Growing Quince: Tips for Gardeners
The history of quince has more than four millennia. The quince is considered the homeland of the Caucasus. Here it is widespread in the wild: it grows on the banks of rivers, glades and forest edges, rises in the mountains to the level of 1400 meters. Its habitat is also northern Iran, Asia, Australia, America, the African continent in temperate latitudes.
What is quince
Quince is the only representative of the Pink family. It has the form of a tree or shrub, the branches of which rise obliquely upward.
The fruit is very similar to an apple, but beware - it may be too tough. The fruit is a false apple, round or pear-shaped, sometimes with dull ribs. At the beginning of ripening, it is felt-pubescent, the ripe fruit is firm and smooth, has a yellow color.
Its pulp is hard, the taste is astringent and astringent, sour-sweet.
Fresh fruits are slightly edible, but differ in unusual aroma. They are used in the form of jam, jams, compotes and other healthy drinks.
In wild trees, the fruits are small, weighing 80 grams, in cultivars an average of 300 grams, can be up to 2 kg.
In the middle of the fruit are five pockets with seeds. The peel of the seeds is whitish, contains mucus that swells in water. Seeds smell like bitter almonds.
Quince seeds in fruits
Quince flowering begins in May, the crop is harvested in autumn at the end of September or in October.
white quince flowers
It is believed that fruits can only be obtained in the southern regions of Russia. However, this plant is moving further north, thanks to the emergence of new frost-resistant varieties.
Cultivation and care
Quince is an unpretentious plant. She has no special soil requirements. It can be sandy or clay soils, wetlands. The reaction for each type of soil is slightly different: on sandy loam soils, it begins to bear fruit earlier, on clay soils it produces high yields.
The place where the quince will grow should be warm and sunny, closed from cold winds. Planting is done in spring, with sleeping buds. In the fall, she does not have time to take root. The distance to other trees and buildings should be at least 5 meters due to the large area of the root system of an adult plant.
Much attention is paid to soil preparation. Quince roots are located close to the surface of the earth, branching to the sides for a large distance, significantly exceeding the size of the crown.
The first thing to start is to dig the soil with fertilizer. Dig it up on 1 bayonet of a shovel, using fertilizers:
- 10–20 grams of potassium chloride;
- 40-50 g of superphosphate.
A hole for the seedling is dug to a depth of 40 cm with a diameter corresponding to the root system of the seedling, at the bottom it is placed:
- 50 g of wood ash;
- 150 g of superphosphate;
- 1 bucket of humus.
All this must be mixed with the soil, watered and left for 1-2 weeks, after which start planting. When installing the seedling, it is necessary to ensure that the place of grafting is above the soil, the root neck cannot be deepened. After backfilling, the seedling should be tamped a little and watered.
Young trees that have begun to develop need constant feeding. In the spring, during the pruning of trees and loosening of the soil, nitrophoska in the amount of 50 grams per 1 square meter is introduced into it. In spring, young plants need nitrogen fertilizers.
In the autumn, after the fruits are harvested, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are added:
- potassium chloride - 20 g;
- superphosphate - 20 g.
Organic fertilizers are applied in the autumn 1 time in 2 years.
There are times when quince needs to be transplanted to another place. A transplant, of course, is possible, but the result may not always be positive. It makes sense to transplant only young, three to four year old trees. Over the years, a 15-year-old tree takes root in it is very difficult, it is easier to take branches from it and plant a young tree.
For quince transplantation in the spring, the pit is prepared; the spine in plants is reduced and it is difficult to maintain the integrity of the root system. Root. Its dimensions should correspond to the crown of the transplanted tree. The pit is filled with fertilizers in the same way as when planting, and watered. In the spring they dig a tree, trying to do the least harm to the roots, put it in a hole in the center, fill it with soil, water it and mulch it.
Young trees in spring produce forming pruning. After planting, the seedling is immediately cut, leaving 7-8 buds. Two tiers will be formed from them. The following year, the central quince branch is cut into the outer bud, and on the lower tier, growths are shortened to 50–60 cm to form second-order branches.
From the side branches, competitors of the conductor are cut off and branches thickening the central part of the crown.
It is necessary to remove root shoots.
The quince crown is formed in the form of a bowl formed by four to five skeletal branches on a stem no more than half a meter high.
quince crown formation
After five years, when the crown is already formed, every spring its shape is maintained.
In the autumn, all damaged and thickening crown branches are removed. Such sanitary pruning is carried out after leaf fall.
Video: how to trim quince
What can I plant on quince? A pear has been successfully planted on it for a long time. This method allows you to grow a dwarf pear, which is easy to care for and harvest from it.
The fruiting of such a pear begins in the third or fourth year, and growth stops at this time. Such a tree does not produce shoots, which leads to an increase in fruits and an improvement in their taste. Quince Anzherskaya and Provenskaya are well suited as a stock.
It is possible to plant rowan, hawthorn, henomeles, which fits very nicely into a tree and acquires good support on quince.
For quince itself, it is good to use quince seedlings as a stock. They can be obtained within a year, since quince seeds have a high germination rate and a short stratification period.
The rootstock variety must be the same as the grafted one to exclude possible incompatibility.
A good option is the stock, obtained from quince cuttings, fruit crops are combined with this stock better than with a seedling.
Quinces are inoculated on cotoneaster, irga, chokeberry.
Inoculation of quince on an apple or pear is carried out in very rare cases, this succeeds only with certain knowledge and skill.
Inoculating quince on mountain ash is also a rare occurrence. To do this, first irga is grafted on the mountain ash, and after they grow together on the irga, quince is grafted.
Quince can be propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Seed propagation often leads to the loss of varietal traits, however, this method allows you to get winter-hardy varieties and use them as stocks for vaccination of the same variety.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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During spring sowing, preliminary stratification of seeds is carried out for 50-60 days. Sowing begins in mid-April - early May.
More preferred is autumn sowing. In this case, the sprouts appear already in late April.
Propagation by cuttings
Cuttings are taken in the autumn from annual shoots, which are cut with cuttings 25-30 cm long and stored in a humid place. They are planted in early spring at a distance of 10 cm from each other and 40 cm between rows. Only one kidney should remain on the surface. Constant humidity is maintained in a greenhouse or greenhouse, regularly watered in open ground.
In the greenhouse, the survival rate is the highest - up to 95%, in open ground - 30–40%.
Diseases of quince and the fight against them
Quince is quite resistant to diseases, but it can also be affected under adverse conditions by diseases such as powdery mildew, fruit rot, rotting of the ovaries, rust, gray rot of fruits and other diseases. These diseases lead to spoilage of leaves, branches, fruits and loss of crop.
With a fungal disease such as moniliosis, spores begin to penetrate through the flowers. The flowers dry, then the leaves begin to dry, the branches dry.
For the prevention of this disease at the beginning of flowering use the preparations Horus, Skor. They are not dangerous to pollinators.
In order to prevent the spread of the disease, diseased branches must be immediately cut off on healthy tissue and burned.
All fallen ovaries and fruits must be immediately removed from under the tree. In autumn it is recommended to cultivate the land with iron sulfate.
Video: quince moniliosis
Quince pests and the fight against them
Quince can be affected by pests of pome crops. Common quince pests are:
- Apple moth. It reproduces very quickly, forms several generations during the summer and damages many fruits. You can get rid of it with drugs Lepidocide, Dendrobacillin.
- Larvae of leaf moth moths. Affected leaves brighten, then fall off, quince yield is reduced. You can get rid of them with the help of the drug Fundazole.
- A fruit tick, red or brown, sucks juices from young shoots and buds. Their presence is characterized by the appearance of sticky stains of juice on the plant. To avoid their appearance, spraying the tree with 7% urea in the autumn helps.
- Aphid. It sucks juice from a plant and carries dangerous viral diseases that cannot be cured. To combat it, use a soap solution (50 grams of laundry soap dissolved in a bucket of water) or insecticidal preparations.
Quince treatment for diseases and pests
Preventive treatment of quince with chemicals will increase its immunity and protect against pests.
To destroy insects wintering in the bark and soil, they use the preparation No. 30, spraying quince over sleeping buds in early spring. The trunks of the trees are lime.
Before and after flowering, 2 more preventative treatments are carried out:
- spraying with Abiga Peak or 1% Bordeaux mixture from fungal diseases;
- in May, by buds - by Horus from fungi and Kemifos from leafworms.
After flowering, quince is treated together with IntaVir and Strobi preparations against the codling moth and fungi.
In June, Lepidocide and Skor are sprayed.
In July, quince is treated for fungal diseases and second-generation moths with Strobi and Kemifos preparations.
Further processing is stopped for the quince ripening period. If necessary, you can process late varieties of quince Kemifos.
During fruit ripening, they are at risk of subcutaneous spotting, which causes rapid fruit decay. It is not difficult to cope with it - you need to spray the crown of the tree with the following drugs:
- boric acid solution - 2 grams per 1 liter of water;
- zinc sulfate solution - 2 grams per 1 liter of water.
Features of growing quince in various regions
In central Russia, frost-resistant varieties can be grown. They can be formed both in the form of a bush, and in the form of a small tree about two meters high.
In Siberia, quince freezes above the snow level. You can grow only stunted quinces up to 1 meter high - Mauleia genomeles. You need to plant it where there is a lot of snow in the winter area and it is always sunny. For the winter it is wrapped with covering material and spruce paws on top. It is better to collect fruits before the frosts, they become sweeter and less acidic.
In the north of Ukraine, quince is often grown with a bush from seeds. Seedlings tolerate frost better than grafted plants.
The main varieties and types of quince
- Quince ordinary. Grows in the form of a bush or tree 2-3 meters high. This variety is distinguished by short petioles of leaves, blooms in mid-May, the fruits ripen in October. Resistant to frost and drought.
- Golden - a weak-growing quince with large fruits weighing up to 400 grams in the shape of an apple, ripening in late September. Yield up to 60 kg from the bush.
- Kuban is a low-growing quince with medium-sized fruits, the shape of the fruit is round-cylindrical, the ripening period is 1-2 weeks of October. Juicy fruits with creamy pulp.
- Muscat is a medium-sized variety with large fruits that have dense felt pubescence, round-cylindrical with light, rough flesh. Ripening of fruits - end of September - beginning of October, yield 30–45 kg per tree.
- Harvest Kuban - medium-sized quince with large fruits weighing up to 500 g. Juicy flesh, can be eaten raw. Ripening in October, gives a harvest from a tree up to 100 kg. Winter-hardy and drought-resistant, not susceptible to fungal diseases.
- Juicy - a weak, low quince with sweet, very juicy fruits of medium size. Harvest from a tree reaches 50 kg.
- Lemon - winter-hardy and drought-resistant quince, ripens in late September. It is distinguished by large pear-shaped fruits covered with delicate felt. The pulp is very tasty and aromatic, can be used in raw form, but is more used for processing.
- Volgograd soft-fruited is a winter-hardy and drought-resistant variety. The tree has a bush form with a rounded crown. Ripening in September, annual crop. Pear-shaped, ribbed fruits with a sweet and sour taste and strong aroma. The fruits are suitable for raw consumption and processing. Shelf life of fruits - up to a month.
Hybrid Quince Pink Lady is a low shrub, erect and prickly. Crohn's is wide. A decorative plant with very beautiful soft pink large flowers in the spring and bright yellow edible fruits in the fall.
Planting among dark-leaved and coniferous trees favorably emphasizes its beauty.
quince pink lady
Hybrid Quince Crimson & Gold - shrub up to 1 meter high with beautiful dark red flowers of medium size and shiny dark green leaves.
The fruits are small, round, weighing 40–80 grams with a thin pulp, edible.
Differ in frost resistance. In very severe frosts, the tops of shoots located above the snow can freeze.
The plant is used for borders and other decorative compositions.
Quince Crimson & Gold Bush
The fruits of this quince are yellow in ripe form and fragrant.
Quince Crimson & Gold Fruits
Quince varieties for different regions
Moscow region. For this region, breeders recommend the following varieties:
All these plants are resistant to frost and high temperatures, which is especially important when choosing a plant. Of these, the earliest variety is Nikitskaya, the most unpretentious to the weather is North. Muscat quince is self-fertile and has a high resistance to cold. The fruits of Teplovskaya quince ripen late, but are stored for a long time.
Ukraine. In the southern regions of the country cultivated varieties developed by breeders of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden:
- An excellent pupil;
- Crimean fragrant.
For the northern regions of Ukraine, varieties developed in the National Botanical Garden are used:
- Pear-shaped Shaydarova;
- Darunok Onuku;
- No. 18 Kashchenko.
Rostov region. The Mir variety is popular here, which does not freeze at all, and other self-fertile varieties resistant to frost:
- Steppe beauty;
Volgograd region. In the Volgograd region, quince varieties are grown:
- Volgograd soft-fruited;
- Crimean aromatic - self-fertile variety;
- Excellent, has a long shelf life;
- Abundant, not subject to subcutaneous spotting of the fruit;
- Krasnoslobodskaya - stunted, with large fruits, juicy and very fragrant;
- Teplovskaya - medium-sized, with fruits similar to apples. The pulp is dense, aromatic, contains stony cells near the core. Fruits can be stored for up to four months;
- Hurry up.
Siberia. In Siberia, it is possible to grow Japanese quince, or the Maulei genomenes.
This type of quince is especially popular among summer residents. Its bushes are compact and do not take up much space, being an excellent decorative element. Bright flowers adorn the garden
The small fruits of Japanese quince have a sour taste and are stiff, so they are unsuitable for consumption in raw form. They are used as a flavoring for jam and jams, dried for medical purposes.
Japanese quince seedlings are resistant to drought and tolerate frosts in the middle zone of Russia and the Moscow region. Bushes can be trimmed to give the crown a beautiful appearance.
flowering bushes of japanese quince
Thanks to the development of breeders, there are more and more cultivars of ordinary quince resistant to frost and drought, and it is moving further north. And growing Japanese quince, or henomeles, is possible in any region right now. Besides the wonderful decorative properties, this quince has useful fruits. And although they are small and almost inedible in their fresh form due to stiffness, the blanks from them are distinguished by their unusual taste and aroma, they contain many vitamins and minerals. Slices of fruit in sugar can be stored until the next harvest.