How and when to plant apricot on a plum
Apricot is traditionally grown in the southern regions of the country, as it is a heat-loving plant. To promote this popular culture in the northern regions, it was necessary to increase winter hardiness. First of all, I had to take care of a hardy and compatible stock, which plum became for the southern tree. The methods and rules for vaccinating apricot on a plum are simple and accessible to a beginning gardener.
Spring plum apricot grafting - basics
Spring is the time when nature wakes up from winter sleep, plant juices begin to actively move from the roots to the crown, prompting the emergence of new shoots, leaves, flowers and fruits. In this state, the vaccination survives best; the wounds heal more quickly and easily.
Cuttings grafted in early spring, when the buds soon swell, take root better. And by the end of the season they will have time to give good, strong shoots that will confidently go into the winter. The exact dates can not be recommended, they vary depending on the region and the specific weather conditions of the current season. Usually they begin in mid-March in the southern regions and continue until the end of April in the northern regions.
How to plant apricot on a plum tree in spring
Sometimes novice gardeners ask a question - is it possible to plant apricot on a plum in spring.
The answer is yes, you can. This is often done when it is necessary to obtain a frost-resistant plant with non-heating roots. Apricot perfectly takes root on plum stocks, gardeners have long and successfully used this property.
In the spring, apricots are inoculated only with cuttings. They are harvested in late autumn and stored in a cold place (for example, in the basement) until vaccination.
As a stock, they use both young shoots aged 1-2 years, and three - five-year-old specimens. In the latter case, it is better if the tree stock will already grow in a constant place. Transplants at this age are associated with a slowdown in development and resorting to them, unnecessarily, is undesirable.
Of the large list of methods for vaccinating apricots on plums in spring, three are recommended. Copulation, in the cleft and under the bark. These methods are simple, available to a beginner gardener and give a high percentage of survival.
Before proceeding with vaccination, it is worth practicing on third-party biomaterial. For this, wild plants and shoots are suitable.
Step-by-step vaccination instructions by copying
This method is used when the diameters of the stock and scion coincide, or when the difference is up to 10%. Copulation is used on diameters from four to fifteen millimeters.
The method consists in the fact that the ends of the merged branches are cut at an acute angle and are combined with each other by slices. There are simple, improved and copulation with a saddle.
This method is good for getting seedlings.
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- To begin with, choose a vaccination site - even, with a smooth bark and a diameter corresponding to the diameter of the scion. The height of this place above the ground is determined based on local conditions. If the thickness of the snow cover is usually high, then the vaccination should be at least a meter high, and in some areas higher. In areas where snowy winters are rare, it is possible to plant grafts at an altitude of 40–50 cm. All buds located below are blind.
- Depending on the type of copying chosen, sections of the corresponding shape are made:
- For simple copying, on the connected parts of the scion and stock, make oblique sections at an angle of 20–25 °, 3-4 cm long.
- Improved copulation is characterized in that cuts are made on the slices, which are inserted into each other, providing tight contact.
- For copulation with a saddle on the scion, a platform is cut out, which is placed on the end of the stock.
- In any case, the junction is tightly wrapped with fum tape or duct tape with the adhesive side out.
Important. Slices are combined so that they are in contact with the cambial layers. If the diameters of the stock and scion are not the same, then these layers should be joined at least from three sides.
Types of copying: a - simple; b - improved; c, d - with a saddle; d - fixing vaccination tape
- With a knife or secateurs, cut the stalk, leaving 2-3 kidneys. The cut point is smeared with garden var.
- An impromptu greenhouse is arranged over the cuttings in order to maintain an increased level of humidity, which is needed for better survival. This is done by putting a plastic bag on the handle, tying it below the vaccination site. 2-3 small holes for ventilation are cut in the bag. After 1-2 months, when the stalk grows together with the stock, the package is removed.
Step-by-step instructions for vaccinating in the cleavage method
This method is used in cases where the diameter of the stock is from 8 to 100 mm, and may not coincide with the diameter of the scion. If the scion is much thinner, then several cuttings are grafted onto one cut. Do it like this:
The trunk in the selected place, as described above, is cut at a right angle. If grafted onto a branch, then the cut is placed as close to the base as possible.
- In the center of the cut, at a right angle to it, an ax or knife makes a cleavage 3-4 cm deep. In the case of a large scion diameter, two splits can be made crosswise or parallel to each other. The slot is wedged with a screwdriver or sliver.
In the center of the cut with an ax or knife, make a cleavage 3-4 cm deep
- The end of the handle (cuttings) is cut in the form of a sharp wedge and inserted into the cleft, not forgetting to combine the cambial layers. They take out a screwdriver or sliver - the cuttings are tightly clamped with a cleft.
- As in the previous description, the place of vaccination is fixed with a tape, smeared with garden var.
- Cut the cuttings for 2-3 kidneys.
Inserting the pointed ends of the cuttings make sure that the cambial layers coincide
- Equip a greenhouse, which is removed after the engraftment of cuttings.
Step by step vaccination for bark
The method is similar to the previous first step and result. It differs in that the trunk wood is not damaged, instead, the bark is cut and bent, for which the scion is placed. The method is suitable for trunks of large diameter, it is recommended to evenly plant up to four cuttings on it.
The order of execution is as follows:
- Similarly to the previous method, a place is selected and the trunk is cut.
- Cut the bark along with a layer of cambium to a length of 4-5 cm. If the cuttings are 2, 3 or 4, make the appropriate number of cuts. They are positioned evenly along the diameter of the barrel.
- At the lower end of each cut, a step of 3-4 cm long is cut, then an oblique cut is made.
- Gently bending the bark, place cuttings behind it so that the layers of cambium are in contact with each other.
The bark vaccine is suitable for large stocks
- Further actions are similar to the previous methods.
Whatever way the vaccine is administered, observe the following rules:
- The tool (knives, pruning shears) is sharpened sharply before performing work.
- Before use, the tool is disinfected with an antiseptic. To do this, use a 1% solution of copper sulfate, alcohol or hydrogen peroxide.
- Sections of stock and scion are made immediately before vaccination. The time from the moment of slicing to the connection of the grafted parts should be minimal. In the ideal case, no more than one minute.
- In the first year of life, grafted plants should be protected from direct sunlight. In this case, they will take root better.
- The applied garden var should not contain oil products such as gasoline, kerosene and the like. Beeswax or lanolin formulations are preferred.
Video: four-year-old apricot vaccination
About the results of last year's graft of apricot cuttings "in a split" on a plum. The growth rate is from 50 to 70 cm (flower buds are laid on vaccinations). Planted apricot for the first time. Places of vaccination are indicated by the harness. Planted in a crown or on a stamb above 50 cm from the soil (a lot of snow in the winter). Apricot cuttings grafted on a plum rose by 50–70 cm
Apricot cuttings grafted on a plum rose by 50–70 cm
Originally Posted by kursk162 View Post Question - And how long does the grafted apricot grow in your sink? No incompatibility? Planted on a blue plum (HZCh), blackthorn and Ochakovskaya Yellow. Vaccinations were in the crown and on the shoots of these stocks. It is poorly grafted into the crown of blue plum (HZCH), at the place of vaccination, gum and the slow development of the cuttings. But there is one vaccination per shoot (HZCh), which develops well. In the crown, the coolant is grafted normally, it develops well. But at the same time, the apricot itself makes up a smaller part of the foliage as a whole on the tree. Last spring it bloomed, there were ovaries, but then it was discarded, one apricot remained on the branch, but it did not ripen, it was discarded. Vaccinations on shoots, i.e. with the complete absence of leaves of the plum of the coolant itself, the first year develops excellently, but in the spring it turns out that they completely died (2 cases, this past spring). On the blackthorn they grow well on overgrowths; I did not plant the blackthorn on the crown. On the blackthorn, I have a third season vaccination, many flower buds have been laid, but in winter there were frosts below minus 33, I will wait for the result of wintering. Now I am trying to seedlings of different forms, while they sprouted on the balcony in pots and part in the ground in the garden in the village. Nevertheless, our climate is not the most suitable for apricot. It is necessary to select options.
The described methods of vaccination are simple and reliable, tested by agronomists and gardeners for decades. During the growing season, cuttings give strong, healthy shoots that tolerate even severe winters. By planting apricot on a plum in early spring, the gardener is confident in the result.