Harvest juicy cauliflower from seeds: easy and fast!
Cauliflower is a fairly popular vegetable crop that can be grown both in greenhouse conditions and direct sowing in open ground. Regardless of the method chosen, one of the important points of success in the cultivation of this variety of cabbage is the proper preparation of seeds and their sowing. Following the step-by-step recommendations, growing cauliflower will not be difficult even for a novice gardener.
Selection and preparation of beds for cauliflower
The selection of the site and the preparation of beds for planting and growing cauliflower should be taken in the fall. For this kind of cruciferous culture, a sunny and warm place in the garden is selected, since a large number of leaves will grow in the shade, and the ovary as such will not form.
Dense, heavy, and clay soils with high acidity are not suitable for cauliflower. The optimum pH for the culture is 6.5–7.5. You can check the acidity with a special device or indicator strips. If the soil is acidic, you will have to add lime or dolomite flour for its deoxidation. Most often, lime is used at the rate of 250-600 g per 1 m² (depending on the degree of acidity).
On acidic soils, cabbage is more susceptible to a disease such as keel.
To properly prepare the soil for planting cauliflower, you need to know its acidity
In addition to regulating the acidity of the soil, they pay attention to fertilizing, thanks to which it is possible to improve the composition of the soil. All types of cabbage love organic matter and cauliflower is no exception. Therefore, during the preparation of the beds, humus or compost is introduced. The amount of fertilizer depends on the condition of the soil, its type and fertility. To ensure normal water and air exchange, add 1-3 buckets of organic per 1 m².
Cauliflower responds well to organic fertilizers, so when preparing the site make compost or humus
Young shoots of cauliflower are quite sensitive to a lack of basic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium). Therefore, in the autumn, along with organic matter, the soil can be filled with nitrophos (2 tablespoons per 1 m²), and in the spring before planting, make Kemira (60–70 g per 1 m²).
Do not make too wide beds for the crop, as this can lead to an excess of moisture, but at the same time, because of the narrow beds, it may be insufficient. The optimal width is 1 m.
To improve germination and seed germination, they must be processed before sowing. To do this, perform a series of procedures, which we dwell on in more detail.
First of all, the seed is calibrated: the seeds are placed in saline (3%) and incubated for about 5 minutes. As a result, lighter grains remain on the surface, while heavy grains sink to the bottom. Just settled seeds and suitable for sowing.
To select high-quality seeds for planting, it is necessary to calibrate in 3% saline
After the solution, the seeds are washed in water and dried a little to prevent premature germination.
It is recommended to leave only large seeds for planting, but medium ones can also be used.
In order to assess how good seed will be used, it is necessary to perform a germination test:
- Seeds are placed in a damp cloth (gauze) in an amount of 100 pieces, so that it is easier to calculate the percentage of germination.
- Germination occurs at a temperature of + 20–25 ˚С. At the same time, they constantly check that the fabric is wet.
- Seeds are inspected daily, sprouts are counted and removed.
Those seeds that sprouted during the first three days determine the germination energy and how germinating the seedlings will be. Seeds sprouted during the week indicate germination in general.
To determine the germination of seeds, they are first soaked, and then germinated
At the next stage, cauliflower seeds are prepared for sowing. In order to prevent the development of fungal and bacterial diseases, the seed material is treated in a 1-2% solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, and then washed in clean water.
Despite the fact that disinfection in this way is the most common, the best effect can be obtained with heat treatment. In this case, the seed is placed in a gauze or tissue bag and placed in water with a temperature of + 48-50 ° C for 20 minutes. The indicated temperature values should not be exceeded, since the seeds will lose their germination ability, and at lower rates from such treatment there will be practically no result.
To disinfect cauliflower seeds, they are treated in a solution of manganese
To accelerate the germination of the seeds of the culture in question, they are soaked in water at room temperature and placed in heat, where they are for 12 hours. At the same time, water is changed every 4 hours. The water level should be such that the seeds do not float, but only cover it. The main goal of the procedure is to make the seeds swell. If sowing will be carried out later, then they, wrapped in a damp cloth, are placed in the refrigerator on the lower shelf.
To accelerate germination, the seeds are soaked until swelling, and then placed in the refrigerator
It is quite common to soak the seeds in the infusion of wood ash, for the preparation of which 2 tablespoons of ash are poured into 1 liter of warm water and insisted for a day, and filtered before use. Seeds in such a nutrient solution are placed for 3 hours, after which they are washed in clean water.
The final stage of seed preparation for sowing is hardening. After soaking, the seed is placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for a day. The temperature should be + 1–2 ˚С. This allows you to increase the resistance of plants to low temperatures and contributes to better germination. At the end of the hardening process, the seeds are slightly dried, and then proceed to sowing.
Video: preparing cabbage seeds for sowing
How to get Cauliflower Seeds
If you grow cauliflower on your site every year, then buying seeds is optional, because you can harvest them yourself. The cultivation of cabbage in order to obtain planting material differs from conventional cultivation. Spend it this way:
- From the plants planted with seeds or seedlings, the strongest are chosen: they are called mother liquors.
- Selected plantations are fed with complex fertilizers, loosen, water, and spud.
- In order to accelerate the flowering process, the leaves are unbent and fixed in such a position that will provide better access of light to the inflorescences.
- When the cabbage head becomes less dense, remove the central part and leave well-developed side shoots. Their number should not be more than five.
- Then the section is sprinkled with ash, which will prevent rotting.
- After about a month, the uterine plants turn into testes, that is, when the culture is actively flowering. At this time, cabbage is abundantly watered.
- During the period of the appearance of the first flowers, they are fed with superphosphate and hilling is performed.
- At the end of flowering, the tops of the shoots are nipped to form a better seed.
- To accelerate ripening, the root system of plants is cut with a shovel or slightly raised with a pitchfork, prying on the plant itself, so that small roots break off.
- At this time, watering completely stop.
- Seeds are harvested after their ripening, which can be judged by the yellowed leaves and stems, as well as dried pods. To do this, they are cut with whole branches, laying a film under the plants.
After flowering, cauliflower produces seeds that are harvested after ripening.
Planting seeds in the ground
The main method of growing cauliflower is seedling, but the culture can be obtained by direct sowing in open ground. This method has several advantages, since the plants are more resistant to dry and hot weather due to the formation of a strong root. (When transplanting seedlings, the root system is at least a little, but still damaged.) In addition, when sowing cabbage directly to the site and on time, development occurs without any delays. To plant a crop by seed, you must adhere to certain rules and follow the recommendations.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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When to plant cauliflower: terms
The timing of planting cauliflower seeds in unprotected soil depends on the cultivation region and variety (from late March to early May), as well as climatic conditions. The considered culture, in contrast to the headed varieties, is less resistant to cold. Seeds hatch at a temperature of + 6 ° C, and the warmer the environment, the faster the seedlings will appear.
Even at the beginning of June there is a possibility of return frosts, therefore, after the sowing of seeds, the bed is covered with a film.
Cauliflower is best grown according to the scheme, due to which plants will receive a sufficient amount of light and nutrition. The location of the seedlings relative to each other directly depends on the varieties used. If the heads of small cabbage are formed in early cabbage and plantings can be arranged according to the pattern of 40 × 50 cm, then for later varieties with large heads - 60 × 70 cm.
When planting cauliflower of early varieties, they resort to a 40 × 50 cm pattern, for late varieties - 60 × 70 cm
Sowing cauliflower seeds is performed in the following sequence:
- In the prepared area, grooves are made to a depth of 1 cm with a distance of 40 cm from each other.
On a plot prepared in advance, grooves for cauliflower seeds are made to a depth of 1 cm with a distance of 40 cm from each other
- Spill the soil with warm water.
Before sowing cauliflower seeds, the soil is shed with warm water
- The prepared seed material is laid out with an interval of 5 cm, after which it is covered with soil and slightly compacted.
Cauliflower seeds are sown with an interval of 5 cm, then sprinkled with soil and lightly compacted
- For protection purposes, a film is used, which is pulled over the bed with the help of a framework of arcs.
To protect the cauliflower crops from return frosts, a frame is installed and a film is pulled
Seeds can be sown in separate holes. To do this, 2-3 seeds are placed in each hole in accordance with the planting pattern. After the development of seedlings, up to 3-4 real leaves leave the strongest sprout, and the rest are plucked.
Video: planting cabbage seeds in open ground on the example of white cabbage
Planting seeds in a greenhouse
For the cultivation of cauliflower in greenhouse conditions, the soil is prepared in the same way as for open ground, i.e., organic matter and mineral substances are added, acidity is taken into account, and crop rotation is observed. In closed ground, the seeds of early and mid-ripe cauliflower are sown immediately after the snow has melted, because the soil in the greenhouse and greenhouse warms up much faster. The temperature in the room should not be lower than + 15–18 ˚С.
Sowing prepared seeds is done to a depth of not more than 5 mm. With a deeper embedment, seedlings will appear much later. After planting, the soil is mulched with dry sand and watered abundantly with warm water. After 10 days, the seedlings are dived. When transplanting plants, they make holes according to the scheme of 70 × 30 cm. A handful of humus, wood ash and complex fertilizer (for example, Kemira) are introduced into the planting pit.
It is easier to grow cauliflower in a greenhouse than in open ground, because you can create and maintain an optimal climate for plants.
It is much more convenient to grow cauliflower in closed ground than in unprotected, as it is easier for plants to create the necessary conditions
They continue to provide the care that is needed for this crop. The main thing is to monitor the air temperature, which should not exceed + 16–18 ˚С, and humidity - within 70–80%. If these conditions are not met, the head of cabbage will become loose and begin to crumble.
Features and timing of planting cauliflower seeds in different regions
Cauliflower can be cultivated in different regions of Russia, but it is necessary to take into account the climatic features of each of them and understand that sowing seeds in open ground is best suited for the southern regions of the country. If we consider the suburbs as an example, here heat comes in early May, and in Siberia and the Urals it should be expected no earlier than June 10th. Accordingly, the timing of sowing depends on this. In Siberia, cauliflower is grown only in early varieties, since others simply do not have time to ripen before the cold, and only through seedlings. As for the timing of planting cauliflower for seedlings in Siberia and the Urals, they fall on April 10-15.
Video: terms for planting cauliflower in Siberia and the Urals
From suitable varieties can be distinguished:
Photo gallery: varieties of cauliflower for Siberia and the Urals
- Early cauliflower variety Snow globe gives heads weighing 650–850 g
- Cauliflower variety Opal - early, vigorous
- One of the suitable varieties of cauliflower for Siberia and the Urals is the high-yielding early Movir 74
- Cauliflower Baldo - one of the earliest hybrids
Varieties of cauliflower for the Moscow region and central Russia should be resistant to sudden changes in temperature and humidity, be undemanding to light and heat, and also ripen no later than mid-October. Cauliflower can be planted with seeds in these regions from mid-March (in the greenhouse) to mid-May (in the ground) with a frequency of 10–20 days. For cultivation, such varieties are suitable as:
- Early ripening,
- Gribovskaya early
Photo Gallery: Cauliflower Varieties for Moscow Region
- Variety of cauliflower Skorospelka is grown mainly in open ground
- Gribovskaya early - the oldest domestic precocious variety of cauliflower
- Cauliflower cabbage Warranty - white with a light cream tint
In the south of the country (Rostov Region, Krasnodar Territory), planting seeds in open ground is possible in early March. Since cauliflower does not like intense heat, after the emergence of seedlings they are obscured, subsequently watered abundantly as the soil dries. Suitable varieties are:
- Adler winter 679,
- Adler spring,
Photo gallery: varieties of cauliflower for the south of Russia
- Cauliflower variety Sochi with heads weighing up to 0.5 kg is medium resistant to bacteriosis
- The cauliflower head of the Adler winter variety 679 is round-flat or round, weighing from 600 g to 1.8 kg
- Small heads of cauliflower Adler spring - white-cream, weighing up to 1.2 kg
Cauliflower compatibility with other crops when planted
To cauliflower on the site felt comfortable, you should adhere to the recommendations on the compatibility of this culture with other garden plants. The most favorable neighbors for cauliflower are:
But the neighborhood with the following plants is best avoided:
To protect cabbage from pests, in the immediate vicinity of the garden you can plant such fragrant plants as marigolds, marigolds, wormwood, mint, and chamomile. Planting dill near cabbage will positively affect its taste.
Marigolds will not only decorate the garden with cauliflower, but also scare away its pests
It is not possible to plant cauliflower with seeds in the garden in all regions of our country. But if you select the suitable varieties, taking into account the ripening dates, take into account the features and observe the agricultural technology of cultivating the crop, you can get a good crop of healthy vegetables.