Hibiscus or Chinese rose - a curiosity of home decor
Many have heard that there is a room flower called "Chinese rose", but most have no idea that this is one of the famous varieties of hibiscus that grows in the southern climate directly on city streets, and in the northern regions it has long been successfully cultivated in the volume of a flower pot .
The rose of love - the so-called residents of the Hawaiian islands garden hibiscus. The flowers of this plant can often be found woven into the hair of girls, where they effectively emphasized the southern beauty with juicy shades of their inflorescences. This plant belongs to the family of malvaceae and is cultivated as a small tree in an indoor flower pot, as well as an ordinary shrub in a garden or greenhouse.
Hibiscus flower strikes with its beauty
Hibiscus appeared in European botanical gardens in the 13th century. Today it can be met in many countries: Thailand, Egypt, China, as well as in Sudan and on the islands of Ceylon and Java.
The Chinese rose is an evergreen plant with a bare stem and alternating leaves, usually falling during dormancy. Inflorescences are quite voluminous and, depending on the variety, are distinguished by a rich color and openwork of the petal. The hibiscus fruit looks like a box, breaking up into five lobes. The seeds are slightly tucked with a fluff, but in some types of culture they are bare.
Hibiscus can be attributed to centenarians, its age is long and is about 20 years.
Hibiscus tree in the garden
This culture lends itself perfectly to the formation of a bush and, with proper care, can reach three meters in height.
The branches of the plant have an acidic taste, and its juice contains organic acids, anthocyanins, pectin and hibiscic acid, which makes the drink from the plant healthy and refreshing. Bactericidal, hemostatic, choleretic and diuretic properties make this drink medicinal.
Table: Seasonal Plant Care
|Lighting||Bright diffused light||Bright diffused light|
|Top dressing||In the spring and during the period of active growth||Pause|
|Temperature||20 ° C-22 ° C||14 ° C-16 ° C (optional)|
Similar conditions of detention are also suitable for Fatsia. More about this plant: rastenija / fatsiya-uxod-za-yaponskoj-krasavicej-v-domashnix-usloviyax.html
Varieties and types of Chinese roses
Among a wide variety of hibiscus varieties, there are several popular that can be grown in an apartment:
- Chinese hibiscus - can reach four meters in height, grows rapidly, requires a lot of space. The Chinese rose is very photophilous and with a lack of lighting almost does not bloom. Flowers in diameter up to 12 cm, are double. A tonic drink with a healing effect is prepared from this variety.
- Syrian hibiscus or Syrian rose, deciduous plant resembling mallow. It is cultivated both in open ground and in flowerpots of apartments or greenhouses. When transplanting, only the topsoil is replaced. He loves light and heat, has many varieties.
- The hibiscus is dissected - petulant - the petals of a flower of this species are dissected and laid back, and the pestle is very prominent, which makes this variety very exotic. Shades of red and orange; care like a chinese rose.
- Sudanese hibiscus is familiar to anyone who loves hibiscus tea. This species is often called rosella or simply Sudanese rose. The diameter of the flower is 10 cm, the color is red. The plant can be consumed completely, excluding the roots.
- Hybrid or grass hibiscus was bred in the USSR, in Tashkent, by crossing pink, red and holly hibiscus. It features large flower sizes (about 27 cm in diameter). The leaves resemble maple leaves in shape, have a reddish tint. It is able to winter in the open ground with warming in frosty periods.
- Hibiscus Cooper - named after Daniel Cooper, who brought him to England. Variety variegated, under bright light foliage turns pink. Flowers with a long pestle, large, of different shades, changing color from the tips of the petals to the core of the bud. The variety has a strong immunity.
- Hibiscus yellow - a variety with a tree trunk. It blooms profusely and regularly. The inflorescence is hard, bright yellow with scarlet streaks. Has about 15 varieties.
Photo gallery: so different hibiscus
- Hibiscus hybrid is known for its huge inflorescences.
- Hibiscus "Chinese rose" - the most common type of hibiscus in urban apartments
- Famous hibiscus tea is made from Sudanese hibiscus.
- Syrian hibiscus is able to grow a voluminous cap of blooming greenery
- Yellow hibiscus has more varieties. than the rest
- Cooper's hibiscus has a very decorative look due to the colorful foliage
- Dissected hibiscus forms very unusual flowers
Video: how the lip-shaped hibiscus blooms in Israel
Pot flower care at home
First of all, you should learn that hibiscus is a plant with a southern origin, and therefore it is important to create conditions where it will be warm and light. On the southern window or near it, the flower itself is the place, although the plant perceives penumbra normally. The main thing is to choose the right light mode for him, since with a lack of lighting the hibiscus ceases to bloom.
A well-lit place is also suitable for growing bashful mimosa. You can learn more about the rules of home care from the material: rastenija / mimoza-styidlivaya-uhod-v-domashnih-usloviyah.html
Note: if your plant grew in the shade, do not rush to take it out in the sun, the hibiscus will get a severe burn of leaves. Accustomize the plant to sunlight gradually, gradually moving the flower closer to the window.
Blooming hibiscus on a lighted windowsill
The ambient temperature should fluctuate between 20 ° -22 ° C, since the Chinese rose reacts capriciously to extreme heat and night coolness. Therefore, you should not open the window at night, and on a hot day, protect the flower from overheating by airing and spraying.
Landing and transplanting
The soil for the Chinese rose should be light, nutritious and close to neutral. An ideal composition is a mixture of turf, leaf and humus soil with sand (4: 3: 1: 1) or one part of sand and humus mixed with two parts of ordinary garden soil. Charcoal should be added to the soil.
Hibiscus roots do not tolerate stagnation of moisture in the pot, so the plant needs to provide drainage to drain water. To do this, you can pour a layer of expanded clay or small pebbles on the bottom of the pot with a layer of about 4 cm.
Video: transshipment of hibiscus
It is advisable to transplant a young hibiscus once a year, changing a pot of one volume to a larger capacity. But starting from the age of three, the need for an annual transshipment disappears, and the Chinese rose is transplanted only once every three to four years. This culture is fast-growing, so it needs to choose a pot that is appropriate, since the hibiscus does not like crowding, and if the flower becomes crowded, it will slow down its growth.
Video: planted hibiscus in a large pot (personal experience)
Watering and dressing a houseplant
Hibiscus only needs a humid atmosphere, so you need to water and spray it regularly:
with the ear, air does not promote flowering at all, since the buds need moisture to open. Moreover, dryness will provoke dry leaves and an attack of insects . Saying that the flowers will not open in a dry atmosphere does not mean that they need to be sprayed. After this procedure, the delicate petals will rot and the bud will fall off. Only foliage should be arranged for a shower, and the buds will get moisture, which will evaporate from the surface of the sheet. Next to the plant, you can also put containers with water to moisten the air.
Hibiscus loves warm and protected water
Note: water containers to increase the level of humidity around the hibiscus should be directly adjacent. You can’t put a flower pot in a water tray.
If frequent communication with the spray gun is not able to cause decay of the leaves, then the bay, especially with cold water, will destroy the roots . You need to water the Chinese rose often and plentifully, but each subsequent watering should occur only after the top layer of the soil has dried by about 5 cm. The water for irrigation should be settled at room temperature.
In spring, hibiscus is fed with fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus, this will contribute to growth and flowering. All other trace elements should be added to the active period of development once every 2-3 weeks, except for nitrogen, it should be avoided in the feeding of hibiscus.
How to make hibiscus blossom
If the hibiscus does not bloom, then it is enough to simply replace the soil in the pot and increase the degree of illumination. Thus, the growth of young shoots is stimulated, on which the buds are formed. Regular pruning also contributes to the abundant flowering of Chinese roses.
in poor lighting, hibiscus does not bloom
Often in the fall, heating is not started for a long time, and it is already getting cold outside. Hibiscus feels this temperature difference, especially if the summer turned out to be hot, and actively forms buds. Using this feature of the plant, you can artificially stimulate the Chinese rose for extraordinary flowering.
There is another secret to stimulation, which was used by our grandmothers. When a plant is transplanted into the soil with a pot where the rose grows, a wooden stick or sliver is inserted at a small distance from the trunk. This may seem unbelievable, but flower growers claim that this method makes hibiscus blossom not only regularly, but also sequentially, daily blossoming.
hibiscus can provoke flowering even in the middle of winter
When a plant sits in a pot too large, it will first grow in it, growing greenery, and only then will it find time and energy for flowering. The flower capacity should be proportionate to the crown of the plant. True, if you plant hibiscus in fertile soil, then it will fill the large tub with roots quite quickly.
Proper and timely top dressing also contributes to the flowering of hibiscus. To do this, it is enough to apply an extract from superphosphate or complex fertilizer from a flower shop with a special composition to stimulate flowering once every 20 days in moist soil.
And do not exploit the flower all year round. A short rest in the winter will allow us to re-enter the active phase of growth in the spring and please with abundant flowering.
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Hibiscus is able to stay calm during the winter, remain active and even bloom the entire period until spring at room temperature. It is enough to provide him with decent light and air humidity. But for good health and proper development, hibiscus should rest from November to February. To do this, you need to rearrange it in a shaded and cool place and reduce watering.
For winter, hibiscus can be removed deep into the room, away from batteries
The volume of one irrigation should not be reduced, but the intervals should be increased. You can navigate by the dried layer. Once it has dried to a depth of 5 cm, this means that you can water the plant on the third day. A plant is sprayed during this period only if the air is too dry, but often it is not worth it, and it is not necessary to feed it at all.
The optimum resting temperature of a Chinese rose for laying new buds is about 15 ° C. If the temperature is higher, then the hibiscus will not "fall asleep" and will develop, and therefore require nutrition. He will not have enough light and water, he will begin to hurt and, in the end, will wither. The lowest temperature limit is 13-14 ° C, when the temperature drops below, the flower will begin to freeze and hurt. Watering hibiscus abundantly at low temperatures, the grower runs the risk of ruining the roots of the plant.
In February, the Chinese rose is already ready for awakening, so it can be slightly moved towards the light and the temperature of the content, and at the same time irrigation, increased. A couple of weeks after the final adaptation of the plant to new conditions, it should be fed with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer.
Just before waking up, you can cut off hibiscus, this will stimulate its branching.
Forming pruning to hibiscus is necessary, it provokes the plant to a plentiful color. In addition, if you do not prune the Chinese rose, its bush will turn into impassable and ugly thickets. It is possible to cut the plant not only in spring, but also in any other period, observing the rules. If, for example, the bush is cut too late in May, then flowering can not wait. You can trim only those branches that have already faded.
After each flowering, you should pinch the tips of the branches, and the hibiscus will take out lateral shoots, on which buds will also form.
Cardinal pruning of hibiscus
It turns out that each uncircumcised branch is one unblown flower and a missed opportunity to admire it. Shoots parallel to the trunk are called “tops”, they must be cut first, just like the branches that grow inside the crown. Lignified shoots growing parallel to the main branches are also recommended to be trimmed. For reference, a leaf facing outwards is used: each shoot is shortened by one third over such a leaf.
It is possible to form a bush depending on the place of its maintenance: it is more convenient to grow a compact tree on a narrow windowsill, and it is more pleasant to see a spreading bush on the living room floor. It is difficult to overdo it in pruning hibiscus, this culture very quickly grows green mass, and foliage becomes lush and thicker.
Video: we put on a "marafet"
How to plant hibiscus
Hibiscus can be planted year-round, since it does not have a pronounced and mandatory period of rest. It is advisable to do this when the moon is in the growth phase, because plant juices in this period go from the roots to the stems.
There are several ways of grafting, and the most affordable is in the splitting:
- For vaccination you need a healthy and rooted cuttings - stock and hibiscus itself - a scion. The thickness of both branches must match.
- Vaccination is carried out with clean hands and alcohol-treated tools. At the rootstock, the top with leaves is trimmed and in the middle of the trunk an incision is made vertically by 1 cm.
Hibiscus scion trunk incision
- A cut of varietal hibiscus is sharpened at the end with a wedge and inserted into the notch of the scion.
For hibiscus vaccination, the scion is incised and the stock is sharpened
It is not recommended to pause here, so as not to dry the slices.
- The vaccination site is wrapped with thread for fastening.
The place of vaccination is tightly bound by thread
- The grafted hibiscus is covered with a transparent bag and placed under the lamp.
- The vaccine is regularly inspected and ventilated.
It looks like the place of vaccination after healing
A month later, if the rootstock plant has taken root, hibiscus is gradually accustomed to the usual conditions of growth, but the thread is not removed until six months. After removal, the grafting site is lubricated with garden var.
What is hibiscus afraid of?
Indoor plants are more often attacked by pests or infections, unlike their counterparts in the open ground, as they are in a confined space and sooner or later fall under the temperature jump, drought, draft or cold. While in the open air the environmental balance is regulated in a natural way, in the four walls we ourselves create the conditions for detention and often make mistakes. In order to be able to provide timely assistance to a diseased plant, it is necessary to be able to recognize the symptoms that hibiscus signals about its abnormal condition, and to know by what means you can correct the situation.
Table: Content Issues and Care Errors
|Unopened buds fall||The plant either drinks little, or eats poorly, or simply freezes.||Adjust the ambient temperature, watering and top dressing.|
|Fall of foliage and growth of a new, already yellowed.||Excessive calcium chloride in the substrate, nitrogen and iron deficiency, low air humidity, excessive cold watering, low ambient temperature.||Raise the temperature, water the plant only with settled water at room temperature, spray it regularly.|
|Lush crown, but lack of color.||Excess nutrients, excess nitrogen, little light, elevated temperatures in the winter.||Reduce the level of watering, reduce nutrition, increase light intensity. Keep away from heating appliances in the winter.|
|Pink spots on the leaves||Poor lighting, excess nutrients.||Stop feeding and increase light exposure.|
|Withering foliage||Insufficient watering||Adjust the watering mode.|
|The roots dry||Plant freezes||The ambient temperature should not be lower than 14 ° C in winter and 22 ° C in summer.|
|Foliage dries||Low humidity, high temperature in winter.||Regular spraying and keeping the plant away from heaters during the heating season will help.|
|Sudden yellowing||Pest attack or root decay due to cold gulf at low temperature.||Spraying the plant with a strong garlic infusion and drying the earthen coma.|
|Unexpected leaf fall||Low humidity, sharp environmental drop (temperature, light) or draft.||The resumption of regular spraying, the creation of a stable regime of maintenance.|
|Leaf curl||Plant parasites||Processing the plant with Mospilan according to the instructions. Indicated on the package.|
|Brown spots on the leaves||Nutrient deficiency||Extraordinary top dressing, including foliar.|
|Withered plant trunk||Drought, fever, low humidity.||Spraying, raising the ambient temperature, watering with warm, settled water.|
|The plant is "crying"||The process of gutting is the removal of moisture from a plant to the surface of tissues. Low light, high humidity. Perhaps a natural process of release of excess salts in the plant occurs.||Increase light, reduce spraying.|
|Spotting||Abruptly changing light conditions or spraying under direct rays and, as a result, a burn; fungal infection.||When a fungus is detected, the plant is treated with a milk solution (water and milk 1: 1). Before each irrigation, peeled cloves of garlic are added to the soil, and after the top layer dries, they are replaced by fresh ones.|
|Sticky coating||Aphids, whiteflies or scale insects. Quite possible. That the plant simply secretes nectar, naturally attracting pollinating insects.||Processing plants with Aktara according to the instructions indicated on the package.|
Photo Gallery: Common Hibiscus Ailments
- When stressed, hibiscus can stain
- Hibiscus grows yellow leaves with excess calcium and nitrogen deficiency
- Hibiscus will wither if not watered or watered with cold water
- Lack of nutrition may appear as brown spots on the leaves.
- Leaf spotting occurs due to sunburn or insect attack
- Hibiscus turns yellow and twists leaves with an active attack of pests
- Hibiscus gutta - a natural process in a plant
- Hibiscus attracts insects by releasing drops of odorous nectar
- Hibiscus dries leaves if not sprayed
Table: Hibiscus diseases and pests
|Disease or pest||Symptoms and causes||Means for control and prevention|
|Non-infectious chlorosis||It manifests itself in violation of the nutrition balance, when there is an excess or deficiency of nutrients. The branches become thinner, the leaves turn pale.||Weak flowering indicates a lack of potassium, spots on the leaves - a lack of nitrogen or magnesium, unexpected leaf fall or white foliage - a deficiency of iron.|
|Infectious Chlorosis||It occurs when a plant is infected with a pest, a microbe, a virus, or a fungal infection. The leaves curl and fall, the plant is oppressed as a whole.||Chemical treatment of hibiscus rarely helps in this case, since it is very difficult to determine the cause of the disease, which means choosing a drug. It is much easier to prevent such a nuisance: to transplant in a timely manner, monitor the cleanliness of the bush, regularly spray.|
|Vascular wilt (tracheomycosis)||Fungal infection of a plant. necrosis of branches at the base with the transition to the trunk and the gradual death of the entire bush.||· All affected areas of the plant are cut off, capturing healthy tissues, and after that the hibiscus is treated with an antifungal drug (Verticill. Fusarium, Zircon, Desavid, Grom-2, Domotsvet, Epin - use each drug strictly according to the instructions) or Trichopol solution (2 tablets dissolved in liter of water).|
|Aphid||A small insect, multiplies rapidly, settles on the back of the leaf, drinks plant juice. Manifested by sticky coating on plant tissues.||Foliar treatment of the plant with tobacco infusion or Fitoverm preparations, diluted according to the instructions indicated on the package.|
|Spider mite||A small red spider, almost invisible to the human eye. Covers leaves with cobwebs, drinks plant juice.||Spraying will help get rid of the tick, since it does not tolerate high humidity. With a massive attack, it is better to use Fitoverm.|
|Whitefly||Little white butterfly. It lives on the back of the leaf, makes egg masonry, leaves adhesive traces on the leaves.||Spraying with a solution of potassium soap or Fitoverm. In a well-ventilated room, the whitefly feels uncomfortable and leaves the habitat.|
|Gallitsa||Little midge. Leaves egg masonry directly in the bud. The buds are crumbling.||Against the gall midge, the treatment with the preparations Mukhoed, Grizzly or Provotox helps (apply following the instructions on the package).|
Photo Gallery: Who Threatens the Chinese Rose?
- Fungal hibiscus infection may be misdiagnosed
- Hibiscus chlorosis is manifested by active yellowing of foliage
- Whitefly in Hibiscus
- Gallitsa - a small fly that larvae lays in a bud
- Hibiscus aphids settle on the back of a leaf
- With vascular wilting, the bush dies in the bush
- A spider mite on hibiscus leaves noticeable skeins of web
Indoor Chinese rose propagates in two ways: seeds and cuttings. The first method is time consuming and is available only to breeders or patient gardeners with a penchant for scrupulous occupations, but sharing a bush with cuttings is not only simple, but also pleasant, since all varietal characteristics of the culture are preserved in cuttings and the young plant blooms already in its first year of development.
Propagation by cuttings
Hibiscus is usually cut after pruning.
Young twigs are placed in a vessel with water, like in a vase. The container should be selected from dark glass and it is better if it will be possible to cover it with branches, like a cap, also transparent, for example, a glass jar. The moisture around the cuttings will increase and they will most likely take root, and this will happen on the 25th or 30th day.
Hibiscus shank ready to take root in the ground
After the appearance of the roots, the cuttings are transferred to peat soil with the addition of coarse sand.
Sphagnum moss added to the soil will also have a beneficial effect on the rooting of hibiscus cuttings. Before planting cuttings in the ground, it is necessary to remove from each branch all leaves, except for the top two.
After six months, the cuttings will turn into young plants and each can be transplanted into a separate pot for the next 12 months.
The rooted hibiscus shoot blooms in its first year
Seeds are sown between the end of January and the beginning of March.
Before sowing, they are soaked in Epin solution for 12-14 hours and only then spread on a wet surface of a mixture of sand and peat. From above, the seeds are sprinkled with the same composition a centimeter and a half and cover the container with crops with glass or covered with a film in order to simulate a greenhouse atmosphere.
Hibiscus seed box
The temperature in the area of seed germination must be maintained constant, not exceeding 25 ° C-27 ° C, but with all the greenhouse procedures, this mini-greenhouse should be ventilated regularly to avoid the appearance of a treacherous fungus. During air baths, soil moisture is checked and sprayed if necessary. In order not to create stress in the seedlings by temperature differences, the water in the spray gun should be slightly warmer than room temperature.
When the seedlings form a second true leaf, they can be crucified into separate small containers.
Seedlings of hibiscus from seeds
Hibiscus grown from seeds will bloom only in the second or third year.
Video: growing hibiscus from seeds
Video: sowing hibiscus in boiling water
Video: transplantation after seeding with boiling water
Video: sowing seeds for seedlings without land
Hibiscus is ideal for indoor flower lovers who prefer unpretentious exoticism. A Chinese rose can equally easily tolerate weak diffused light, and temperature changes, and even a treacherous draft or short-term drought. Thanks to this undemanding nature, hibiscus is often displayed in halls, offices, large living rooms and even corridors of large institutions.