin layer of 5-7 cm.
- Soil in tanks standing in direct sunlight.
Direct sunlight can harm seedlings, especially the first, after a long cloudy weather with a young seedling age. Therefore, if the seedlings wither even after watering, the windows are temporarily covered with paper or non-woven translucent material. After the seedlings get used to the sun, this measure is not needed.
Watering is carried out with warm still water with a frequency and amount sufficient to maintain the soil constantly in a wet state. Overfilling in a sealed container is fraught with rotting of the roots and death of the plant.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
Cabbage, unlike nightshade, can be watered both under the root and on the foliage. But under the sunlight it is impossible to water the foliage, since water droplets on the foliage at a certain focus can work like magnifying glass lenses and cause a burn.
With obviously normal plant growth, top dressing is not required, especially when using a full-fledged fertile soil. Depleted peat mixtures may not give seedlings a sufficient amount of nutrition, which will be seen by the pale anemic appearance and weak growth. Then, every 7 days, they are fed 2-3 times infusion of wood ash (1 tablespoon per 1 liter of water, insist 2-3 days). In ash there is a complete set of substances needed by any plant. except nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilizer separately (3-4 g per 1 liter of water). 1-2 times for the entire period of growing seedlings. Excessive top dressing with nitrogen will lead to the fact that seedlings will grow a powerful green mass. The plant will have a good presentation, but after transplanting into the open ground, the root system that has not yet taken root will not be able to immediately provide such a mass of nutrition, and some of the lower leaves will necessarily dry out.
Dive start about 21 days after germination. By this time, the plant forms up to three true leaves. In the Central regions, weather conditions make it possible to dive cauliflower from April 1–5 in unheated greenhouses or under film shelters in the garden. However, this is a risky timeline. A plant that has taken root under the film can withstand short-term frosts to minus 5. Just planted - to minus 2. Therefore, in unheated greenhouses, emergency heating should be provided in case of frost - a simple wood stove, electric heater or other heat sources.
And in case of frosts, low film shelters in vegetable gardens are covered with any improvised material - batting, sintepon, old clothes, straw, the second and third layer of film, non-woven material.
The heat-saving properties of the film and non-woven material are such that one layer of such materials protects from 2 degrees of frost. Accordingly, three layers can save from frosts of 6 degrees.
Over transparent film - non-woven fabric
Dive seedlings already require more food area than was in the drawers. But not too much, because before landing on a permanent place, she does not grow for long, no more than 25-30 days. And this is not an adult, but a small plant. 180-210 plants can be placed per 1 sq.m of the closed area. This is the interval between rows of 7–8 cm and 5–6 cm between plants.
Under a pick, you can use garden soil of good quality - loose and fertile.
Seedlings in a separate container do not require picking. A few days before landing, it will need to be tempered and accustomed to the conditions of open space, wind and direct sun.
First, seedlings are taken outside for several hours and watch how she behaves. The leaf should be dry and the ground moist. Hardening in cloudy, warm and quiet weather, any seedlings can easily tolerate. Absolutely hardened seedlings under severe weather conditions in the sun and wind can burn out in a matter of minutes. Therefore, when the first signs of wilting appear, it is brought back, and hardening continues in shading and lull. The seedlings that stayed on the street for 4-5 hours are already significantly adapted, not so tender and do not require as much attention as in the first hours.
Ready seedlings aged 50–55 days form about 5 true leaves.
Cauliflower is more demanding on soil quality than white cabbage. She needs organic fertilizer. fertile soil with a permeable underfloor layer so that water does not stagnate after heavy rains. This can cause root decay.
It is better to plant in cloudy weather, then the seedlings will not fade, like planting in the sun and easily take root.
The predecessors of cauliflower should not be related cruciferous, but plant it after potatoes, herbs, legumes or cucumbers. Planted according to the scheme 60 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants in a row, or 70 cm between rows and 20 cm between plants.
The optimal size and number of true sheets for transplantation
Organics are introduced either in the fall in the form of manure - 50-60 kg per 10 sq.m, or in the spring in the form of humus - 30-40 kg per 10 sq.m.
Care for cauliflower consists of the usual methods - weeding, loosening, watering and top dressing. Moreover, before the formation of the head, the plant must grow a large green mass, only then it can give a full-fledged crop. Therefore, cauliflower is demanding on watering and top dressing even before the onset of the fetal ovary.
Cauliflower Seedling Disease
Cauliflower, like all cultivated plants, is susceptible to diseases of three main types:
However, most of these problems affect the plant already in the open ground and rarely touch the seedlings in an isolated and clean space from these pathogens, where they can get to the seedlings through uncontaminated seeds and with the ground. It is impossible to diagnose the types of these diseases without looking and to recommend means of control. Each case requires accurate diagnosis and the use of drugs specially recommended for this problem according to the instructions for use. But there are general rules for help. In case of the first problems, you should immediately:
- Temporarily stop watering, dry the sheet and dry the topsoil with a fan, fan heater, infrared lamps or transfer the seedlings to a dry, sunny, ventilated place.
- Process seedlings with a 0.3% hydrogen peroxide solution (a pharmacy 100g bottle of 3% peroxide per 1 liter of water).
- Powder foliage and soil with wood ash, regardless of the peroxide treatment - before, after, together or instead of peroxide. Ash dries the sheet.
Most pathogens develop rapidly on a wet plant and will not be able to survive in a solution of hydrogen peroxide and dry ash. Therefore, if pathogens do not have time to penetrate deep into the plant, the disease will stop.
But hydrogen peroxide can be effective against pathogenic viruses and bacteria. And against fungal problems, copper-containing drugs and systemic fungicides are used.
Today, more than 30 types of various fungicides are offered on the market for mass application.
Also, problems with seedlings can occur under poor growing conditions:
- Unsuitable temperature, below 10 and more than 25.
- Underfilling or overflow.
- Watering with cold water immediately from the tap.
- Growth in the shade, a constant lack of lighting.
- Critically unfit soil.
- Excessive dressing.
I have been preparing soil since the fall on the basis of purchased horse peat and 2–3 year old humus, with the addition (in autumn) of dolomite flour. Survival during the picking is excellent, and cabbage does not even notice landing on permanent residence from individual cups at the stage of 5-6 leaves. After rooting for permanent residence, I sprinkle ash in the beds (with loosening), and before tying, I introduce complex macro and microfertilizer for cabbage into the beds). Among it micro elements necessarily have boron and molybdenum. When you cut off the head, then if the stump without emptiness is on the cut, then the boron was in moderation. Otherwise, the head will not even tie, or it will be ugly and bloom quickly. With a molybdenum deficiency, young leaves are thin and long as tails, and there will also be problems with tying.
From the very beginning: 1. I have been preparing the garden since the autumn. C. cabbage loves greasy, neutral soil. Therefore, if the soil is acidic, lime must be added. 2. Seeds. Early Dutch varieties that knot well in hot weather. The name has not yet been decided. 3. The key to a good harvest is a good seedling with a well-developed root system. I will sow in March in cassettes. They perfectly give the opportunity to grow just such a seedling. Seedlings should be seasoned, not overgrown with 5-6 leaves of dark green color. 4. Landing at the earliest possible date. Plant in dense soil, do not dig the bed. Plant at ground level. I plant in dry ground, water and mulch only then. Seedlings from cassettes take root well and do not get sick even in the hottest weather.
Alekcan9ra, Moscow region
I bought Gavrish seeds in my shop. Some seeds are from Holland, others are from the Japanese. Last year, Gavrish did not deceive with hybrids, good cabbage has grown.
Masleno S. Petersburg.
Video: planting cauliflower seedlings in a greenhouse
Cauliflower is an amateur product. But there are dozens of ways to cook it, including the old ones - in boiled form, with breadcrumbs and butter. It is also fried with eggs, pickled and canned, stewed, used in the preparation of the first hot dishes. Therefore, everyone can choose their favorite recipe, and cauliflower will benefit, because it is a very valuable food product. Especially your own, fresh, with well-known owners of the conditions for growing and processing.