Growing Victoria Pears
Autumn pears are popular due to their extended shelf life. Victoria fruits collected at the end of summer with proper storage may well end up on the New Year's table. It is unlikely that anyone will refuse such a perspective. We will familiarize the gardener with the qualities of this pear, the features of cultivation and the intricacies of care.
Victoria Pear received in 1973 by breeders of the Institute of Irrigated Horticulture of Ukraine. The variety was listed in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation in 1993. Zoned in the North Caucasus region.
Late summer grade of autumn consumption. Removable maturity occurs at the end of August, the shelf life under normal conditions is one month, and in refrigerators increases to four months.
A tree of medium height, sometimes tall. The crown is round pyramidal, moderately thickened. Fruiting - on the glove. The flowering period is late, which eliminates the harmful effects of return frosts. Variety early maturity - brings the first crop in the 6-7th year after planting. Yield, according to VNIISPK (All-Russian Research Institute of Selection of Fruit Crops) and other sources, is high and regular - with proper care, an adult tree can produce up to two hundred kilograms of fruit per year. According to the State Register, the yield is average.
Partial autonomy of the variety. Pollinators are usually Williams Red and Vienne Triumph pears. Victoria is prone to the formation of parthenocarpic fruits.
Parthenocarpy (from the Greek parthenos - “virgin” and karpos - fruit; literally - “virgin fruit”) - a special case of parthenogenesis, virgin fertilization without pollination in plants, usually with the formation of fruits without seeds.
Pear Victoria has an average winter hardiness, and according to VNIISPK - high. Drought tolerance is high. There is immunity to scab.
The fruits are quite large, one-dimensional - 150-250 grams. The shape of the fetus is broad-pear-shaped, the color is greenish with a large number of subcutaneous dots. The skin is smooth, during the period of removable maturity the color becomes greenish-yellow with an extensive, bright, blurry, red blush. The pulp is white, tender, juicy, oily, aromatic. The taste is very good, sweet and sour. Tasting score - 4.5 points. Fruits for table use, possessing high commercial qualities and good transportability.
The fruits of Victoria pear have a weight of 150-250 grams
Planting Victoria Pears
Before making a decision about planting a pear, the gardener needs to determine whether he can create favorable conditions for her. To do this, remember that any pear requires a lot of sun and heat, good ventilation in the absence of drafts, loose, drained soil that has a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. Unacceptable flooding and bogging. An ideal place is on the south or southeast slope with a slope of 10–20 ° C, protected from winds from the north or northeast by tall, dense trees or walls of buildings. And of course, one should not forget about pollinators. They are desirable to have within a radius of 50 meters. In extreme cases, they can be grafted into the crown of Victoria.
If the pear is planted in the North Caucasus region, in which it is zoned, then the planting date can be selected both in autumn and early spring. In this case, one important condition should be fulfilled - the seedling should be at rest when planting. The requirements that a seedling must meet are as follows:
- Age 1-2 years.
- Well developed root system with fibrous roots without growths and bumps.
- Smooth, without cracks and damage, bark.
If the seedling was bought in the fall, and planting is planned for spring (this is the best option), then for the winter it is dug in the garden or stored in the basement. The roots before this should be dipped in a mash of clay and fresh cow manure.
For winter, seedlings are dug in the garden
Next, step-by-step instructions for planting a pear:
- Preparation of the landing pit is carried out at least 2-3 weeks before the autumn landing. For planting in the spring, a pit is prepared in the fall. Make it easy:
- First you need to dig a hole with a depth of 0.6-0.7 m and a diameter of 0.8-1.0 m.
- In the case of heavy soil, a drainage layer of 10-15 centimeters thick is laid at the bottom, consisting of crushed stone, expanded clay, broken brick, etc.
- Then prepare a nutrient mixture, which consists of chernozem, peat, compost and sand. These components are taken in equal amounts, add 300-500 grams of superphosphate and 3-5 liters of wood ash.
- The resulting mixture is filled to the pit to the top and left to shrink.
- Immediately before planting, the roots of the seedlings are soaked for 2-4 hours in water, where you can add growth stimulants - Kornevin, Epin, etc.
Before planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked for 2-4 hours in water
- At a small distance from the center of the pit (10-15 centimeters), a wooden peg or a metal rod with a height of about one meter is hammered.
- Part of the soil is removed from the pit so that a hole is formed in which the roots of the seedling are freely placed.
- Plant a plant, gently spreading the roots. At the same time, they make sure that the root neck does not appear to be buried - this can subsequently lead to its digestion. It is better if it appears as a result at ground level. It is convenient to control this with a wooden block or stick.
Plant a pear, gently straightening the roots
- After filling the pit, the young tree is tied to a peg with a soft tape or rope. You can’t squeeze the trunk too much.
After filling the pit, the young tree is tied to the peg with a soft tape or rope
- For a snug fit of the soil to the roots, water the pit with plenty of water, after which they loosen and mulch. The mulch layer should be 10-15 centimeters thick. Apply for this hay, rotted sawdust, compost, etc.
- The first forming pruning of the seedling is carried out. To do this, cut off its central conductor at a height of 60-80 centimeters, and branches at a distance of 20-30 centimeters from the trunk.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Due to the high drought tolerance, Victoria Pear is undemanding to irrigation. Quite often, they will be needed only in the first years of the tree's life until the root system grows. Up to 4-5 years, it will be necessary to water 8-12 times during the growing season, depending on specific weather conditions. With age, the number of waterings is reduced to 4-6, with the first carried out before flowering, the second - after flowering. In the process of growth and ripening, the fruit is watered another 2-3 times. In late autumn, pre-winter water-loading irrigation is required. After the first watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil of the trunks with subsequent mulching. In the future, loosening can not be carried out, since mulch prevents the formation of a crust.
After watering, the trunk circle is loosened and mulched
As for feeding, in the first 3-4 years they will not be required, since when planting in the pit enough food was laid. And in the future, it will be necessary to regularly introduce organic and mineral fertilizers.
Table: types of fertilizers for pears, terms and methods of application
|Fertilizers||How and how much to deposit||When to deposit|
|Phosphorus-containing (superphosphate, double superphosphate, supegro)||Close up into the soil during digging 30–40 g / m2||Late fall|
|Nitrogen-containing (nitroammofoska, azofoska, urea, ammonium nitrate)||In early spring|
|Potassium-containing (potassium monophosphate, potassium sulfate)||Pre-dissolved in water during irrigation 10-20 g / m2||Early summer|
|Boric acid||Spray with a solution of 0.2 g of acid in 1 liter of water||During flowering|
|Complex mineral fertilizers containing trace elements are used according to the attached recommendations|
|Compost, humus, peat||One bucket of 1.5-2 square meters evenly sprinkled in the trunk circle and dig||Once every 3-4 years in spring or autumn|
|Liquid organic top dressing||First, a concentrated infusion of two liters of mullein in ten liters of water is prepared (insist 7-10 days). Then diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 10 and watered the tree at the rate of one bucket per 1 m2 of the trunk circle.||During the period of growth and ripening of fruits 2-3 times with an interval of 2-3 weeks|
In the far corner of the garden, I always have a 50 liter steel barrel. There I drop weeds, tops, potato peels, etc. I pour warm water and leave for one to two weeks. The fermentation process produces excellent organic fertilizer. Then I choose the day when there are no neighbors in the country, and I begin to fertilize everything in a row - trees, shrubs, garden plants. To do this, I take a liter of concentrated infusion and dilute it in a bucket of water. I water from the calculation one bucket per 1 m2. Of course, the pleasure is unpleasant, since the smell is strong and pungent. But the result is worth it, especially since such fertilizer is free. Well, by the next morning the smell disappears.
Carrying out various types of pruning pears is a necessary step in tree care. Most of them are carried out in early spring before the onset of sap flow, when the threat of severe frost (below -10-15 ° C) has passed.
For a pear Victoria, having a tree of medium growth, a sparse-tiered shape and a cup-shaped are acceptable.
In my opinion, the shape of the improved bowl creates the best conditions for tree care, and it’s easier to harvest. In my garden, I use such a formulation not only for pears, but also for plums, cherries and cherry plums. There are two inconveniences in it. First, in the case of a large crop, branches bend very much, almost to the ground. In order for them not to break, you have to arrange temporary backups. The second - too many excess, thickening shoots are formed, they have to be cut annually. But in general, I believe that such a formation is more convenient, especially for elderly gardeners, since you do not have to use a stepladder to collect fruits.
Step by step we describe the implementation of both methods.
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- In the early spring of the second or third year after planting, the first tier of skeletal branches is formed. To do this, choose 2-3 suitable shoots located at a distance of 20-25 centimeters from each other. They are cut to a length of 25-40 centimeters.
- All other branches are cut "into the ring."
- The central conductor is cut 20-30 centimeters above the upper branch.
- Next spring, the second tier of skeletal branches is formed in the same order.
- And after 1-2 years, you need to form a third tier.
- At the same time, 1-2 branches of the second order are formed on skeletal branches, which are shortened to a length of 20-30 centimeters.
- The formation is completed by trimming the central conductor above the base of the upper branch.
The formation of a sparse-tier crown takes 4-6 years
Forming by the type of bowl is easier to perform. The sequence is as follows:
- The first step also selects the future skeletal branches in the amount of 3-4 pieces, located with an interval of 15-20 centimeters. They are also cut to a length of 25-40 centimeters, and the remaining branches are cut out completely.
- But the second step is to cut out the central conductor above the base of the upper branch - it is no longer needed.
- After 1-2 years, 1-2 branches of the second order are selected on skeletal branches, and all the others are cut out.
- In the future, it is ensured that the skeletal branches develop synchronously, preventing any of them from assuming the role of a central conductor. And also annually carry out regulatory pruning by removing part of the shoots that grow inside the crown and thicken it.
Bowl-shaped crown for easy care
With the beginning of fruiting, they begin to form fruit formations. To do this, annually, at first, shorten the shoots of substitution, then annual shoots and remove the fruiting branches. This principle is well known to winegrowers - that is how they cut grapes.
The formation of pear fruit formations is carried out annually in spring.
Video: spring pruning pears
In order to maintain a stable high level of fruiting, it is necessary in the summer during the period when the growth of young shoots proceeds particularly rapidly, cut them with a pruner by 5-10 centimeters. After 10-15 days, sleeping buds will begin to awaken on them, which will give new fouling twigs - gloves and spear. It is on them that fruit buds are formed, which is a prerequisite for next year's harvest.
Probably even the most inexperienced gardener knows about this pruning, so we will not linger on it. We only recall that for its implementation in late autumn, all dry, diseased and damaged branches are cut out. And also this pruning sometimes has to be repeated in the early spring if in winter some shoots have frozen out or broken under the weight of the snow.
It must be remembered that pruning is a surgical operation and the approach to it must be appropriate. If it is carried out in violation of the requirements, then the tree can be harmed, sometimes significant. So, the requirements are as follows:
- The cutting tool must be intact and sharpened.
- Before use, the tool should be treated with an antiseptic - 3% solution of copper sulfate, 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, etc. Do not use gasoline, kerosene, solvent, etc.
- Cutting out the whole branches, use the “on the ring” technique.
Cutting out entire branches, use the “on the ring” technique
- Large branches are cut in pieces.
- The surface of the cuts with a diameter of more than 10-15 mm is cleaned with a knife and covered with a thin layer of a garden var.
Diseases and Pests
Victoria is affected by the same diseases and pests as other pears. Therefore, we will not dwell on this issue in detail and briefly introduce the gardener to the main representatives, preventive measures, treatment and control.
Table: some pear diseases
|Septoria (white spotting)||In spring, small grayish spots appear on the leaves. By the middle of summer, they increase slightly, their color becomes brown or brown. Leaves dry and fall.||The fungicide Horus is used at an early stage, in the summer they use Skor and Strobi||Collection and destruction of fallen leaves, processing in October and early April with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid.|
|Moniliosis (monilial burn, fruit rot)||During flowering, infection occurs through bees and other insects. Amazed flowers, shoots and leaves that fade and blacken.|
During the period of growth and ripening, the fruits are affected by gray rot.
|Affected parts of the plant are removed and destroyed. The shoots are pruned, capturing 20-30 centimeters of healthy wood. After that, fungicides are sprayed.|
|Soot fungus||It usually appears in the summer after a pear has been affected by aphids or honeypots. Eating their sweet secretions (honey dew), the fungus secretes excrement in the form of a grayish coating on the leaves and fruits. Subsequently, the plaque blackens and becomes like soot.||The coating is washed off with a strong stream of water from the hose. After the leaves have dried, they are treated with fungicides.||Prevention of this fungus is the prevention of tree damage by aphids and tinnitus|
|Rust||During or after flowering, subtle greenish-yellow spots appear on the leaves. By mid-summer, they acquire a bright, rusty-orange color. On the reverse side of the leaf, nipple growths are formed in which the spores of the fungus are located.||Affected leaves, if possible, are torn off and destroyed. The crown is treated with fungicides Skor, Strobi, Abiga-Peak.||If possible, pear cultivation is avoided close to the juniper plantations, which are the source of the pathogen spores.|
Photo Gallery: Signs of Pear Disease
- As a result of septroiosis, the leaves dry out and fall off.
- Monilial burn injures pear flowers, leaves and shoots
- In the summer, moniliosis affects the fruit with gray rot
- The excrement of the soot fungus looks like a soot-like coating
- Rust on pear leaves occurs in the vicinity of juniper
Table: main pear pests
|Pest||Signs of defeat||Fight||Prevention|
|Aphid||The leaves are folded into a tube, inside you can see aphids of black, green, yellow and other colors. And also it can be seen at the ends of young shoots.||Break off twisted leaves and ends of shoots, wash off insects with a strong stream of water. After that, they are treated with insecticides: Decis, Fitoverm, Spark.||Arrangement of hunting belts. They prevent the ants from entering the crown, which carry aphids there. Whitewashing trunks with slaked lime solution with the addition of 1% copper sulfate.|
|Pear Thorns||A small insect up to three millimeters long, able to fly and jump, eats juice from buds, flowers, young leaves and shoots, which as a result fall off. Fruits harden, become small and stony.||Insects are washed off with a powerful jet of water. Crohn is treated with insecticides. Before flowering, use the Commander, after flowering - Fitoverm, Iskra-Bio.||Autumn plowing or digging the soil. Collection and destruction of weeds and fallen leaves. Early spring crown treatment with universal herbicides DNOC, Nitrafen.|
|Pear beetle||The weevil beetle wintering in the upper layers of the soil rises to the crown in early spring. Flower beetle larvae penetrate the flower buds and eat them.||The mechanical collection of beetles by shaking them from branches to a spread fabric. Treatment with Nitrafen, Decis, Fufanon.||Autumn digging of the soil, installation of hunting belts, treatment with insecticides|
|Pear sawfly||The butterfly of this pest also hibernates in cocoons in the soil. Her flight begins in June. Lays its eggs on the leaves. Crawling caterpillars immediately penetrate the fruits and gnaw seeds.||You can only fight with butterflies during the flight by treating with insecticides. Caterpillars cannot be fought.|
Photo gallery: what the main pear pests look like
- Leaves affected by aphids collapse into a straw
- Tortellaria eats the juice of buds, flowers, leaves
- Female bee-eater gnaws buds and lays eggs
- Sawfly larvae gnaw seeds of young fruits
Now a little on my own. It is grafted into a crown on several trees. Prematurity does not shine, received the first fruits after 5 years in 2013. During this time, she never froze, the scab is practically not affected. It blooms late, which is also a big plus for me (a plot in the lowland, as a result of which it often freezes in spring). The taste of the fruits is excellent, it reminds me of Klappa's Favorite. Interestingly, the fruits can remain on the tree until around the 20th of September (they didn’t check longer, they ate it) without softening, although the ripening maturity occurs at the end of August.
Roman83, Belarus, Brest region
Message from Roman83
Summer variety, bred at the Institute of Irrigated Horticulture UAAS. The tree is medium-sized. It is interesting that the fruits can remain on the tree until around the 20th of September (they didn’t check for longer, they ate) without softening, although the ripening maturity occurs at the end of August.
Victoria has been growing for almost 20 years. This characteristic of the variety is generally consistent. Only here by the strength of growth - the tree is not medium-tall, but strong-growing. And even though the fruits may remain on the tree for some time after reaching removable maturity, it is still better to pick them when they reach removable maturity and to ripen them already taken.
Sincerely, Andrey Balabanov.
Andrey B., Donetsk region, Ukraine
Victoria, I have been giving birth to a small tree for 40 years (maybe from the soil? Black earth with clay) August 20-30, I agree (but not September 20).
Shepetivka, Khmelnitsky region, Ukraine
In my climate on August 20, you can eat Klapp’s darling, and Victoria can “hammer in nails” at this time. Even when removed in early September, it softened in 7-10 days.
Roman83, Belarus, Brest region
The Victoria pear variety is interesting primarily to gardeners in the southern regions. But it is noted that it is possible to grow it even in Belarus. Among the advantages are excellent taste, long consumption period, productivity, resistance to scab and drought, winter hardiness. These qualities make the variety commercially attractive and make it safe to recommend it to gardeners and farmers.