Honeysuckle Leningrad giant - a variety for sweet tooth
Honeysuckle is increasingly found in our gardens. By its qualities, its fruits are not inferior to dessert varieties of the leading berry crops - strawberries, raspberries, currants. And thanks to its high adaptation to adverse environmental factors, blue honeysuckle has become a real find for northern and eastern gardening. Despite the harsh winters, spring frosts and summer drought, it is always with the harvest. In Russia, more than 70 varieties of honeysuckle are zoned, one of the sweetest and large-fruited is the Leningrad giant.
Honeysuckle is common in the northern latitudes of America and Eurasia and has a wide variety of species. The most famous is the blue honeysuckle, the edible berries of which the inhabitants of Siberia and the Far East have long been harvested for use in food and as medicinal raw materials. Researchers of Kamchatka and Primorye described edible honeysuckle in detail in the XVII-XVIII centuries. In the 19th century, T.D. Maurits took up the cultivation of these berry bushes in the garden, later I.V. Michurin laid the foundation for the development of new varieties of honeysuckle in Russia.
Today, our school for breeding a garden berry from the honeysuckle family is considered the best in the world. Many species of this culture were bred at the Pavlovsk Experimental Station named after N.I. Vavilova, St. Petersburg. Thanks M.N. Plekhanova and her colleagues managed to obtain magnificent varieties of honeysuckle, which were included in the assortment of fruit plants not only in Russia, but also in many countries of the world. The elite includes the Leningrad giant variety obtained by the seed method from the wild-growing form of Kamchatka honeysuckle.
Honeysuckle Leningrad giant - the pride of Russian breeders
This is an early ripening variety. Its main advantage is its very sweet fruits, so the Leningrad giant is used as a donor of sweet fruit to breed new hybrids. There is absolutely no bitterness in the berries, which is characteristic of Kamchatka species of honeysuckle. The variety is valued for productivity and large-fruited: the weight of the fruit can reach up to 4 g - hence the name of the variety.
It has high frost resistance - shoots and roots do not freeze even at -40 ° C, are undemanding to heat and during the growing season - flowers and ovaries do not lose viability at -8 ° C. Thanks to this cold resistance, honeysuckle can be grown in the northern regions, where the traditional set of berry crops is limited. The variety is resistant to diseases and pests.
Variety Leningrad giant is valued for productivity and large fruits
Honeysuckle The Leningrad giant grows in the form of a rather tall shrub (1.5–2 m) with a round crown of medium density. The shoots are straight, light green, pubescent. Over time, the bark acquires a brownish tint, cracks and exfoliates in long stripes. The leaves are large, in the form of an elongated oval. The leaf plate is dark green in color, straight, up to 6 cm long, 3 cm wide. The honeysuckle blooms with bell-shaped pale yellow flowers.
The berries of a dark blue hue have an elongated cylindrical shape with a rounded base. The skin is thin, dense, without pubescence, tuberous, with a bluish waxy coating. The pulp is tender, sweet and sour, fragrant, without bitterness.
Productive variety - up to 3 kg from the bush, in favorable years and up to 5 kg. Differs in early maturity - already in the 3rd year the fruits appear, maintains good productivity for 25-30 years. A characteristic feature of the genotype is the arrangement of berries on the branches in clusters, which greatly facilitates the harvest. Many varieties of honeysuckle crumble upon ripening; at the Leningrad giant, ripe fruits remain on the bush.
It is not for nothing that the variety has such a name - the berries of the Leningrad giant are large, up to 3.3 cm long
The variety is self-fertile, blooms, but does not give ovaries. To obtain the crop, additional pollinators are required - edible honeysuckles of other varieties: Blue spindle, Morena, Blue bird.
When planting honeysuckle bushes, the features of this culture should be taken into account.
Where to plant
The most light areas, most of the day in the sun, should be reserved for planting. In shaded areas, fruiting is reduced. Resistance to low temperatures allows you to grow crops in open areas, without fencing them with a fence or sheds.
Honeysuckle is unpretentious to the composition of the soil, but grows better on fertilized sandy loam soil with neutral acidity. In areas with a high level of acidity, the foliage loses its bright green color, the plant gives a poor harvest. Shrubs should not be planted in moist lowlands with a close location of groundwater - they should lie below the ground by 1.5–2 m.
For honeysuckle, the brightest place should be reserved so that the sun illuminates the bushes all day
Honeysuckle bushes are planted at a distance of at least 1.5 m from each other so that the plants that have grown over time do not touch the neighboring branches, because they are very fragile and can break off under severe bending.
As neighbors, you can plant bushes of blackcurrant, barberry, dogwood nearby - the cultures get along well together. But the honeysuckle should be planted away: a growing liana will quickly cover all the nearby berry bushes growing nearby. In addition, when pollinating, in edible honeysuckle, the berries become bitter.
The berry can be formed from several bushes, placing them in a group. And you can plant in a row as a hedge or to indicate the boundary of the site.
Honeysuckle bushes planted in a row can be used to delimit garden areas
Honeysuckle should be planted during the dormant period, which occurs in her by the end of July. Therefore, the best time to land is from August to November. Planting at the beginning of the season is undesirable, because the vegetation at the honeysuckle begins very early: already at the end of March the buds open. Even container plants, planted with a large lump of land, are struggling to adapt in a new place.
Honeysuckle blooms very early, when snowfall is still possible
Now nurseries offer a wide selection of honeysuckle seedlings in containers. Such plants must have a certificate containing information about the variety, age, necessary pollinators. It is better to purchase 2-year-old bushes up to 40 cm high, with 2-3 flexible branches on which the kidneys are visible. The root system must be developed, with no signs of rot.
You should not take tall bushes (more than 1.5 m) - overgrown plants painfully transplant, later begin to bear fruit.
It is better to purchase container seedlings that take root much faster.
Prepare the site in advance. 3 weeks before planting, 40x40 cm pits are dug. Drainage is laid on the bottom, part of the fertile soil mixed with 20 l of humus, 30 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium salt (or 500 g of ash). You can use the complex Ava fertilizer containing all the necessary trace elements (15 g / m2). Due to the homogeneous structure, the fertilizer dissolves slowly. As a result, the plants are completely saturated with nutrients for a long period - up to 3 years.
Planting pits prepared in advance, before planting seedlings, season with fertilizers
It is possible to improve the composition of the soil with the help of vermicompost: 1.5 kg of dry vermicompost or 3 l of its solution is mixed with the soil, and the soil is well shed. Such organic fertilizer is much more effective than mineral mixtures.
2 hours before planting, the roots of the honeysuckle are dipped in water to saturate them with moisture. You can add growth stimulants Kornevin or heteroauxin.
Step-by-step landing process:
- In the center of the pit, fertile land is poured with a knoll.
- Dip a bush on it, thoroughly straighten the roots in different directions. Container plants are planted with an earthen lump.
Container plants are planted with an earthen lump
- Sprinkle a seedling, well compacting the soil.
- The root neck is buried in the ground by 5 cm.
- They make a hole around the bush, pour 10 liters of water into it.
- Lay a layer of hay, straw 10 cm thick on the basal zone.
Honeysuckle bushes after planting are not pruned, as is done with other berry crops - shortening delays their growth and fruiting.
After planting the honeysuckle, the root zone is mulched
Honeysuckle bushes planted on well-seasoned ground for the first 2 years do not need to be fed. They also do not trim. Young plants only water, weed and mulch.
Watering and loosening
During the season, honeysuckle should be watered at least 5 times, and more often in the dry period. Watering is especially important at the time of formation of the ovaries, in late May - it contributes to an increase in the mass of berries by 15%. Lack of moisture negatively affects the taste of the fruit. On average, 15 liters of water are consumed per bush, during the period of fruit filling, in the absence of rain, increase the amount to 30 liters.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The water defended in the sun is introduced into circular grooves made around the plant. You can water the entire bush with a spray hose. When sprinkling, not only the soil, branches, foliage are irrigated, but also air humidity increases. However, during flowering, this type of irrigation is unacceptable, since water can wash away pollen and weaken pollination.
After watering and rain, when moisture is absorbed into the soil, the root zone is carefully loosened so as not to damage the suction roots located in the surface layer. Then lay a layer of mulch, which contributes to less evaporation of moisture and inhibits the growth of weeds.
Only from the third season, honeysuckle begin to feed. In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied under the bushes (2 tbsp. Urea / 10 l). Since the culture prefers organic nutrition, after snow melting, instead of mineral top dressing, it is better to fertilize it with 10 kg of humus. In the phase of bud extension and the formation of ovaries, the bushes are watered with an ash solution (1 l / 10 l). In autumn, 5 kg of compost, 100 g of ash and 40 g / m2 of superphosphate are added to the trunk circle, potassium salt (15 g / m2) is added every 2 years.
Honeysuckle prefers organics to mineral dressing
If Ava complex fertilizer was used during planting, once every 3 years at the end of the season, 1 tbsp. l this composition and close up in the soil. In this case, no more mineral fertilizers are needed. Only after fruiting should organics be annually brought under the bush (humus bucket).
Pruning of the bush begins to be carried out from the third season, forming a sparse crown. Honeysuckle grows rapidly so as not to thicken the bush, leave only 5 strong branches, necessarily root cuttings, unfertilizing small weak branches, branches of the shaded first tier. Thinning pruning is carried out in autumn, after falling of leaves, at negative values of night temperature.
Pruning is necessary to form a sparse honeysuckle bush
Since flower buds with a future harvest are planted in the axils of the upper leaves during the summer, it is impossible to trim the upper part of the shoots from the honeysuckle. At the end of each season, dry, broken branches, the damaged part of the crown to healthy wood are also removed.
By the age of 7 years, the productivity of the berry shrub decreases, in this case rejuvenating pruning is required. For several seasons in a row, 2 old branches are cut to the root, replacing them with 3 young shoots, so the bush is gradually rejuvenated.
You can apply radical pruning, cutting off all the stems at a level of 50 cm from the ground. Overgrown shoots will soon appear on the stumps, and the bush will completely recover.
Honeysuckle is characterized by unprecedented frost resistance: the shoots are not afraid of extreme subzero temperatures (-50 ° C), the roots do not freeze at -40 ° C, flowers and ovaries are not damaged at -8 ° C. No shelter is required for the bushes; on the eve of a cold snap, they only water it (30 l / plant) and lay a layer of compost.
Under the snow coat, honeysuckle bushes will tolerate even severe frosts.
Only with sharp changes in air temperature during the winter period from -41 ° С to thaws (2 ° С) is insignificant damage to flower buds and tops of shoots possible. However, plants, with good regenerative ability, quickly adapt to local conditions.
Honeysuckle can be easily propagated with seeds, however, with this method, parental properties are lost, therefore, it is mainly used by breeders.
With vegetative propagation, varietal properties are preserved. For propagation by lignified cuttings at the end of autumn, annual growths are cut into 20 cm pieces. Such cuttings are stored in sand or sawdust until spring. As soon as the ground is thawing, they are planted in a greenhouse at an angle of 45 °, regularly watering and slightly opening for ventilation. After a month, roots appear. Transplantation to the site is carried out in the fall.
When propagated by cuttings, varietal signs of honeysuckle are fully preserved
Green cuttings 12 cm long are cut from annual growths at the end of flowering and planted in containers with fertile soil, watered and covered with a film. For better rooting, you can use Aquadon, which not only nourishes the plants with the necessary trace elements, but also keeps the soil moist for a long time. The greenhouse must be opened for ventilation, to prevent drying of the soil. Next fall, grown plants are planted in the garden. Such cuttings have the highest survival rate.
The easiest way to propagate honeysuckle - using layering. In June, the top of the shoot is sprinkled with soil with a 5 cm layer, pinned and watered. Separate it from the mother plant and plant it should be next year in the fall.
The easiest way to reproduce honeysuckle - using apical layers
Honeysuckle reproduces very easily by dividing shrubs. A bush no older than 5 years old is divided into parts with roots and 2-3 branches. Since the wood in honeysuckle is very strong, the division of the bush is carried out using a saw or an ax. Each bush is planted separately.
Video: honeysuckle breeding
Honeysuckle practically does not get sick, only during prolonged rains or in severe drought harmful fungi can develop on it. Rarely found on bushes and insect parasites. Preventive measures will help grow bushes healthy.
Table: Honeysuckle Disease
|Disease||Signs of infection||Prevention||Treatment|
|Spotting||Red-olive spots appear on both sides of the leaves. Foliage turns yellow and dries. The spread of fungal spores is facilitated by planting thickening and dampness.||Before budding, treat with Hom (40 g / 10 L), 0.25% Ditan M-45, repeat after 2 weeks.|
|Powdery mildew||A fungal disease attacks honeysuckle in a drought. Whitish spots first appear on the foliage, then on the shoots. The development of the disease contributes to landing in a shaded place.|
|Sooty mushroom||A dark coating forms on the foliage. Spores fungi develop on sticky aphid secretions.||In the green cone phase, treat with 1% Bordeaux mixture, 1% Fundazole, Tsineba (8 g / 10 l). Repeat in a week.|
|Tuberculosis||Redish swellings appear on the affected shoots. Wilted foliage, shoots dry up.||Thin out bushes regularly.|
Photo gallery: diseases that threaten honeysuckle
- Spotting can be identified by the characteristic reddish-olive spots on both sides of the leaf
- Powdery mildew - a fungal disease that spreads rapidly in severe drought
- Leaves affected by soot fungus gradually dry out
- Reddish tubercles appear on the shoots of the bush affected by tuberculosis
On a note. Sweet honeysuckle berries are liked not only by people, but also by birds. Sparrows and fieldbirds can quickly destroy most of the ripe fruits. In order not to lose crop, berries should be picked immediately, as soon as they ripen. A reliable method of protection is to cover the bushes with a net.
The most annoying honeysuckle pests are birds, especially mountain thrushes
|Pests||Manifestations||Preventative measures||How to help|
|Aphid||Aphids suck out juices from leaves and shoots. Plants weaken, resistance to viral infections decreases.|
|Leaflet||The leaf caterpillar eats leaves, fruits, buds, shoots, and it is she who can twist the leaves.|
|Honeysuckle Fingerfly||The caterpillar eats berry pulp. Unripe fruits frown and fall.||Thin out the crown of the bush.|
|Shield||Small pests stick to the bark. The bush dries and dies.|
Photo Gallery: Honeysuckle Pests
- Aphid colonies, eating plant sap, greatly weaken them
- Green leaf caterpillars feed on buds, leaves, fruits, young shoots and live in twisted leaves
- The honeysuckle pinworm penetrates deep into the fruit and feeds on seeds and berry flesh
- Scabies dig into the branches of honeysuckle and suck out the juice from them
According to my observations, it does not have bitterness at all, unlike other varieties, it has very little acid, therefore in an unripe state the taste is freshly sweet, the berry is not very aromatic, but in full ripeness the taste is naturally sweet.ADEM
My variety grows tight, but the berries are very large, partly larger than even the Bakch berries. Giant. The taste is very good, sweet. A lot of berries double, apparently, our hot weather during flowering has such an effect. There are enough bumblebees. The other day I was just thinking - I’ll make excellent photos, but when I wanted to collect today - half of the bird was devoured and ruined the idea. It’s a pity that he didn’t shelter.Elvir
I have Nymph, Morena, Lebedushka and the Leningrad giant, planting in the spring of 2014. Yesterday I gathered half a glass of berries from all together: ripe, without bitterness, quite large. About the same amount remained to ripen. The bushes grew well, I planted them without dancing, but I tried to mulch them with dry plant waste, because No watering, and last summer was hot. In principle, I am satisfied. It was very tasty to grind with sugar and add to homemade yogurt.irina s
I have a bush growing for ten years. Height is about 2 meters (but not at all 0.6 m). The berry is tasty, but not the largest, and the variety is not very fruitful. Anyway, we all really like it.Andrey2013
In recent years, gardeners' interest in honeysuckle has grown significantly. First of all, they are attracted by the undeniable advantages of this culture over other berries - early ripening of fruits and unique winter hardiness. Especially popular is the Leningrad giant - one of the largest and most fruitful varieties of honeysuckle.