Guzmania: tropical beauty home care conditions
Growing exotic plants on your windowsill is becoming an increasingly popular activity among gardeners. And such a beauty as guzmania is generally the pride of any housewife. The unusual appearance of the plant is eye-catching. Caring for it will not be difficult, so the flower can be grown at home without any problems. It will decorate any interior, give coziness and a unique look to your home or office.
Description and photo of guzmania
Guzmania (or gusmania - both names are correct) is a guest from the rainforests. She lives in Central and South America. Guzmania from the genus Bromeliad, belongs to the evergreen epiphytic plants (does not grow in the soil), lives on the mountain slopes, trunks and bark of dead trees. The roots of the flower are superficial but strong. Guzmania collects moisture from the external environment.
Gusmania - a very spectacular epiphyte plant
The leaves are elongated, lanceolate, green, can be with longitudinal or transverse stripes, form a dense outlet into which guzmania collects rainwater. Bract (many confuse it with a real flower) is always painted in bright color to attract pollinating insects: flowers in guzmania are very small, invisible. The plant has been developing such a tricky method for centuries, otherwise the family would be threatened with extinction due to difficulties with seed formation. Some species of guzmania have closed flowers, inside which pollination occurs independently due to the close contact of the stamens and pestle. The plant blooms for about seventeen weeks, and then dies. However, do not be scared, you just need to take care of reproduction in advance.
The genus was first described by the Spanish biologist - researcher Anastasio Guzman in 1802. The plant is named after him gusmania (guzmania by Latin transcription).
Guzmania is a welcome guest on all windowsills, because it perfectly purifies the air and helps to improve mood. It is said that this flower is a symbol of masculine power, and also gives a lot of positive energy.
Despite its origin, guzmania is quite unpretentious in care and does not cause much trouble even to a novice grower. The main thing for her is a sufficient amount of moisture and bright light.
Popular species in floriculture
- Guzmania today has more than a hundred different species. However, only a few varieties are grown at home.
- Tempo. This view attracts with its contrast: against the background of tender, light green leaves, a bright red bract stands out favorably. The leaves are elongated, shiny, the socket is dense. Height is about 35 cm.
- Ostara. This is a hybrid. It has narrow, bright green leaves. The stalk is long, on it are scarlet bracts, white flowers appear a little later, fade quickly. Unpretentious in leaving. Widely distributed among gardeners.
- Reed. Perhaps the most popular species among guzmania. Rosette is dense, leaves are wide, perianth is bright, from scarlet to yellow. The flowers are small, cream-colored, collected in inflorescences-spikelets, do not bloom for long. Reed guzmania has varieties: purple, fiery, small, modest, ordinary.
- Minor - Rondo. A beautiful small plant, green leaves, erect bract, red, small, white flowers, in large numbers, collected in inflorescences. Flowering begins in February.
- Calypso. This is one of the most beautiful species of gusmania. The outlet is loose, collected from narrow leaves of light green color, the bract is erect, its leaves are directed upwards, have a bright red color.
- Blood red. A distinctive feature of this species is the very middle of the outlet has a bright red color. The central funnel is often almost completely filled with moisture. Therefore, the flowers of the plant literally float in it.
- Mosaic. The peduncle itself is short, the bract consists of small leaves painted in red or orange. The decorative value of this species lies in the leaves - they have a striped color.
- One-eared. Absolutely unremarkable, small bract. This species of gusmania has decorative, long leaves painted in longitudinal stripes.
Photo gallery: types of gusmania
- Calypso - one of the most beautiful species of gusmania
- In bloody red gusmania during flowering, not only short bracts, but almost the entire outlet change their color
- Bract of guzmania Minor erect, red
- Mosaic gusmania features dense foliage with transverse stripes
- One-eyed gusmania got its name because of the external characteristics of the inflorescence
- White flowers of guzmania Ostara fade very quickly
- The height of guzmania Tempo can reach 35 cm
- Guzmania reed is the most popular
Table: necessary conditions for the growth and development of indoor epiphyte
|Winter||The location of the flower does not play a special role. The main thing is to protect it from direct sunlight, which can leave burns on the leaves.||Keep away from batteries, spray daily with room temperature water.||18–20 ° C||Two times a week||Not necessary|
|Spring||Daily spraying||19–21 ° C||Three times per week||Once a month|
|Summer||Shade from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. in sunny weather.||Spray only in hot weather, at temperatures above 25 ° C.||21–25 ° C||Every day at the outlet||Twice a month|
|Fall||Daily spraying after switching on the radiators.||20–22 ° C||Two to three times a week||Not necessary|
How to plant or transplant bromeliad
Caring for gusmania does not imply frequent transfers. Guzmania does not need a similar procedure if it feels great: the leaves are green, the roots are healthy, and growth dynamics are visible . A transplant is needed only in case of urgent need - for reproduction, when the children were formed, or for changing the pot, if it is frankly small. In this case, some nuances must be taken into account.
Guzmania is an epiphytic plant, so the substrate for it needs the lightest. Under natural conditions, it grows on the bark of trees or on forest litter, and feeds on moist air.
The root system of guzmania serves only for attaching to the base, nutrients roots almost can not absorb.
If we are talking about a self-made soil mixture, then it should be peat, river sand, turf and humus in equal parts, where you need to add sphagnum and chopped pine bark (as drainage). Of course, it is easier to purchase special soil for bromeliads in the store.
The substrate for guzmania should be light and loose
The guzmania bowl is chosen deep, but not wide. In this case, the roots do not rot, they will develop correctly, providing the plant with sufficient nutrition. It is better to opt for a small pot, always with drainage holes. For stability, it is recommended to put something heavy on the bottom of the pot.
Photo gallery: suitable design options for gusmania in the interior
- For flower stability choose ceramic pots
- Epiphytes can be grown on driftwood suspended on the wall of wooden blocks or in the hollow of a tree
- in massive tanks you can arrange a whole bromeliad garden
- Since gusmania is an epiphyte, it can do without a pot at all, but you need to carefully take care of the stability of the stand
- Gusmania looks very beautiful in high ceramic flowerpots
- Even solitary gusmania needs a massive pot
Is it necessary to transplant guzmania after purchase
Most often, manufacturers conscientiously treat the pre-sale preparation of plants, providing the right bowl and the right substrate. This is not always universal soil. Visually assess the suitability of the soil. If it looks like peat, and pieces of bark or moss are visible with the naked eye, such a flower does not need a transplant. In the case when the soil is tight to the touch, it is better to transplant guzmania.
When transplanting, do not injure the delicate roots of guzmania. The plant will respond to this with a slowdown in growth and development, unwillingness to bloom and the emergence of diseases.
Caring for Gusmania
Do not think that all exotic plants require some special care. Guzmania, without causing much trouble, will delight you with splendor and bright colors.
How to water and how to fertilize
Exotic guzmania manifests itself even in watering. This process does not occur, like in most plants, under the root, but by filling the outlet with water. And all due to the fact that in a natural habitat, guzmania collects moisture mainly from the atmosphere due to its wide leaves, which serve as original gutters for the accumulation of water. If the air in the room is dry, the flower should be sprayed at least once a day.
Watering occurs in this way. Take the settled water at room temperature and gently pour into the center of the outlet. At the end of the day, excess water is drained. This is between April and September. In winter, when the temperature drops to 18 ° C, the soil is moistened in the traditional, radical way. This is due to the fact that under such conditions there is a risk of developing fungal diseases. Watering is carried out every day in the summer in hot weather (when it is cloudy - it can be every other day).
In nature, gusmania take moisture from the air, so watering them under the root is not enough and not always necessary
Guzmania is sprayed with warm water every day (about 30 ° C). Cold water cannot be used for these purposes - dark spots will appear on the leaves.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Top dressing is an important point in caring for a plant. Fertilizer suitable for bromeliads. He is bred according to the instructions and sprayed with guzmania once every two weeks in the summer, and in the spring and autumn - once a month. In winter, top dressing is not needed.
It is better not to experiment with fertilizers so as not to ruin guzmania. After all, not everyone knows that she does not tolerate superphosphate fertilizers and mullein.
Flowering is the brightest period in the life of guzmania, but also sad, because after that the plant dies. Exotic beauty blooms for about 17 weeks. Rather, this bract pleases the eye, and small flowers fade a couple of days after the appearance. Usually in stores you can buy already blooming guzmania. The question is how long it is already in this state and whether it will manage to raise children for later life.
After guzmania fades, the peduncle should be cut at the very base. This is done so that, firstly, the plant no longer spends energy on unnecessary objects, and, secondly, to give an aesthetic appearance.
Guzmania blooms only in the fourth year of its growth and development under favorable conditions for it.
How to make a plant bloom
What to do when the plant does not want to bloom? It seems that the conditions for it are the best, and for some reason guzmania does not produce a peduncle. In this case, you must:
- To provide a sharp increase in temperature to 27 ° C for a couple of days - you can cover with cellophane, and then lower it to 24 ° C.
- Grind bananas and apples in a bowl, put next to guzmania and cover the whole structure with a bag. The fact is that fruits secrete special substances that accelerate ripening, as well as beneficial effects on the beginning of flowering. Before the appearance of bracts, the package is not completely removed, but the fruits are periodically replaced with fresh ones so that rot does not begin.
Unusual spike-shaped inflorescences and a long flowering period are distinguished by another tropical guest - pachistachis. Read more about it: rastenija / pahistahis-uhod-v-domashnih-usloviyah.html
Video: guzmania care at home
Guzmania has no rest period. This is an evergreen plant that blooms once, after which it dies, leaving young plants. The only moment: in winter, the flower is not fed and the frequency of watering is reduced. It is recommended to rearrange the pot with guzmania on the south window, in the brightest place. At the same time, daily spraying is not canceled.
Table: Guzmania Care Mistakes
|Error||Effects||How to prevent|
|Moist air||The leaves curl up, wither, their tips dry, the plant takes on a painful appearance||Mandatory daily spraying|
|Dense soil||The plant begins to fade for no apparent reason, the leaves turn yellow||It is necessary to use only special, light, loose soil for bromeliads, the presence of sphagnum in the bowl and, preferably, shredded tree bark is mandatory|
|Cold water||The appearance of fungal diseases, the leaves dry and curl||For irrigation use water at a temperature of approximately 24 ° C, for spraying: 30 ° C|
|Direct sunlight||Sunburn. Brown spots appear on the leaves.||Prevent direct sunlight from entering the plant, shading the guzmania curtain in sunny weather from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.|
|Excess watering||Decay of roots, death of a plant||Adjust the watering mode according to the recommendations|
|Tap water||Whitish plaque on the leaves||Settling water for at least 24 hours due to high hardness|
Also, exotic flowering is valued medinilla. You can find out how to provide her with decent home care at home: rastenija / medinilla-kak-obespechit-ej-dostojnyj-uxod-v-domashnix-usloviyax.html
Diseases and pests of guzmania
Like any houseplant, guzmania can easily overcome pests and various diseases. It is very important to respond in time to the current situation.
Table: Dangerous pests of bromeliads
|Pest||Description||What is dangerous||How to fight|
|Shield||A small insect covered with a wax coating that protects it from environmental influences||It feeds on plant juice|
|Mealybug||A small insect similar to a louse, covered with a white coating||It feeds on the juice of young plants, leaves, buds|
|Spider mite||2 mm brown or reddish insect, like dry air||It feeds on leaf juice, braids the plant with cobwebs, thereby complicating the process of photosynthesis|
|Aphid||The smallest insect, barely visible to the eye, green or brown, creates colonies||It feeds on plant juice|
Photo gallery: pests of guzmania
- Mealybug leaves on the leaves a white coating, which can cause fungal diseases
- Spider mite - a very small but dangerous insect
- Aphids form entire colonies on a plant
- Scabies difficult to remove even with insecticides
Table: characteristic diseases
|Sooty mushroom||Aphids carry this fungal disease + low temperature and excess moisture|
|Root rot||Excess moisture, heavy, poorly permeable soil||Rotting of the roots of guzmania should not be allowed: they are very fragile, the plant can die quickly. As a rule, a flower can no longer be saved.|
Photo gallery: diseases of guzmania
- Soot fungus appears on pest plants
- Guzmania leaves turn yellow, root rot may be the cause.
- Root rot causes plant death
Guzmania breeding at home
Flower propagation is possible in two ways:
- by separating the newly formed lateral processes (children) remaining after the death of the main plant;
- It is necessary to wait for the death of the uterine outlet.
After flowering, the outlet of the guzmania rosette
- Prepare a small bowl with a diameter of about 9 cm, fill it 2/3 with the substrate recommended above with the addition of sphagnum.
- Remove guzmania with processes from the soil and carefully, with a sharp knife (previously disinfected with alcohol), disconnect children with their own roots: otherwise the plant will not take root.
Division is subject to the presence of children own roots
- Immerse the offspring in a separate, already prepared pot with soil, sprinkle the roots on top with a substrate.
Only healthy shoots with roots are suitable for planting
- To spill the earth (do not fill!) And cover with a plastic bag, making a mini-greenhouse. Do not forget to air daily.
The bowl under the bag is located for several days for reliable rooting of guzmania.
- After 4-5 days, remove the film and put the pot in the brightest place. Keep away from direct sunlight.
Pots with young guzmania are best placed on the south side, but protected from direct sunlight
Video: flower propagation by division
This method of propagation of guzmania has a place to be, but is rarely used by flower growers.
- Seeds purchased in the store, pre-soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (two crystals per glass of water at room temperature), dried.
Soaking seeds is carried out in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, while the water should be about 30 degrees
- Prepare the soil - a mixture of peat and river, coarse sand in a ratio of 1: 1.
The soil mixture for seeds differs in composition from the substrate for adult plants
- Spread the seeds in the tank with the soil mixture without falling asleep.
Guzmania seeds need light in order to germinate
- They put a bag on top and put it in the brightest place, avoiding direct sunlight. The temperature should be around 23 ° C.
Minipair can be homemade
- Three weeks later, the first shoots appear. Do not remove coating for two months.
When the first shoots appear, the coating is not removed
- After a couple of months, young plants dive in separate cups into a substrate for bromeliads.
The grown seedlings dive into separate small cups with holes
- Six months after the picking, seedlings are placed in permanent pots.
Rooted young guzmania planted in a constant place of growth - in separate bowls
- Such plants will bloom not earlier than in 4–5 years.
I fell in love when I saw this magnificent flower in the store. Caring for it is not the same as for everyone: it is undesirable to water and fertilize the earth, but it is better to pour it directly into the outlet of leaves, since the plant is epiphytic, he needs the earth only for fixing the roots. And watered only with soft, unknown water, otherwise a sediment such as scale will appear on tender leaves. Surprising, by the way, is the spread in prices for guzmania: somewhere you will see under a thousand, and somewhere - for 60 rubles. By the way, my second guzmania, bought for that ridiculous money (I don’t know why they discounted it, was probably small, but pretty crazy) - she just gave a couple of kids !!! There is no limit to my joy and hope, because the one purchased earlier, stronger and larger, is already dying off, but it does not think to acquire offspring. Perhaps the fact is that the little one on the brighter sun is standing, and I water it less. So I conclude that guzmania is thermophilic, not loving the stagnation of water in the outlet. She loves spraying, but to water it, as they say, every 10 days, she will keep this water in the outlet of leaves, and this is enough for her. I hope the children will form as they should, because it’s a pity to lose such an unusually beautiful plant!Savannah
Guzmania is a very beautiful flower, I think that it should not be watered too often, I checked it on my own experience, after it fades, you need to cut the flower, and after a while it will start sprouting.vitos
I was given Guzmania about 5 years ago on March 8th. She looked like a large bright red flower in the center of a "sedge bunch". About two weeks later, I transplanted a flower from a temporary one into a small ceramic pot. Guzmania was in bloom for several months. Then the flower began to turn pale and not so much to dry, but as if to “become stiff”. At the same time, several children appeared, who after a while I put them in separate pots, by then the mother base had gradually died out. And now - a new generation that grew out of that donated guzmania. Juicy sedge turned green, growing up, "fluffing". I watered the flower as it dried out, made sure that the water necessarily got into the outlet, periodically loosened the ground. The habitat of the plant, according to tradition, was the windowsill (eastern side). For four years nothing happened, only new leaflets were periodically added, and then ... In the spring, during the next watering, I noticed something blush in the depths of the outlet - there was no limit to my joy! I waited! The process of growth and blooming of the flower to its maximum shape took three months. That is, by summer, guzmania acquired exactly the form in which I saw it for the first time. Then for another 6 months she brightly crushed at my window, then the process of releasing the children and dying off was repeated.Black down
Undoubtedly, guzmania is capricious, because it is used to a tropical climate. The plant of incredible beauty will highly appreciate the work of a zealous grower, pleasing to the eye and bringing peace, tranquility and peace to the house.