Honeysuckle cultivation: the rules of planting and care in the suburbs
Edible honeysuckle in the Moscow region and central Russia begins to produce crops earlier than other crops on the site. Sweet and sour (sometimes with bitterness) taste of dark fruits of a violet shade is pleasant to both adults, and children. Abundant fruiting of honeysuckle is almost always guaranteed with proper care. However, the first thing to do is to choose the suitable seedlings and the most suitable place for growing.
Time for landing
The beginning gardener is wondering at what point in time it is best to plant the honeysuckle. The timing of planting is directly affected by the proposed method of propagation of the crop.
The main options:
- separation from the mother bush of the daughter with its own root system,
- harvesting cuttings,
- rooting layering.
Regardless of the honeysuckle propagation option, as a result, a seedling (or several) as an independent unit of planting material should be prepared. If seedlings are received in the fall, and planting is planned for spring, you will have to take care of the safety of planting material in the winter. For example, dig the roots into the ground and temporarily leave it warm until spring.
In the climate of the Moscow Region, planting of honeysuckle is possible in spring and autumn. Spring is the best time for honeysuckle planting. Some experts say that replanting a plant is also better in the spring.
Honeysuckle must be planted in a permanent place before the buds open
Planting and transplanting bushes is carried out until the buds open on the shoots. The best time for planting in spring is the last decade of April, and in autumn - mid-September.
Landing of a honeysuckle in Moscow suburbs in the spring
If planting is planned for spring, you should not delay the procedure and it is better to complete it before the active vegetation of the bush, which begins in early summer. Honeysuckle in the Moscow region is planted in the same way as in another territory of our country. Despite the general unpretentiousness, this culture has certain requirements for growing conditions. For example, to a place on the site and to soil fertility. Honeysuckle is a sun-loving plant. Therefore, the place where they will put it should be well lit.
Honeysuckle loves sunny spots on the plot
The soil should be fertile, with moderate humidity, but without stagnation of water in it. Ground water in the place reserved for the bush should not rise high to the surface. When preparing the landing pit, the bottom is covered with a drainage layer - broken bricks, expanded clay and other similar materials. The distance between the seedlings is maintained within 1.0–1.3 m. The holes are dug to a depth of half a meter. The upper layers of the soil are folded apart and mixed with nutrients:
- humus (3 kg per sq. m),
- wood ash (1.5 cups per sq. m),
- by lime (1 tbsp. l. per 10 liters of water).
Pits filled with nutrient substrate are left for a couple of days. And only after that they start planting seedlings. The young plant is lowered into the planting hole, carefully distributing the roots around the perimeter. The root neck is deepened at a distance of 7 cm.
The root neck of a honeysuckle seedling is buried when planting 7 cm
After backfilling into the pit of the substrate, the seedling must be well watered. Over the next week, regular irrigation should be carried out, maintaining the soil in a constantly moistened state.
How to propagate honeysuckle in different ways
If the site already has a bush of your favorite honeysuckle variety, it can be propagated by cuttings. Cuttings for this take green or lignified. Harvesting of green cuttings is carried out in late spring, when the phase of fruit ovary begins. A characteristic crunch when breaking a branch indicates that a cuttings can be prepared from this shoot.
Cuttings are harvested from strong shoots of the current year, cutting in the morning. Planting material is formed from the middle part of the branches, providing a length of 15 cm. Two nodes and one internode should be present on this segment of the branch.
Fresh cuttings are immediately planted in moist moistened soil, covered with a plastic wrap. In young plants, roots grow after about a week and a half. In autumn, cuttings are not recommended for planting in an open area. It is more advisable to leave them in greenhouse conditions until the warm spring days. Fruiting young bushes of honeysuckle begin in the third year after planting.
Honeysuckle cuttings root before planting
The procedure for rooting lignified cuttings is carried out in another way. They are cut in the fall and, wrapped in dense matter, placed in storage in the sand until spring comes. Planting in the ground is performed in spring, filling the top of the roots with soil at 20 cm. The mounds formed in the summer and autumn are spud and watered. The next year, the seedlings are dug up and transplanted to a permanent place.
Cultivation can be done by dividing the bush. To do this, bushes that have reached the age of three or five years are dug up early in spring or autumn, divided into 2-3 parts in the rhizome area. Already separated bushes are planted at a constant place of growth.
Honeysuckle, like many fruit bushes, is propagated by layering according to the following scheme:
- The young shoot is rejected from the mother bush, placed in a pre-prepared trench and pinned with wire.
- The earth around the stem is slightly loosened.
- They wait until the roots grow.
- Then the finished seedling is separated from the mother plant and planted as an independent bush.
To get a honeysuckle seedling, the escape from the mother bush is taken into the trench for rooting
Honeysuckle is propagated by seed. However, this option is often used by breeders. Harvesting of seeds is performed from large and fully ripe fruits. Seeds are sown in late October. Prior to this, the seeds are stored in a wooden container covered with polyethylene. Seeds begin to emerge after 30 days. Transplantation into the ground of sprouts is planned for May next season.
What honeysuckle is best planted in the suburbs
Honeysuckle varieties, like any other culture, are of early, middle and late ripeness. The berries of edible honeysuckle varieties vary in shape and shade (from dark purple to black). They also vary greatly in taste. There are sweet, less sweet, sweet and sour, with and without bitterness.
Selection of new varieties of honeysuckle with dessert indicators of taste for cultivation in the Moscow region and in the Moscow region began in the Main Moscow Botanical Garden in the middle of the twentieth century. Culture instances brought from Siberia and the Far East were studied by breeders A. Kuklin, L. Kuminov, A. Skvortsov. They were faced with the task of removing bitterness from berries, preserving in the fruits a maximum of useful substances and natural vitamins. As a result of their work, now-known Moscow varieties appeared, which today are respected by gardeners. They are conditionally classified, dividing into several groups.
Homemade Dessert Varieties
They have large berries with a sweet taste and thin skin, easily come off the stalk. Each variety bush gives a yield of 2–4 kg. These are such varieties as:
- Gzhel early
- Nizhny Novgorod early
Kuminovka honeysuckle variety was created by Russian breeders for the Moscow region
Varieties of universal use
In addition to nutritional value, these varieties also have a decorative function. Resistance to frost and early ripening of berries are the distinguishing features of these shrubs. The height of the plants is decent - up to 2-3 meters, they have decorative leaves and fragrant fruits. Over 4 kg of berries are collected from one bush. The following varieties are suitable for cross-pollination:
- Moscow 23,
The variety of honeysuckle Kingfisher differs in winter hardiness, sweet taste and lack of bitterness
Here are some more recommended varieties of honeysuckle suitable for planting in the suburbs.
- The chosen one. Late grade. Bushes are undersized, semicircular in shape. The fruits are large, oblong-oval, sweet, with a pleasant taste, weighing 1.2 g. At the Chosen bushes, a strong flaking of fruits is noted.
- Nymph. Mid-season variety is considered the best for breeding in the climate of the Moscow region. Winter hardy. Sweet Nymph berries have a pronounced sourness, have a dessert flavor. The berries weigh 1.1–1.3 g, and their length is 26–30 mm. Productivity - 1.5 kg per bush. The surface of the berries is wavy, the skin is thin, the flesh is tender.
- Moraine. It is characterized by early ripening of berries, shows good resistance to diseases and harmful insects. Bushes are oval. The berries are large - up to 2 g in weight, up to 25 mm long, have an elongated cylindrical shape, thin peel, blue-blue color with a touch of wax. The taste is dessert, with a pronounced aroma. Productivity - 1.5 kg per bush.
- Sylginka. The variety has vigorous, sprawling bushes with an oval crown. In the conditions of the Moscow Region climate it develops and bears fruit excellently. It tolerates periods of drought. The berries are elongated, large, with a pointed tip, weighing 1.4 g, length 3.5 cm. Sylginka is the best honeysuckle among sweet varieties, has sweet and aromatic fruits with delicate pulp.
- Bakcharsky giant. Large-fruited and abundant crops distinguish the variety of this honeysuckle. The bushes are semi-spreading, up to 1.9 m high, the shoots are anthocyanin in color. Pear-shaped berries, weighing up to 1.8–2.0 g, up to 4 cm long. Their flesh is juicy, sweet and sour, with good taste.
Photo gallery: popular honeysuckle varieties suitable for the Moscow region
- The honeysuckle Chosen has sweet berries, which, when ripe, quickly crumble from the bushes
- Honeysuckle Nymph is considered the best variety for breeding in the Moscow region
- Sylginka - the best sweet variety of honeysuckle with large berries
- Bakcharsky giant is a large-fruited and abundantly bearing honeysuckle variety
- Morena honeysuckle berries have a dessert flavor
Since honeysuckle is a self-infertile plant, it requires cross-pollination to set fruit. To do this, up to three different varieties of this shrub should be planted on the site. At the same time, it is worth making a choice of a variety for the climate near Moscow, having familiarized yourself with the peculiarities of growing a culture in a particular region, as well as reading reviews of gardeners with experience.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Honeysuckle care after planting
Honeysuckle can grow in one place for about 20–25 years. There is nothing complicated in caring for her. It includes the following activities:
- loosening of the pericardium,
- plentiful watering,
- pruning shoots
- timely top dressing.
With particular care, you should monitor the plant immediately after planting in a permanent place. Honeysuckle requires a plentiful drink in the amount of a bucket per bush. It is important to irrigate on very dry days and in the phase of intensive development of shoots. Moisture deficiency can negatively affect the taste of berries: due to lack of water, they can become bitter.
Due to lack of water, honeysuckle berries may become bitter
For honeysuckle, not only the regularity of irrigation is important, but their abundance. Therefore, it is better to water less often, but with a large volume of water at a time. Watering often and superficially, slightly moistening the earth, is not worth it. The moisture penetration depth should be at least 40-50 cm.
If a soil crust has formed on the ground, it is loosened, removing weeds. During the season, the near-stem circle is loosened several times, carrying out manipulations carefully, without damaging the root system, approaching close to the surface of the earth. Preparation for wintering involves digging the earth around the trunk of the plant with subsequent mulching.
Honeysuckle top dressing in the first two years of growth in a constant place is not carried out. In the following period, organic fertilizers are introduced early in the spring every one year. Each year, ammonium nitrate (12–15 g) is introduced into the near-stem soil circle before the beginning of the phase of active opening of the kidneys. Bushes are fed and a urea solution prepared at the rate of 1 tbsp. l on a bucket of slightly heated water. If growth rates are slowed down, the plant should be fertilized with slurry or dissolved nitrophos. This measure is designed to stimulate abundant fruit production even in weak bushes.
Cutting off shoots on bushes is one of the standard procedures for caring for honeysuckle. However, it needs already matured plants, but not young bushes in the first years of life. The best time for manipulation is at the end of leaf fall at the junction of low temperature values. When pruning, remove dried, injured shoots, thinning out the growing crown. The places of cuts on the shoots are covered with garden varieties. The formation of the bush is made by selecting the 5 most powerful and healthy trunks.
Basic pruning rules for beginner gardeners:
- It is important to monitor the uniformity of the growth of the crown of the bush, to adjust the process by pruning.
- In the case of severe thickening, zero shoots coming out directly from the soil should be removed.
- If there are a lot of shoots, they should be thinned out by removing the dwarf stems.
- The cause of thickening of the crown can be the intensive formation of tops, their growth should also be controlled.
- Every year, in early spring, sanitary pruning should be carried out, in which dry, weakened and broken branches should be eliminated.
- With spring pruning, you do not need to shorten the young one-year-old shoots, since they produce the greatest yield.
- Spring pruning of the crown should be oriented mainly on the internal branches, which will allow the entire shrub to get maximum illumination.
When trimming honeysuckle, the main emphasis is on the internal, thickening branches of the bush
Anti-aging pruning is necessary for honeysuckle bushes that have reached 10 years of life. In the process of such an event, the bush is thinned, cutting off shoots that have stopped in development and growth. A complete anti-aging pruning consists in cutting off all the stems in line with the soil, after which a bush is formed from young shoots.
Treatment for insects, fungi and viruses
In conditions of home gardening, care for honeysuckle provides for regular compliance with preventive measures aimed at protecting berry plantings from damage by harmful insects and diseases. Processing carried out in a timely manner significantly reduces the risk of death of bushes and positively affects the productivity of the berry culture.
To properly process plants, you should be aware of the main misfortunes that can honeysuckle. The most common diseases:
- reddish-olive spotting,
- powdery mildew,
- tuberculosis (drying of the stems),
- blackening of branches due to damage by fungal pathogens.
Less often, honeysuckle is capable of contracting cancer and viral diseases: mottling of foliage, mosaic-rezuki. Fungicides help fight fungal diseases. These include colloidal sulfur, Bordeaux liquid, copper oxychloride, or Scor. Preventive measures for the treatment of bushes against fungi are especially relevant in early spring.
A significant danger to edible and decorative varieties of honeysuckle is represented by pests. Honeysuckle aphid is the main one. Leaflet (currant and rosacea), finger-wing, scutellum, and moth do much harm to this culture. Manual collection of caterpillars, when there are still few insects, can help against their spread. Spraying the bushes with chemicals is only possible after fruiting. Against leaf-eating insects, gardeners recommend the use of the following drugs:
As a folk remedy, a solution of tobacco dust is used.
Video: basic principles for growing honeysuckle
Our honeysuckle has been growing for about 10 years. I have never covered it. He tolerates winters well, but during this period no weather events have occurred. We have three different varieties, I wrote above. Only in spring I cut off broken or excess branches. So I think you should not worry. Absolutely wonderful shrub.Cute
I spread my honeysuckle cuttings. And in large quantities, because I have a turn for my varieties in the city and the district. In my story, I also spoke as a cuttings. The survival rate of cuttings is 95%. Lobelia correctly noted that the summer cuttings should be covered with a plastic, preferably a dark bottle and forgotten. For yourself beloved 2-3 cuttings can be covered. And I have cuttings, because there is a lot of planting material. Eleni Berel with a light spicy bitterness. Kamchadalka and Gerda are sweet. This is all that is in my collection from the list below. I also have Cinderella (the sweetest) Teterevskaya Chernichka Roksana Bee Fire Opal Azure Turchaninova Filippovskaya Blue Spindle All very sweet, even without signs of bitterness.Baba Galya
Question: “At what temperature is honeysuckle planted in spring?” Answer: Not only for honeysuckle - here it is not so much the air temperature that matters, but the condition of the seedlings and the temperature at which they were stored. If the seedlings are sleeping, you can plant immediately, as the ground thaws and warms up to positive values. If the leaves have gone, you will have to wait until the temperature of the soil equals that in which the seedling lives.Natalja_3216
Question: "When can I plant honeysuckle in spring?" Answer: ... Honeysuckle is a winter-hardy culture. As soon as the soil thaws, plant it. But if this is the month of May, which is not uncommon in Central Russia, then it is necessary to accustom to the sun. Good luck.orest
No, the honeysuckle is quite a winter-hardy plant, in general, the bush can easily tolerate frosts down to –40 ° C, but in spring, when young ovaries and flowers already appear, up to –8 ° C. Honeysuckle blooms very early, this happens just when the average spring daily temperature fluctuates around 0 ° C. And in the North-Western regions of our country at this time somewhere in the middle of April, therefore, the flowering of honeysuckle takes place before the late spring frosts begin and almost never get damaged by them.Svetlana Osicheva - landscape specialist
If you decide to add a garden or garden plot with bushes of honeysuckle, it should be understood that caring for this crop does not cause much trouble. The plant will not only decorate your garden, but will also delight you with delicious and healthy berries. In addition, any kind of honeysuckle (including inedible) has a mass of medicinal properties. To wait for the berries, you need not only to be patient, but also to take care of the plantings, observing the standards of agricultural technology.